- Slide attack
The

**slide attack**is a form ofcryptanalysis designed to deal with the prevailing idea that even weakcipher s can become very strong by increasing the number of rounds, which can ward off adifferential attack . The slide attack works in such a way as to make the number of rounds in a cipher irrelevant. Rather than looking at the data-randomizing aspects of the block cipher the slide attack works by analyzing thekey schedule and exploiting weaknesses in it to break the cipher. The most common one is the keys repeating in a cyclic manner.The attack was first described by

David Wagner andAlex Biryukov .Bruce Schneier first suggested the term "slide attack" to them, and they used it in their 1999 paper describing the attack.The only requirements for a slide attack to work on a cipher is that it can be broken down into multiple rounds of an identical "F" function. This probably means that it has a cyclic key schedule. The "F" function must be vulnerable to a

known-plaintext attack . The slide attack is closely related to therelated-key attack .The idea of the slide attack has roots in a paper published by

Edna Grossman andBryant Tuckerman in an IBM Technical Report in 1977. Grossman and Tuckerman demonstrated the attack on a weakblock cipher namedNew Data Seal (NDS). The attack relied on the fact that the cipher has identical subkeys in each round, so the cipher had a cyclic key schedule with a cycle of only one key, which makes it an early version of the slide attack. A summary of the report, including a description of the NDS block cipher and the attack, is given in "Cipher Systems" (Beker & Piper, 1982).**The actual attack**First, to introduce some notation. In this section assume the cipher takes "n" bit blocks and has a key-schedule using $K\_1\; cdots\; K\_m$ as keys of any length.

The slide attack works by breaking the cipher up into identical permutationfunctions, "F". This "F" function may consist of more than one roundof the cipher; it is defined by the key-schedule. For example, if a cipher uses an alternating key schedule where it switches between a $K\_1$ and $K\_2$ for each round, the "F" function would consist of two rounds. Each of the $K\_i$ willappear at least once in "F".

The next step is to collect $2^\{n/2\}$ plaintext-ciphertext pairs. Depending onthe characteristics of the cipher fewer may suffice, but by the

birthday paradox no more than $2^\{n/2\}$ should be needed. These pairs, which denoted as $(P,C)$ are then used to find a**slid pair**which denoted $(P\_0,C\_0)\; (P\_1,C\_1)$. A slid pair has the property that $P\_0\; =\; F(P\_1)$ and that $C\_0\; =\; F(C\_1)$. Once a slid pair is identified, the cipher is broken because of the vulnerability to known-plaintext attacks. The key can easily be extracted from this pairing.The slid pair can be thought to be what happens to a message after one application of the function "F". It is ’slid’ over one encryption round and this is where the attack gets itsname.The process of finding a slid pair is somewhat different for each cipherbut follows the same basic scheme. One uses the fact that it is relativelyeasy to extract the key from just one iteration of "F". Choose any pair ofplaintext-ciphertext pairs, $(P\_0,C\_0)\; (P\_1,C\_1)$ and check to see what the keys corresponding to $P\_0\; =\; F(P\_1)$ and $C\_0\; =\; F(C\_1)$ are. If these keys match, this is a slid pair; otherwise move on to the next pair.

With $2^\{n/2\}$ plaintext-ciphertext pairs one slid pair is expected, along with a small number of false-positives depending on the structure of the cipher. The false positivescan be eliminated by using the keys on a different message-ciphertext pair to see if the encryption is correct. The probability that the wrong key will correctly encipher two or more messages is very low for a good cipher.

Sometimes the structure of the cipher greatly reduces the number ofplaintext-ciphertext pairs needed, and thus also a large amount of the work.The clearest of these examples is the

Feistel cipher using just one key.The reason for this is given a $P\; =\; (L\_0,R\_0)$ the search is for a $P\_0=(R\_0,\; L\_0\; igoplus\; F(R\_0,K))$. This reduces the possible paired messages from $2^n$down to $2^\{n/2\}$ (since half the message is fixed) and so at most $2^\{n/4\}$ plaintext-ciphertext pairs are needed in order to find a slid-pair.**References*** cite paper

author = E.K. Grossman and B. Tuckerman

title = Analysis of a Feistel-like cipher weakened by having no rotating key

publisher = IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Report RC 6375

year = 1977

* cite book

author = Henry Beker and Fred Piper

title = Cipher Systems: The Protection of Communications

publisher =John Wiley & Sons

year = 1982

pages = pp.263–267

isbn = 0-471-89192-4 (contains a summary of the paper by Grossman and Tuckerman)

* cite conference

author =Alex Biryukov andDavid Wagner

title = Slide Attacks

booktitle = 6th International Workshop onFast Software Encryption (FSE '99)

pages = pp.245–259

publisher =Springer-Verlag

date = March 1999

location =Rome

url = http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/190677.html

format =PDF /PostScript

accessdate = 2007-09-03

* cite conference

author = Alex Biryukov and David Wagner

title = Advanced Slide Attacks

booktitle = Advances in Cryptology, Proceedings ofEUROCRYPT 2000

pages = pp.589–606

publisher = Springer-Verlag

date = May 2000

location =Bruges

url = http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/303568.html

format = PDF/PostScript

accessdate = 2007-09-03

* cite conference

author = S. Furuya

title = Slide Attacks with a Known-Plaintext Cryptanalysis

booktitle = 4th International Conference on Information Security and Cryptology (ICISC 2001)

pages = pp.214–225

publisher = Springer-Verlag

date = December 2001

location =Seoul

url = http://register.itfind.or.kr/Report01/200401/IITA/IITA-0763-017/IITA-0763-017.pdf

format = PDF

accessdate = 2007-09-03

* cite journal

author =Eli Biham

title = New Types of Cryptanalytic Attacks Using Related Keys

journal =Journal of Cryptology

volume = 7

issue = 4

issn = 0933-2790

pages = pp.229–246

year = 1994

url = http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/biham94new.html

format = PDF/PostScript

accessdate = 2007-09-03

* cite paper

author = M. Ciet, G. Piret, J. Quisquater

title = Related-Key and Slide Attacks: Analysis, Connections, and Improvements

year = 2002

url = http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/560898.html

format = PDF/PostScript

accessdate = 2007-09-04

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