- Amerigo Vespucci
name = Amerigo Vespucci
caption = Statue at the
birth_date = birth date|1454|3|9
death_date = death date and age|1512|2|22|1454|3|9
other_names = Américo Vespucio ["es"] Americus Vespucius ["la"]
known_for = Demonstrating that the
New Worldwas not Asiabut a previously-unknown fourth continent.ref label|4th|a|a
Merchant, Explorer, Cartographer
nationality = Italian
explorerand cartographer Amerigo Vespucci( March 9, 1454- February 22, 1512) was the first person to demonstrate that the New Worlddiscovered by Christopher Columbusin 1492 was not the eastern appendage of Asia, but rather a previously-unknown "fourth" continent.ref label|4th|a|a It is widely believed that the continents of North and South America(and, by extension, the United States of America) derive their name from the feminized Latinversion of his first name (see Naming of America). [Arciniegas, Germán. "Amerigo and the New World: The Life & Times of Amerigo Vespucci". Translated by Harriet de Onís. New York: Octagon Books, 1978.]
He played a senior role in two voyages which explored the east coast of
South Americabetween 1499 to 1502. On the first of these voyages he discovered that South America extended much further(the Indies). Vespucci's voyages became widely known in Europe after two accounts attributed to him were published between 1502 and 1504. In 1507, Martin Waldseemüllerproduced a world map on which he named the new continent America after Vespucci's first name, Amerigo. In an accompanying book, Waldseemüller published one of the Vespucci accounts, which led to criticism that Vespucci was trying to usurp Christopher Columbus' glory Fact|date=June 2008. However, the rediscovery in the 18th century of other letters by Vespucci, primarily the Soderini Letter, has led to the view that the early published accounts were fabrications, not by Vespucci, but by others.
Amerigo Vespucci was born in 1454 in Florence, Italy. Amerigo Vespucci worked for Lorenzo de' Medici and his brother, Giovanni. In 1492 they sent him to work at their agency in
Seville, Spain.In 1508, after only two voyages to the Americas, the position of chief of navigation of Spain ("piloto mayor de Indias") was created for Vespucci, with the responsibility of planning navigation for ocean voyages. He died of malariaon February 22, 1512 in Seville, Spain.
Two letters attributed to Vespucci were published during his lifetime. "Mundus Novus" (New World) was a Latin translation of a lost Italian letter sent from
Lisbonto Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco de' Medici. It describes a voyage to South America in 1501-1502. "Mundus Novus" was published in late 1502 or early 1503 and soon reprinted and distributed in numerous European countries.Formisano, Luciano (Ed.) (1992). "Letters from a New World: Amerigo Vespucci's Discovery of America". New York: Marsilio. ISBN 0-941419-62-2. Pp. xix-xxvi.] "Lettera di Amerigo Vespucci delle isole nuovamente trovate in quattro suoi viaggi" (Letter of Amerigo Vespucci concerning the isles newly discovered on his four voyages), known as "Lettera al Soderini" or just "Lettera", was a letter in Italian addressed to Piero Soderini. Printed in 1504 or 1505, it claimed to be an account of four voyages to the Americas made by Vespucci between 1497 and 1504. A Latin translation was published by the German Martin Waldseemüllerin 1507 in " Cosmographiae Introductio", a book on cosmographyand geography, as "Quattuor Americi Vespuccij navigationes" (Four Voyages of Amerigo Vespucci).In 1508, King Ferdinand made Vespucci Pilot Major of Spain at a huge salary and commissioned him to start a school for navigators out of his home to standardize and modernize navigation techniques used by Spanish sea captains exploring the world. Future luminaries such as Magellan learned at his knee, and Vespucci even developed a rudimentary method of determining a fairly accurate determinant for finding longitude (which only more accurate chronometers could later improve upon).
In the 18th century three unpublished familiar letters from Vespucci to Lorenzo de' Medici were rediscovered. One describes a voyage made in 1499-1500 which corresponds with the second of the "four voyages". Another was written from Cape Verde in 1501 in the early part of the third of the four voyages, before crossing the Atlantic. The third letter was sent from Lisbon after the completion of that voyage.`
Some have suggested that Vespucci, in the two letters published in his lifetime, was exaggerating his role and constructed deliberate fabrications. However, many scholars now believe that the two letters were not written by him but were fabrications by others based in part on genuine letters by Vespucci. It was the publication and widespread circulation of the letters that led
Martin Waldseemüllerto name the new continent America on his world map of 1507 in Lorraine. Vespucci used a Latinised form of his name, Americus Vespucius, in his Latinwritings, which Waldseemüller used as a base for the new name, taking the feminine form "America". (See also Naming of America.) "Amerigo" itself is an Italian form of the medieval Latin "Emericus" (see also Saint Emeric of Hungary), which through the German form Heinrich(in English, Henry) derived from the Germanic name " Haimirich". Fact|date=October 2007
The two disputed letters claim that Vespucci made four voyages to America, while at most two can be verified from other sources. At the moment there is a dispute between historians on when Vespucci visited mainland the first time. Some great historians like German Arciniegas and Gabriel Camargo Perez think that his first voyage was done in June 1497 with the Spanish Juan de la Cosa. Little is known of his last voyage in 1503–1504 or even whether it actually took place. Vespucci's real historical importance may well be more in his letters, whether he wrote them all or not, than in his discoveries. From these letters, the European public learned about the newly discovered continent of the Americas for the first time; its existence became generally known throughout Europe within a few years of the letters' publication.
