T-54/T-55 operators and variants

Infobox Weapon
name= T-54/55


caption= US Army recognition poster
origin= Soviet Union
type= Main battle tank
is_vehicle= yes
is_UK= yes
service= 1947–present
used_by=
wars=
designer= Morozov (T-54), OKB-520 (T-54A and later)
design_date= 1945
manufacturer= KhPZ, UVZ (USSR), Bumar-Łabędy (Pol.), ZTS Martin (Czech.)
unit_cost=
production_date= 1946–81 (USSR) 1956–79 (Pol.) 1957–83 (Czech.)
number= 86,000–100,000 est.
variants=

The T-54/T-55 tank series is the most widely used tank in the world and it has seen service in over 50 countries. It also served as the platform for a wide variety of specialty armored vehicles.Miller, David "The great Book of Tanks" Salamander Books London, England 2002 338-341 ISBN 1-84065-475-9] Halberstadt, Hans "Inside the Great Tanks" The Crowood Press Ltd. Wiltshire, England 1997 94-96 ISBN 1-86126-270-1]

Operators by country

*country data Abkhazia
country flagcountry2
variant = {variant|{2|

size = {size|}
name = {name|} 50 to 60 T-55
*flag|Afghanistan 600
*ALB 75 (T-54) 300 (T-55)
*ALG 275
*ANG 100
*AZE 123
*BAN 60
*BLR 29 scref|a|
*BIH 150
*BUL 160
*CAM 100
*CAF 4
*CHA 60
*HRV 222scref|b|
*CUB 1,100 [ [http://www.urrib2000.narod.ru/Tanques2-e.html Cuban Tanks ] ]
*flag|Congo DR 20 (T-55)
*ECU 30
*EGY 650 out of 1650 scref|c|
*EQG 3
*ERI 10
*ETH 250
*GEO 270
*GIN 8
*GNB n/a
*HUN 597
*IND 200 scref|d|
*IDN 1 VT-55A scref|e|
*IRN 540scref|f|
*ISR 488scref|g|
*LAO 30
*LAT 3
*LBN 205
*LBY 460
*MAW 1
*MRT 35
*MAR n/a
*MGL 350
*MOZ 80
*MNE 62scref|h|
*NAM 1
*NIC 31
*NGA 50
*PRK 1,600 (T-54)scref|i|
*PER 375
*ROM 647 (T-55A/AM) scref|j|
*RUS 1010 in reserve [http://warfare.ru/?catid=244&linkid=2299 Warfare.ru] ]
*RWA 12
*SRB 611 (T-55A) (being withdrawn)
*SLO 30 (M-55 S1) (being withdrawn)
*SVK 206
*SOM n/a scref|k|
*flag|Somaliland 85
*flag|South Yemenn/a
*SUD 250
*SYR 2,150scref|k|
*TZA n/ascref|k|
*TOG 2
*UGA 20
*UKR 112scref|l|
*URY 15
*UZB 80
*VNM 900
*YEM 700
*ZAM 10
*ZIM 20 T-54 tanks received from USSR in September 1984.


*
*cnote|b|Croatia. As of 2005, down from 202 in 1997 some vehicles withdrawn from service, others in reserve.
*cnote|c|Egypt. 650 active, 390 T-55 and 260 Ramses II
*cnote|d|India. Approximate number, being phased out due to age. "Global Security.org" India [ [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/india/army-equipment.htm "Global Security.org" India] ]
*cnote|e|Indonesia. Recovery vehicle
*cnote|f|Iran. Some captured from Iraq (100 in 1990, 110 in 1995, 500 in 2000 and about 250 in 2002) Iran is dismantling them and building T-72Zs out of them. "Global Security.org" Iran [ [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/iran/ground-equipment.htm "Global Security.org" Iran ] ]
*cnote|g| Israel. 126 in service both Tiran 6 & Tiran 5. "Global Security.org" Israel [ [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/israel/army-equipment.htm "Global Security.org" Israel ] ]
*cnote|h|Montenegro. Currently being scrapped. One will be preserved for a museum.
*cnote|i|North Korea. As of 2000. "Global Security.org" North Korea [ [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/dprk/kpa-equipment.htm "Global Security.org" North Korea] ]
*cnote|j|Romania. Stored (also 210 TR-580 and 315 TR-85 and TR-85 M1 "Bizonul")
*cnote|k|Somalia, Syria, Tanzinia reference "Global Security.org" [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/russia/t-54-specs.htm "T-54 Global Security.org"] ]
*cnote|l|Ukraine. "Global Security.org" Ukraine [ [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/ukraine/groundforces-equipment.htm "Global Security.org" Ukraine] ]

