July 9

Events

* 455 - Roman military commander Avitus is proclaimed emperor of the Western Roman Empire.
*1357 - Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor assists laying the foundation stone of Charles Bridge in Prague.
*1540 - Henry VIII of England annuls his marriage to his fourth wife, Anne of Cleves.
*1541 - Estevão da Gama departs Massawa, leaving behind 400 matchlock men and 150 slaves under his brother Christovão da Gama, with orders to help the Emperor of Ethiopia defeat Ahmad ibn Ibrihim al-Ghazi who has invaded his Empire.
*1755 - French and Indian War: Braddock Expedition - British troops and colonial militiamen are ambushed and suffer a devastating defeat by French and Native American forces.
*1789 - In Versailles, the National Assembly reconstitutes itself as the National Constituent Assembly and begins preparations for a French constitution.
*1790 - Russo-Swedish War: Second Battle of Svensksund - in the Baltic Sea, the Swedish Navy captures one third of the Russian fleet.
*1793 - The Act Against Slavery is passed in Upper Canada and the importation of slaves into Lower Canada is prohibited.
*1807 - Treaties of Tilsit signed by Napoleon I and Alexander I.
*1810 - Napoleon annexes the Kingdom of Holland as part of the First French Empire.
*1815 - Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord, Prince de Benevente becomes Prime Minister of France.
*1816 - Argentina declares independence from Spain.
*1846 - The territory of the District of Columbia south of the Potomac River (39 mi² or about 100 km²) is returned to Virginia through an Act of Congress.
*1850 - President Zachary Taylor dies and Millard Fillmore becomes the 13th President of the United States.
*1863 - American Civil War: the Siege of Port Hudson ends.
*1867 - An unsuccessful expedition led by E.D Young sets out to search for Dr David Livingstone (Scottish missionary and explorer).
*1868 - The 14th Amendment to the United States Constitution is ratified guaranteeing African Americans full citizenship and all persons in the United States due process of law.
*1900 - Queen Victoria gives royal assent to an Act creating the Commonwealth of Australia thus uniting separate colonies on the continent under one federal government.
*1918 - Great train wreck of 1918: in Nashville, Tennessee, an inbound local train collides with an outbound express killing 101 and injuring 171 people, making it the deadliest rail accident in United States history.
*1922 - Johnny Weissmuller swims the 100 meters freestyle in 58.6 seconds breaking the world swimming record and the 'minute barrier'.
*1932 - The state of São Paulo revolts against the Brazilian Federal Government, starting the Constitutionalist Revolution
*1943 - World War II: Operation Husky - Allied forces perform an amphibious invasion of Sicily.
*1944 - World War II: Battle of Normandy - British and Canadian forces capture Caen, France.
* 1944 - World War II: Battle of Saipan - Americans take Saipan.
*1948 - Pakistan issues its first set of Postage stamps, bearing images of the Constituent Assembly, the Jinnah International Airport (Quaid-e-Azam International Airport), and the Shahi Fort.
*1955 - The Russell-Einstein Manifesto is released by Bertrand Russell in London.
*1975 - The National Assembly of Senegal passes a law that paves way for a (albeit highly restricted) multi-party system.
*1979 - A car bomb destroys a Renault owned by famed "Nazi hunters" Serge and Beate Klarsfeld at their home in France. A note purportedly from ODESSA claims responsibility.
*1981 - Senegalese political parties Party of Independence and Work and Democratic League - Movement for the Labour Party are legally recognized.
*1982 - A Boeing 727 carrying Pan Am Flight 759 crashes in Kenner, Louisiana killing all 146 people on board and eight others on the ground.
*1984 - York Minster is struck by a lightning bolt and the resulting fire rampages through most of the building. However the cathedral valuables are rescued by clergymen and the "Rose Window" is not affected.
*1986 - The New Zealand Parliament passes the Homosexual Law Reform Act legalising homosexuality in New Zealand.
*1989 - Two bombs explode in Mecca, killing one pilgrim and wounding 16 others.
*1991 - South Africa is readmitted into the Olympic movement after 30 years of exclusion.
*1999 - Days of student protests begin after Iranian police and hardliners attack a student dormitory at the University of Tehran.
*2002 - The African Union is established in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The first chairman is Thabo Mbeki, President of South Africa.
*2006 - At least 122 people are killed after a Sibir Airlines Airbus A310 passenger jet, carrying 200 passengers on board veers off the runway while landing at Irkutsk Airport in Siberia in wet conditions.