According to historians such as
Martín Fernández de Navarrete, Germán Arciniegasand Gabriel Camargo Pérez, the first voyage of Amerigo Vespucci took place in 1497, probably in a trip organized by King Ferdinand, who wanted to clarify if the mainland of the landmass was far away from the island of Hispaniola, which had been discovered by Columbus.
The captain of this company, which set sail in May 1497 was Vicente Yañez Pinzón, captain of the "Niña" on Columbus's first voyage, and may have included
Juan Diaz de Solis. Accompanying Vespucci was pilot and cartographer Juan de la Cosa(the then-famous captain who had sailed with Columbus in 1492). According to the first letter of Vespucci, they reached land at 16 degrees latitude, probably on the coast of La Guajirapeninsula in present-day Colombiaor the coast of Nicaragua. They then followed the coastal land mass of central America before returning to the Atlantic Oceanvia the Straits of Floridabetween Floridaand Cuba.
In his letters, Vespucci described this trip, and once Juan de la Cosa returned to Spain, a famous world map, depicting Cuba as an island, was produced. About 1499–1500, Vespucci joined an expedition in the service of Spain, with
Alonso de Ojeda(or Hojeda) as the fleet commander. The intention was to sail around the southern end of the African mainland into the Indian Ocean.cite book | last = O'Gorman | first = Edmundo | authorlink = Edmundo O'Gorman | title = The Invention of America | publisher = Indiana University Press | year = 1961 | pages = p. 106-107] After hitting land at the coast of what is now Guyana, the two seem to have separated. Vespucci sailed southward, discovering the mouth of the Amazon Riverand reaching 6°S, before turning around and seeing Trinidadand the Orinoco Riverand returning to Spain by way of Hispaniola. The letter, to Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco de' Medici, claims that Vespucci determined his longitude celestially On a clear night with calm seas, stars could be identified near the horizon to judge latitude/ longitudecelestially. Although South America's continental shelfdrops quickly into the deep ocean beyond the Orinoco River, the mouth is on the shelf, avoiding the ocean swells and waves which hinder visibility of stars near the horizon. Seamen who could navigate from Europe to America and back could chart stars on the horizon, especially for a cartographerlike Vespucci.] on August 23, 1499, while on this voyage. However, that claim may be fraudulent, which could cast doubt on the letter's credibility.
The last certain voyage of Vespucci was led by
Gonçalo Coelhoin 1501–1502 in the service of Portugal. Departing from Lisbon, the fleet sailed first to Cape Verde where they met two of Pedro Álvares Cabral's ships returning from India. In a letter from Cape Verde, Vespucci says that he hopes to visit the same lands that Álvares Cabral had explored, suggesting that the intention is to sail west to Asia, as on the 1499-1500 voyage. On reaching the coast of Brazil, they sailed south along the coast of South Americato Rio de Janeiro's bay. If his own account is to be believed, he reached the latitude of Patagoniabefore turning back, although this also seems doubtful, since his account does not mention the broad estuary of the Río de la Plata, which he must have seen if he had gotten that far south. Portuguese maps of South America, created after the voyage of Coelho and Vespucci, do not show any land south of present-day Cananéiaat 25° S, so this may represent the southernmost extent of their voyages.
After the first half of the expedition, Vespucci mapped Alpha and
Beta Centauri, as well as the constellation Crux, the Southern Cross. Although these stars had been known to the ancient Greeks, gradual precession had lowered them below the European skyline so that they were forgotten. [Dinwiddie, Robert (2005). "". DK Adult Publishing, p. 396.]
On his return to Lisbon, Vespucci wrote in a letter to de' Medici that the land masses they explored were much larger than anticipated and different from the Asia described by earlier Europeans and, therefore, must be a New World, that is, a previously unknown fourth continent, after Europe,
Asia, and Africa.
*Naming of America
* "Amerigo: the Man Who Gave His Name to America" by Fernández-Armesto, Felipe; Weidenfeld & Nicolson  (hardcover, ISBN 0-297-84802-X).
* "Amerigo and the New World" by Arciniegas, German; Alfred A. Knopf 
* "Heroes of American History: Amerigo Vespucci" by Ober, Frederick A.; Harper & Brothers 
* "Amerigo Vespucci: Pilot Major" by Pohl, Frederick J.; Columbia University Press 
*Norbert Schulz: "Amerigo Vespucci, Mundus Novus (mit Zweittexten)". M.M.O. VERLAG ZUR FÖRDERUNG DES MITTEL- UND NEULATEINISCHEN, Butjadingen 2007. (Neulateinische Texte für den altsprachlichen Unterricht (Vivarium (Series neolatina, Band II))) ISBN 978-3-9811144-2-3
* Canaday, James A. " [http://www.millersville.edu/~columbus/papers/canaday.html The Life of Amerigo Vespucci] ".
* [http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1497vespucci%2Damerica.html Account of 'The First Voyage', 1497: Letter of Amerigo Vespucci To Pier Soderini - Fordham University (U.S.) Internet Modern History Sourcebook]
* [http://modelshipbuilder.com/models/amerigo-vespucci.html "A scale model"] - A scaled wooden model of the Amerigo Vespucci.
*gutenberg|no=19997|name=Amerigo Vespucci by Frederick A. Ober
* [http://www.nytimes.com/2007/12/02/magazine/02wwln-lede-t.html 'I am America.'] - New York Times: Five hundred years ago, our continent was given a name. We still don’t know what it means.
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