Stone circle (Iron Age)

Stone circle (Iron Age)

The Stone Circles of the Iron Age (ca. 500 BC - ca. 400 AD) were a characteristic burial custom of southern Scandinavia, especially on Gotland and in Götaland during the Pre-Roman Iron Age and the Roman Iron Age. In Sweden, they are called Domarringar (judge circles), Domkretsar (judge circles) or Domarsäten (judge seats). They should not be confused with the Stone circles of the Bronze Age and Britain.

History

In the 1st century, the tradition was brought across the Baltic Sea to the area of modern-day Northern Poland, probably by the Goths, as excavations made during the time of the German Empire indicate (see the Wielbark Culture). The stone circle is sometimes used as a burial ground.

Example Locations

* Gettlinge burial field, Oland, Sweden
* Hulterstad gravfalt, Oland, Sweden
* Jelling stones, Velje, Denmark
* Stoplesteinan, Norway

Shapes

The circles are usually round, or elongated ellipses. The stones may be very large and they are usually between 9 and 12. Sometimes there are as few as 6-8. One stone circle, the circle of Nässja (near Vadstena), comprises as many as 24 stones. Excavations have shown burnt coal in the centre of the circles and they are nowadays considered to be incineration graves.

Things

There is a widespread tradition that the circles were used for things, or general assemblies. Similar circles were used for popular assemblies in Denmark until the 16th century, and in Vad parish in Västergötland, the village assemblies were held in a stone circle until the 19th century.

norri Sturluson

Even if knowledge that the stone circles were graves was later lost, it was still fresh in the 13th century as testify these lines by Snorri Sturluson in the introduction of the Heimskringla::"As to funeral rites, the earliest age is called the Age of Burning; because all the dead were consumed by fire, and over their ashes were raised standing stones".

ee also

*Stone ship
*Menhir
*Gårdlösa

ources

*Nationalencyklopedin
* [http://www.muzarp.poznan.pl/archweb/gazociag/title5.htm A Polish Archaeology Article by Tadeusz Makiewicz]
* ADuong's a history of Poland


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