Births

*1511 - Dorothea of Saxe-Lauenburg, queen of Denmark and Norway (d. 1571)
*1577 - Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr, English Jamestown colonist (d. 1618)
*1578 - Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor (d. 1637)
*1654 - Emperor Reigen of Japan (d. 1732)
*1686 - Philip Livingston, American politician (d. 1749)
*1689 - Alexis Piron, French writer (d. 1773)
*1721 - Johann Nikolaus Götz, German poet (d. 1781)
*1753 - William Waldegrave, 1st Baron Radstock, Governor of Newfoundland (d. 1825)
*1764 - Ann Radcliffe, English writer (d. 1823)
*1775 - Matthew Lewis, English novelist (d. 1818)
*1786 - Sophie Hélène Béatrix, Princess of France (d. 1787)
*1800 - Friedrich Gustav Jakob Henle, German physician (d. 1885)
*1808 - Alexander William Doniphan, American lawyer and soldier (d. 1887)
*1819 - Elias Howe, American inventor (d. 1867)
*1828 - Luigi Oreglia di Santo Stefano, Italian Catholic churchman (d. 1913)
*1836 - Henry Campbell-Bannerman, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (d. 1908)
* 1836 - Camille de Renesse, Belgian count (d. 1904)
*1848 - Robert I, Duke of Parma, last ruling Duke of Parma (d. 1907)
*1858 - Franz Boas, German anthropologist (d. 1942)
*1879 - Ottorino Respighi, Italian composer (d. 1936)
* 1879 - Carlos Chagas, Brazilian physician (d. 1934)
*1889 - Leo Dandurand, American-born Canadian hockey executive (d. 1964)
*1893 - George Geary, English cricketer (d. 1981)
*1894 - Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa, Russian physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1984)
*1901 - Dame Barbara Cartland, English novelist (d. 2000)
*1905 - Clarence Campbell, Canadian hockey executive (d. 1984)
*1908 - Allama Rasheed Turabi, Pakistani scholar, orator and philosopher (d. 1973)
*1911 - Mervyn Peake, British writer and illustrator (d. 1968)
* 1911 - John A. Wheeler, American physicist (d. 2008)
*1915 - David Diamond, American composer (d. 2005)
*1916 - Sir Dean Goffin, New Zealand composer (d. 1984)
* 1916 - Edward Heath, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (d. 2005)
*1918 - Jarl Wahlström, the 12th General of The Salvation Army (d. 1999)
*1925 - Guru Dutt, legendary Bollywood director, producer and actor
*1926 - Ben Roy Mottelson, American-born physicist, Nobel Prize laureate
*1927 - Ed Ames, American singer and actor
* 1927 - Susan Cabot, American actress (d. 1986)
* 1927 - Red Kelly, Canadian ice hockey player
*1928 - Federico Bahamontes, Spanish cyclist
* 1928 - Vince Edwards, American actor, director and singer (d. 1996)
*1929 - King Hassan II of Morocco, (d. 1999)
* 1929 - Lee Hazlewood, American country singer, songwriter and producer (d. 2007)
* 1929 - Jesse McReynolds, American singer and mandolinist
*1930 - Buddy Bregman, American musical arranger and conductor
* 1930 - Roy McLean, South African cricketer (d. 2007)
*1932 - Donald Rumsfeld, 13th & 21st United States Secretary of Defense
*1934 - Michael Graves, American architect
*1935 - Wim Duisenberg, Dutch economist and politician (d. 2005)
* 1935 - Michael Williams, English actor (d. 2001)
*1936 - Floyd Abrams, First Amendment attorney and advocate
* 1936 - June Jordan, American poet, writer and teacher (d. 2002)
* 1936 - André Pronovost, French Canadian ice hockey player
* 1936 - Richard Wilson, Scottish actor and director
*1937 - David Hockney, English artist
*1938 - Brian Dennehy, American actor
*1942 - Richard Roundtree, American actor