Current operators

*IRQ - 22 in service with New Iraqi Army since 2004. Shapir, Yiftah S., Middle East Military Balance, "Tel Aviv University", 6, 7 [http://www.tau.ac.il/jcss/balance/Iraq.pdf Iraq.pdf] ] 1,500 T-54 and T-55 were in service with Iraqi Regular Army in 1990 and 406 T-54 and T-55 were in service with Iraqi Regular Army in 2003. All destroyed or scrapped except for four which are now in service with the New Iraqi Army.

*IRN - 540 T-54, T-55 and type 59 in service with the Iranian Army and IRGC Ground Forces. Many have been upgraded to Safir-74 (aka type T-72Z).

*PER - Around 300 in service with the Peruvian Army.

*SRI - Around 140 tanks including a number of Type 59 main battle tanks. All are planned to be modernized to Al Zarar standard.

Former operators

*CZE - Last 247 phased out in early 2000s
*CZS - 2,700 T-54A, T-54AM, T-54AK, T-54AMK produced between 1957 and 1966. 8,300 T-55 and T-55A produced between 1958 and 1983 (T-55A was probably produced since 1964) (most of them for export). Passed on to successor states.
*GDR - Passed on to the unified German state.
*FIN - 70, withdrawn from service
*flag|Macedonia - 94 (scrapped)
*flagicon|North Vietnam North Vietnam - Passed on to the successor state.
*POL - 3,000 T-54, T-54A, T-54AD and T-54AM produced between 1956 and 1964. 5,000 T-55, T-55L, T-55AD-1 and T-55AD-2 produced between 1958 and 1979. Some T-54A upgraded to T-55 standard. 200 T-54 tanks have been upgraded to T-55LD in 1975, 10 of which were later sold to Libya. In 1980 Ludowe Wojsko Polskie (LWP) operated 1,207 T-55L, T-55LD, T-55AD-1 and T-55AD-2, 146 T-55, 986 T-55U and 340 T-54, T-54A, T-54AD and T-54AM. Eventually almost all T-54 and T-55 tanks have been upgraded to T-55AM "Merida" standard (There are some not upgraded ones in the museums). Last 839 were withdrawn from service in 2002. All Polish T-54 and T-55 that were withdrawn from service were either used as shooting targets at proving grounds, sold to other countries or given to the museums.
*SRB - 510 T-55 and 1-2 T-55H withdrawn from service. All tanks are up for sale.
*SCG - Passed on to the successor states.
*ZAF - 10 Polish-built T-55LD tanks (part of a batch of 200 T-54s rebuilt in 1975) seized from a French ship, the Astor, which had been transporting a heavy weapons consignment from Libya for Idi Amin in Uganda. Amin's regime collapsed on the day that the ship docked in Mombasa and it was redirected to Angola. The ship called in to Durban where the cargo was seized. 2 T-55LD tanks have been kept by the South Africans for evaluation while 8 were given to Rhodesia, together with SADF advisers for the purpose of training Rhodesian crews. The rumor was spread that the tanks had been captured in Mozambique in order to obscure South Africa's part in the deal.
*USSR - 35,000 T-54-1 (T-54 Model 1946), T-54-2 (T-54 Model 1949), T-54 (T-54-3 or T-54 Model 1951), T-54A, T-54B, T-54AK1, T-54AK2, T-54BK1 and T-54BK2. produced between 1946 and 1958. 27,500 T-55, T-55A, T-55K1, T-55K2, T-55K3, T-55AK1, T-55AK2 and T-55AK3 produced between 1955 and 1981. Passed on to successor states.
*flag|Rhodesia - 8 T-55LD tanks given by the Republic of South Africa, together with SADF advisers for the purpose of training Rhodesian crews. It is unknown whenever these tanks were passed on to successor state or destroyed during the Rhodesian Bush War.
*USA - The US Army used a number of models of the T-54 in the OPFOR role for training. [ [http://www.jedsite.info/tanks-tango/tango-numbers-su/t-54_series/opfor/opfor-intro.html "JEDSITE"] ]
*FRG/GER - taken from GDR's army, all scrapped, sold to other countries or given to museums.
*YUG - 1000, passed on to successor states.
*FR-YUG - Passed on to the successor state.

