Abel Tasman

Abel Janszoon Tasman (1603 - October 10 1659), was a Dutch seafarer, explorer, and merchant.

Tasman is best known for his voyages of 1642 and 1644 in the service of the VOC United East India Company). He was the first known European expedition to reach the islands of Van Diemen's Land (now Tasmania) and New Zealand and to sight the Fiji islands, which he did in 1643. Tasman, his navigator Visscher, and his Merchant Gilsemans also mapped substantial portions of Australia, New Zealand and the Pacific Islands.

Early lifeAbel Tasman was born in 1603 in Lutjegast, a village in the Dutch province of Groningen. He was first heard of at the end of 1631 when, as a widower living at Amsterdam, he married Jannetjie Tjaers. He was shortly afterwards in the service of the (Dutch) United East India Company and by 1634 was mate of a ship trading from Batavia (now Jakarta) to the Moluccas. In July of that year he was appointed master of a small ship, the "Mocha". He visited Holland in 1637 and returned to Batavia in October 1638, taking his wife with him.

First Pacific voyage

In 1634 Tasman was sent as second in command of an exploring expedition in the north Pacific. His fleet included the ships "Heemskerck" and "Zeehaen". After many hardships Formosa (now Taiwan) was reached in November, 40 out of the crew of 90 having died. Other voyages followed, to Japan in 1640 and 1641 and to Palembang in the south of Sumatra in 1642, where he made a friendly trading treaty with the Sultan. In August 1642 Tasman was sent in command of an expedition for the discovery of the "Unknown Southland", which was believed to be in the south Pacific but which had not been seen by Europeans. Strange as it may seem to us today, Tasman sailed first to Mauritius. The reason for this was that his ships were sailing ships and the best route from one place to another was not always the direct route; of more importance was the direction of the wind. Tasman had some knowledge of the prevailing winds and so he chose Mauritius as a turning point and from there a course was set towards what was presumed to be the southern mainland of Australia. (At least part of the western shore of the continent was already known to the Dutch, but the shape of the southern coast was unknown).

Tasmania

On 24 November 1642 Abel Tasman sighted the west coast of Tasmania North of Macquarie Harbour. He named his discovery Van Diemen's Land after Antonie van Diemen, Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies. Proceeding south he skirted the southern end of Tasmania and turned north-east, Tasman then tried to work His two ships into Adventure Bay on the East coast of South Bruny Island where he was blown out to sea by a storm, this area he named Storm Bay. Two days later Tasman anchored to the North of Cape Frederick Hendrick just North of the Forestier Peninsula. Tasman then landed in Blackman Bay - in the larger Marion Bay. The next day, an attempt was made to land in North Bay; however, because the sea was too rough the carpenter swam through the surfs and planting the Dutch flag in North Bay, Tasman then claimed formal possession of the land on 3 December 1642.

New Zealand

After some exploration, Tasman had intended to proceed in a northerly direction but as the wind was unfavourable he steered east. On 13 December they sighted land on the north-west coast of the South Island, New Zealand, becoming the first Europeans to do so. Tasman named it "Staten Landt" on the assumption that it was connected to an island (Staten Island, Argentina) at the south of the tip of South America. Proceeding north and then east one of his boats was attacked by Māori in waka, and four of his men were killed. It has recently been suggested that some of Tasman's sailors briefly landed here on 18 December 1642. Tasman named it "Murderers' Bay" (now known as Golden Bay) and sailed north, but mistook Cook Strait for a bight (naming it "Zeehaen's Bight"). Two names that he bestowed on New Zealand landmarks still endure: Cape Maria van Diemen and Three Kings Islands ("Cabo Pieter Boreels" is now known as Cape Egmont).

The return voyage

On route back to Batavia, Tasman came across the Tongan archipelago on 20 January 1643. While passing the Fiji Islands Tasman's ships came close to being wrecked on the dangerous reefs of the north-eastern part of the Fiji group. He charted the eastern tip of Vanua Levu and Cikobia before making his way back into the open sea. He eventually turned north-west to New Guinea, and arrived at Batavia on 15 June 1643.

Second Pacific voyage

With three ships on his second voyage ("Limmen", "Zeemeeuw" and the tender "Braek") in 1644, he followed the south coast of New Guinea eastward. He missed the Torres Strait between New Guinea and Australia, and continued his voyage along the Australian coast. He mapped the north coast of Australia making observations on the land and its people.

From the point of view of the Dutch East India Company Tasman's explorations were a disappointment: he had neither found a promising area for trade nor a useful new shipping route. For over a century, until the era of James Cook, Tasmania and New Zealand were not visited by Europeans - mainland Australia was visited, but usually only by accident.

Later life

On 2 November 1644 Abel Tasman was appointed a member of the Council of Justice at Batavia. He went to Sumatra in 1646, and in August 1647 to Siam (now Thailand) with letters from the company to the King. In May 1648 he was in charge of an expedition sent to Manila to try to intercept and loot the Spanish silver ships coming from America, but he had no success and returned to Batavia in January 1649. In November 1649 he was charged and found guilty of having in the previous year hanged one of his men without trial, was suspended from his office of commander, fined, and made to pay compensation to the relatives of the sailor. On 5 January 1651 he was formally reinstated in his rank and spent his remaining years at Batavia. He was in good circumstances, being one of the larger landowners in the town. He died at Batavia in October 1659 and was survived by his second wife and a daughter by his first wife. His discoveries were most important but led to nothing for more than 100 years.

Tasman's legacy

As with many explorers, Tasman's name has been honoured in many ways. These include:
*the island of Tasmania, including features such as
**the Tasman Peninsula
**the Tasman Bridge
**the Tasman Highway
**the passenger/vehicle ferry "Abel Tasman"
*the Tasman Sea
*in New Zealand:
**the Tasman Glacier
**Tasman Lake
**the Tasman River
**Mount Tasman
**the Abel Tasman National Park
**Tasman Bay
**the Tasman District
*The Able Tasmans - an indie band from Auckland, New Zealand.
**The Able Tasmans - basketball team

References

*Dictionary of Australian Biography|First=Abel|Last=Tasman|Link=http://gutenberg.net.au/dictbiog/0-dict-biogT-V.html#tasman1

Edward Duyker (ed.) The Discovery of Tasmania: Journal Extracts from the Expeditions of Abel Janszoon Tasman and Marc-Joseph Marion Dufresne 1642 & 1772, St David's Park Publishing/Tasmanian Government Printing Office, Hobart, 1992, pp. 106, ISBN 0 7246 2241 1.

External links

* [http://web.archive.org/web/20021004115657/http://www.lexicon.net/world/tasman/bhouse.htm A transcript of a paper on the voyages of Tasman, read to the Royal Society of Tasmania in 1895]
* [http://gutenberg.net.au/pages/tasman.html The Tasman page at Project Gutenberg of Australia] This page has links to Tasman's journal and other important documents relating to Tasman
* [http://www.atmitchell.com/journeys/history/voyages/voya_huydecoper.cfm/ The Huydecoper journal - Abel Tasman - The State Library of NSW]
* [http://www.adb.online.anu.edu.au/biogs/A020463b.htm J. W. Forsyth, 'Tasman, Abel Janszoon (1603? - 1659)', Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 2, Melbourne University Press, 1967, pp 503-504.]


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