* 1942 - Edy Williams, American actress
*1943 - John Casper, astronaut
*1945 - Dean R. Koontz, American author
* 1945 - Root Boy Slim, American entertainer (d. 1993)
*1946 - Natasha Pyne, English actress
* 1946 - Bon Scott, Australian singer (AC/DC) (d. 1980)
*1947 - Haruomi Hosono, Japanese musician
* 1947 - Mitch Mitchell, English drummer (Jimi Hendrix Experience)
* 1947 - O.J. Simpson, American football player and actor
*1948 - Hassan Wirajuda, Indonesian current foreign minister
*1950 - Viktor Yanukovych, Prime Minister of Ukraine
*1951 - Chris Cooper, American actor
*1952 - John Tesh, American composer
*1953 - Thomas Ligotti, American author
* 1953 - Margie Gillis, Canadian dancer and choreographer
*1955 - Fred Norris, American radio personality
* 1955 - Jimmy Smits, American actor
* 1955 - Willie Wilson, American baseball player
* 1955 - Steve Coppell, English football player and manager
*1956 - Marc Almond, British singer
* 1956 - Tom Hanks, American actor
*1957 - Kelly McGillis, American actress
* 1957 - Tim Kring, American writer and producer
* 1957 - Paul Merton, British comedian
*1959 - Jim Kerr, Scottish singer (Simple Minds)
* 1959 - Kevin Nash, American professional wrestler
* 1959 - Clive Stafford Smith, British human-rights lawyer
* 1960 - Marc Mero, American professional wrestler
*1964 - Courtney Love, American musician
* 1964 - Gianluca Vialli, Italian football player
*1965 - Frank Bello, American musician (Anthrax)
* 1965 - David O'Hara, Irish-Scottish actor
* 1965 - Jason Rhoades, American installation artist (d. 2006)
*1966 - Pamela Adlon, American voice actress
*1967 - Gunnar Axén, Swedish politician
*1968 - Paolo Di Canio, Italian football player
* 1968 - Lars Gyllenhaal, Swedish author
*1969 - Jason Kearton, Australian former footballer
* 1969 - Mark Lui, Hong Kong composer and producer
*1970 - Trent Green, American footballer
* 1970 - Masami Tsuda, Japanese manga author
*1971 - Marc Andreessen, American software developer
* 1971 - Dani Behr, Model & TV Presenter
*1973 - Kelly Holcomb, American football player
* 1973 - Enrique Murciano, American actor
*1974 - Nikola Sarcevic, Swedish bassist and singer (Millencolin)
* 1974 - Sian Berry, British politician
*1975 - Jack White, American musician (The White Stripes}
* 1975 - Shelton Benjamin, American professional wrestler
*1976 - Fred Savage, American actor
* 1976 - Jochem Uytdehaage, Dutch speed skater
*1977 - Isaac Brock, American musician
*1978 - Linda Park, Korean-born actress
* 1978 - Mark Medlock, German singer
*1979 - Ella Koon, Hong Kong singer and actress
* 1979 - Suzanne Stokes American model, (Playmate of the Month February 2000)
*1981 - Kimveer Gill, Canadian spree shooter (Dawson College shooting) (d. 2006)
*1982 - Ashly DelGrosso, American ballroom dancer
* 1982 - Alecko Eskandarian, Armenian-American footballer
* 1982 - Maggie Ma, Canadian actress
* 1982 - Sakon Yamamoto, Japanese race-car driver
*1983 - Lucia Micarelli, American musician
*1984 - Jacob Hoggard, singer of Canadian band Hedley (band)
*1985 - Paweł Korzeniowski, Polish swimmer
* 1985 - Ashley Young, English footballer
*1986 - Kiely Williams, American singer and actress
* 1986 - Dominic Cervi, American footballer
*1990 - Fábio and Rafael da Silva, Brazilian footballers
*1991 - Spencer Elden, Baby/Model on Nirvana (band)'s Nevermind album
* 1991 - Mitchel Musso, American actor
*1995 - Georgie Henley, English actress