Models and variants

Models

T-54

* T-54-1 (Ob'yekt 137) or T-54 Model 1946 – Produced 1946–1948. With streamlined turret and wide gun mantlet, similar to T-44, new V-54 engine, unstabilized D-10T 100 mm main gun, and two SG-43 machine guns in bins on the fenders. Karpenko, A.V."Obozreniye Bronetankovoj Tekhniki" (1905-1995 gg.) Bastion Nevskij 269-71 ] Only a small number was build for trials that were a fiasco; as a result, the production of the T-54 series was halted until the implementation of modifications.Markov, David Andrew Hull, Steven Zaloga "Soviet/Russian Armor and Artillery Design Practices: 1945 to Present". Darlington Productions. 1999 ISBN 1-892848-01-5 22-27"]
* T-54-2 (Ob'yekt 137R) or T-54 Model 1949 – Produced 1949–1952. It incorporated a number of improvements to the turret as well a wider track. It had a new dome-shaped turret with flat sides inspired by the IS-3 heavy tanks, similar to later T-54's but with a distinctive overhang at the rear and hull machine gun replacing the fender bins. It also had a shorter bustle.
* T-54-3 (Ob'yekt 137Sh) or T-54 Model 1951 – Produced 1952–1954, in Poland 1956–1964. Adopted the familiar, fully egg-shaped turret and new TSh-2-22 telescopic gunner's sight instead of the TSh-20.Also early T-54 lacked a snorkel. The tank is also able to use its engine exhaust smoke system to create smokescreen by injecting vaporized diesel fuel onto the exhaust system. This feature was continued throughout the entire T-54/T-55 series.
* T-54A (Ob'yekt 137G)"Czołgi Świata" (World's Tanks or Tanks Of The World) magazine issue 20] - Produced 1955–1957, in Poland 1956–1964, in Czechoslovakia 1957–1966, and in China as the Type 59. Added STP-1 "Gorizont" vertical-plane gun stabilizer to D-10TG gun. Originally had a small muzzle counter-weight, which was later replaced with a fume extractor. Also introduced OPVT wading snorkel, TSh-2A-22 telescopic sight, TVN-1 infrared driver's periscope and IR headlight, new R-113 radio, multi-stage engine air filter and radiator controls for improved engine performance, an electrical oil pump, bilge pump, automatic fire extinguisher and extra fuel tanks.
* T-54B (Ob'yekt 137G2)Karpenko, A.V."Obozreniye Bronetankovoj Tekhniki" (1905-1995 gg.) Bastion Nevskij 276-85"] - Produced from 1957 to 1958. With improved D-10T2S gun and STP-2 "Tsyklon" 2-plane stabilization. From 1959, infrared night-fighting equipment was added: L-2 "Luna" infrared searchlight and TPN-1-22-11 IR gunner's sight, OU-3 IR commander's searchlight. NATO code: T-54(M).
* T-54M (Ob'yekt 139) - Not to be confused with the T-54M modernization program. This was a testbed for new D-54T and D-54TS 100 mm smoothbore guns, "Raduga" and "Molniya" stabilization systems, which were later used in the T-62. These were not completely successful, so further T-55 development continued to use the D-10 series guns.
* Ob'yekt 137ML - Prototype of the T-54 with 9M14 "Malyutka" (NATO code: AT-3 Sagger) ATGM.
* T-54K1, T-54K2, T-54AK1, T-54AK2, T-54BK1, T-54BK2, T-54MK1, T-54MK2 were command tanks corresponding to the main production models, with extra communications equipment at the expense of 5 tank rounds. K1 version had a second R-113 (or R-123) radio for company commanders, K2 version had 10m semi-telescoping antenna mast, for battalion and regimental commanders, and regimental chiefs-of-staff. [http://www.jedsite.info/tanks-tango/tango-numbers-su/t-55_series/t55-series.html "JED The Military Equipment Directory"] ]