Deaths

* 518 - Anastasius I, Byzantine Emperor (b. 430)
*1228 - Stephen Langton, Archbishop of Canterbury
*1386 - Leopold III of Austria (b. 1351)
*1553 - Maurice, Elector of Saxony (b. 1521)
*1654 - Ferdinand IV of Germany (b. 1633)
*1706 - Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville, French Canadian sailor and explorer (b. 1661)
*1737 - Gian Gastone de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany (b. 1671)
*1742 - John Oldmixon, English historian (b. 1673)
*1746 - Philip V of Spain (b. 1683)
*1747 - Giovanni Bononcini, Italian composer (b. 1670)
*1755 - General Edward Braddock British Commander-in-chief of military forces in North America (b. 1695?)
*1766 - Jonathan Mayhew, American minister (b. 1720)
*1795 - Henry Seymour Conway, British general and statesman (b. 1721)
*1797 - Edmund Burke, British philosopher and statesman (b. 1729)
*1850 - Báb, Persian founder of the Bábi Faith (b. 1819)
* 1850 - Zachary Taylor, 12th President of the United States (b. 1784)
*1852 - Thomas McKean Thompson McKennan, American politician (b. 1794)
*1855 - Lord Raglan Commander of the British forces during the Crimean War
*1856 - Amedeo Avogadro, Italian chemist (b. 1776)
* 1856 - James Strang, Mormon splinter group leader (b. 1813)
*1880 - Paul Broca, French physician and anatomist (b. 1824)
*1882 - Ignacio Carrera Pinto, Chilean war hero(b. 1848)
*1903 - Alphonse François Renard, Belgian geologist (b. 1842)
*1927 - John Drew Jr., American actor (b. 1853)
*1932 - King C. Gillette, American inventor (b. 1885)
*1937 - Oliver Law, first African-American commander of U.S. troops (b. 1899)
*1938 - Benjamin Cardozo, American jurist (b. 1870)
*1947 - Lucjan Żeligowski, Polish general (b. 1865)
*1949 - Fritz Bennicke Hart, English-born Australian composer (b. 1874)
*1951 - Harry Heilmann, American Baseball player (b. 1894)
*1955 - Don Beauman, British racing driver (b. 1928)
*1967 - Eugen Fischer, Nazi physician (b. 1874)
*1972 - Robert Weede, American baritone (b. 1903)
*1974 - Earl Warren, 14th Chief Justice of the United States (b. 1891)
*1979 - Cornelia Otis Skinner, American actress and author (b. 1899)
*1980 - Vinicius de Moraes, Brazilian poet and lyricist (b. 1913)
*1983 - Keith Wickenden, British Politician (b. 1932)
*1985 - Charlotte, Grand Duchess of Luxembourg (b. 1896)
* 1985 - Jimmy Kinnon, Scottish founder of Narcotics Anonymous (b. 1911)
*1992 - Eric Sevareid, American reporter (b. 1912)
*1994 - Bill Mosienko, Canadian ice hockey player (b. 1921)
*1996 - Melvin Belli, American attorney (b. 1907)
*1999 - Robert de Cotret, Canadian politician (b. 1944)
*2000 - Doug Fisher, English actor (b. 1941)
*2002 - Laurence Janifer, American writer (b. 1933)
* 2002 - Rod Steiger, American actor (b. 1925)
*2004 - Chuck Cadman, Canadian politician (b. 1948)
* 2004 - Paul Klebnikov, American journalist (b. 1963)
* 2004 - Isabel Sanford, American actress (b. 1917)
*2005 - Yevgenij Grishin, Russian speed skater (b. 1931)
* 2005 - Alex Shibicky, Canadian ice hockey player (b. 1914)
*2005 - Kevin Hagen, American actor (b.1928)
*2006 - Milan Williams, American musician (The Commodores) (b. 1948)
*2007 - Charles Lane, American actor (b. 1905)
*2008 - Séamus Brennan, Irish politicain (b. 1948)

Holidays and observances

*Roman festival - "Caprotinia", or feasts of Juno Caprotina.
*Argentina - Independence Day.
*São Paulo (state) - Constitutionalist Revolution of 1932.
*Palau - Constitution Day.
*Bahá'í Faith - Holy Day: Martyrdom of the Báb.
* Fence month - The traditional closed season for deer in England ended (date varied).
Roman Catholic Church
* Feast of Our Lady of Peace; Octave of the Visitation
*Saint Agilulf, bishop of Cologne, martyr
*Saint Cyril, bishop and companions, martyrs
*Saint Ephrem the Deacon, confessor, Doctor of the Church
*Holy Martyrs of Gorcum (d. 1572)
*Translation of Saint Nicholas, bishop, confessor
*Saint Sabinus, bishop, martyr
*Saint Everildis, virgin
*Saint Veronica de Julianis, virgin
*Saint Zeno, martyr

External links

* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/july/9 BBC: On This Day]
*
* [http://www1.sympatico.ca/cgi-bin/on_this_day?mth=Jul&day=09 On This Day in Canada] ----


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