T-55

* T-55 (Ob'yekt 155)Karpenko, A.V."Obozreniye Bronetankovoj Tekhniki" (1905-1995 gg.) Bastion Nevskij 291-307"] - Produced 1958–1963, in Poland 1958–1964, in Czechoslovakia from 1958 to 1983. New turret with floor, PAZ nuclear-blast protection and over-pressure NBC system, gamma ray detector, improved V-55 engine and power-assisted clutch, greater fuel and ammunition load, TDA exhaust smoke generator, deleted the DShK 1938/46 antiaircraft heavy machine gun from loader's hatch. T-55 also lacks a turret dome ventilator. Early units had flush loader's hatch. "Starfish" road wheels replaced earlier "spider" style. Also a snorkel can be placed on T-55 (unlike its predecessors) to allow it to cross 5.5 m depths at a speed of 2 km/h (without preparation T-55 can cross 1.4 m depths). This equipment takes about 30 minutes' preparation, but can be jettisoned immediately on leaving the water. ["Czołgi Świata" (World's Tanks or Tanks Of The World) magazine issue 10] [http://www.inetres.com/gp/military/cv/index.html Combat Vehicle Reference Guide] ]
* T-55A (Ob'yekt 155A) - Produced 1963–1981, in Poland 1964–1979. The T-55A MBT was primarily developed to incorporate a new antiradiation lining and full PAZ/FVU chemical filtration system. One of the major internal additions was the use of a plasticized lead sheeting for antiradiation protection. This was evident externally due to use of an enlarged driver's hatch and enlarged combings over the commander's and loader's hatch to accommodate the new material. Improved POV anti-radiation protection (leading to visibly protruding turret hatches) and NBC filtration, dispensed with bow machine gun. SGMT coaxial machine gun was replaced with PKT coaxial machine gun. Hull machine gun has been removed which gave place for 6 more 100 mm gun rounds [http://www.pancerni.abajt.pl/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=70&Itemid=82&limit=1&limitstart=0 Pancerni] ] Since 1970, T-55A tanks began to receive a new turret fitting for the 12.7mm DShK 1938/46 antiaircraft heavy machine gun. [ [http://www.aviapress.com/viewonekit.htm?ACE-72156 aviapress.com ] ]
* T-55K1 (Ob'yekt 155K1), T-55K2 (Ob'yekt 155K2), T-55K3 (Ob'yekt 155K3), T-55AK1 (Ob'yekt 155AK1), T-55AK2 (Ob'yekt 155AK2), T-55AK3 (Ob'yekt 155AK3), T-55MK1 (Ob'yekt 155MK1), T-55MK2 (Ob'yekt 155MK2), T-55MK3 (Ob'yekt 155MK3) - Command tanks, fitted with additional radio sets. Sub-versions are the K1 and K2 models with two R-123 (or R-123M) and used at company and battalion level respectively. They carry 5 tank rounds less than the standard tanks. The regiment commander's K3 is equipped with an R-130M, an R-123M, a 10-metre antenna mast and a generator AB-1-P/30 at the expense of 12 100mm rounds. [Gau, Lutz-Reiner Jürgen Plate, Jörg Siegert "Deutsche Militärfahrzeuge - Bundeswehr und NVA". Motorbuch, Stuttgart 2001-10-01 ISBN 3-613-02152-8 553] Early models had the R-113 and R-112 sets instead of the R-123 and R-130, the upgraded M series is fitted with R-173 and R-143T2 sets respectively.
* Ob'yekt 155ML - Prototype of the T-55 with launcher for three 9M14 "Malyutka" (NATO code: AT-3 Sagger) ATGM mounted on the turret rear.

Modernization

imageframe|align=center|width=550|content= |caption=
T-55A (left) and T-55AM2B (right)

The T-55AM2B has turret brow armour, laser rangefinder over the main gun, rubber side skirts, and thicker front hull armour than the T-55A. "Panzermuseum Munster"


* T-54-2 fitted with the ZET-1 vehicle protection system. It has net structure centered on vehicles main armament and flipper-type side plates.
* T-54M (Ob'yekt 137M) (mid-1960s) – Upgrade program to bring T-54s up to T-55 standard.
* T-54M (Ob'yekt 137M) (1977) – Additional upgrades, including OPVT snorkel and KTD-1 laser rangefinder.
* T-54AM (Ob'yekt 137M) (mid-1960s) – Further upgrades, including increased ammunition, new radios, new V-55 engine. Some received new RMSh track and drive sprocket developed for T-72 tank in late 1970s and early 1980s. Similar programs were carried out in other countries (T-54Z, T-54AZ, T-54AMZ for "Zusatzausrüstung", 'additional equipment' in East Germany, T-54AR "Rieka", 'river', with fording snorkel in Czechoslovakia).

DShK 1938/46 antiaircraft heavy machine gun on T-55 MBT.
T-55 tanks received 12.7 mm DShK 1938/46 loader's anti-aircraft machine guns starting in (Model 1970, or sometimes T-55AM), and older tanks were retrofitted starting in 1972. Laser rangefinders KTD-1 or -2 were added to older tanks starting 1974 (Model 1974).
* T-55 fitted with the ZET-1 vehicle protection system. It has net structure centred on vehicles main armament and flipper-type side plates.

* T-55M (Ob'yekt 155M)/T-55AM (Ob'yekt 155AM) - Modernization of respectively T-55 and T-55A with new "Volna" fire control system, 9K116-1 "Bastion" ATGM system with new 1K13 BOM guidance device/sight, improved gun stabilization system "Tsiklon-M1" and sights TShSM-32PV, V-55U engine , improved suspension and RMSh track, increased armour, anti-mine, anti-napalm and improved anti-radiation protection and new radio set R-173/173P. Visual differences include laser range-finder in an armoured box fitted over the main armament, side skirts, 81mm "Tucha" smoke grenade launchers, turret brow armour BDD and glacis appliqué, and rear RPG screens (only used rarely in Afghanistan).
** T-55M-1 (Ob'yekt 155M-1)/T-55AM-1 (Ob'yekt 155AM-1) – The "-1" suffix was applied to later modified tanks which are powered by the 691 hp (515 kW) engine V-46-5M which was derived from the T-72's 780 hp (582 kW) V-46-6.
* T-55AD "Drozd" (Ob'yekt 155AD)Markov, David Andrew Hull, Steven Zaloga "Soviet/Russian Armor and Artillery Design Practices: 1945 to Present". Darlington Productions. 1999 ISBN 1-892848-01 540-43] - T-55A fitted with Drozd ('thrush') active protection system (KAZ - "kompleks aktivnoj zashchity"). Soviet Naval Infantry saved money by installing "Drozd" on a small number of tanks instead of opting for appliqué armour, or acquiring newer T-72s. About 250 were kept in stores for secrecy, but later switched to simpler reactive armour. T-55AD is also fitted with the radio set R-173, sight TShSM-32PV, "Tsiklon-M1" stabilizer etc. of the T-55AM.
**T-55AD-1 (Ob'yekt 155AD-1) - Version powered by the 691 hp (515 kW) engine V-46-5M which was derived from the T-72's 780 hp (582 kW) V-46-6.
* T-55MV (Ob'yekt 155MV)/T-55AMV (Ob'yekt 155AMV) - "V" for "vzryvnoj" ('explosive') designated tanks which carried explosive reactive armour (ERA) "Kontakt-1" instead of the passive BDD armour. The ERA bricks (EDZ or "elementi dinamicheskoj zashchity") are normally mounted on the turret front, hull front and the hull sides. This was adopted by Soviet Naval Infantry first, and by the Russian Army after the collapse of the Soviet Union. T-55MV is a modernized T-55M and T-55AMV is a modernized T-55AM.
**T-55MV-1 (Ob'yekt 155MV-1)/T-55AMV-1 (Ob'yekt 155AMV-1) - Versions powered by the 691 hp (515 kW) engine V-46-5M.
* T-55M5 (Ob'yekt 155M5) - This modernization kit adds convex explosive reactive armour "Kontakt-5" panels around turret front, armour panel on glacis plate, a longer hull, a new style fire control equipment with stabilized TVK-3 and TKN-1SM sights for the gunner and commander, an improved V-55U engine (or V-46-5M) and a main gun stabilization system. The original 100 mm D-10T2S gun is maintained. Combat weight is less than 40 tonnes.
** T-55M6 (Ob'yekt 155M6) - More radical upgrade with longer chassis with 6 road wheels each side, a 690 hp diesel engine V-46-5M and with the complete turret with automatic loader and 2A46M 125mm main gun of the T-72B. Also the protection was increased to T-80U level. Optionally the tank can be equipped with the fire control system 1A40-1 with ATGM system 9K120 "Svir" (as T-72B) or with the 1A42 and 9K119 "Refleks" systems (as T-80U). Combat weight is 43 tonnes.

Table of tank models

Variants

Air defence

* ZSU-57-2 (Ob'yekt 500) - Self-propelled anti-aircraft gun (SPAAG); significant changes from T-54 such as much thinner armour and one less road wheel, with a new turret armed with two 57mm guns.

Combat engineering

* T-54 Dozer - T-54 fitted with bulldozer blades for clearing soil, obstacles and snow. [http://www.inetres.com/gp/military/cv/tank/T-54.html "Gary's Combat Vehicle Reference Guide"] ]
* ALT-55 - Bulldozer version of the T-55 with large flat-plate superstructure, angular concave dozer blade on front and prominent hydraulic rams for dozer blade.
* T-55 hull fitted with an excavator body and armoured cab.
* T-55 MARRS - Fitted with a Vickers armoured recovery vehicle kit. It has a large flat-plate turret with slightly chamfered sides, vertical rear and very chmfered front and a large A-frame crane on the front of the turret. The crane has cylindrical winch rope feer between legs of crane. A dozer blade is fitted to the hull front.
* MT-55 or MTU-55 ("Tankoviy Mostoukladchik") - Soviet designator for Czechoslovakian MT-55A bridge-layer tank with scissors bridge.
* MTU-12 ("Tankoviy Mostoukladchik")Karpenko, A.V."Obozreniye Bronetankovoj Tekhniki" (1905-1995 gg.) Bastion Nevskij 455-56 ] - Bridge-layer tank with 12 m single span bridge that can carry 50 tonnes. The system entered service in 1955; today only a very small number remains in service. Combat weight: 34 tonnes.
* MTU-20 (Ob'yekt 602) ("Tankoviy Mostoukladchik") - The MTU-20 consists of a twin-treadway superstructure mounted on a modified T-54 tank chassis. Each treadway is made up of a box-type aluminum girder with a folding ramp attached to both ends to save space in the travel position. Because of that the vehicle with the bridge on board is only 11.6 m long, but the over all span length is 20 m. This is an increase of about 62% over that of the older MTU-1. The bridge is launched by the cantilever method. First the ramps are lowered and fully extended before the treadways are forward with the full load of the bridge resting on the forward support plate during launch. The span is moved out over the launching girder until the far end reaches the far bank. Next the near end is lowered onto the near bank. This method of launching gives the bridgelayer a low silhouette which makes it less vulnerable to detection and destruction.
** MTU-20 based on the T-55 chassis.
* BTS-1 ("Bronetankoviy Tyagach Sredniy" - Medium Armoured Tractor) - This is basically a turretless T-54A with a stowage basket. [ [http://softland.com.pl/aerojac/aaa/wzt-1/wzt1.htm softland.com.pl] ]
** BTS-1M - improved or remanufactured BTS-1.
* BTS-2 (Ob'yekt 9) ("Bronetankoviy Tyagach Sredniy" - Medium Armoured Tractor) - BTS-1 upgraded with a hoist and a small folding crane with a capacity of 3,000 kg. It was developed on the T-54 hull in 1951; series production started in 1955. The prototype Ob.9 had a commander's cupola with DShK 1938/46 machine gun, but the production model has a square commander's hatch, opening to the right. Combat weight: 32 tons. Only a very small number remains in service.
* BTS-3 ("Bronetankoviy Tyagach Sredniy" - Medium Armoured Tractor) - JVBT-55A in service with the Soviet Army.
* BTS-4 ("Bronetankoviy Tyagach Sredniy" - Medium Armoured Tractor) - Similar to BTS-2 but with snorkel. In the West generally known as T-54T. There are many different models, based on the T-44, T-54, T-55 and T-62. Karpenko, A.V."Obozreniye Bronetankovoj Tekhniki" (1905-1995 gg.) Bastion Nevskij 461-62 ] [http://www.pancerni.abajt.pl/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=22&Itemid=36 Pancerni] ]
* BTS-4B - Dozer blade equipped armoured recovery vehicle converted from the early -odd-shaped turret versions of the T-54.
** BTS-4BM - Experimental version of the BTS-4B with the capacity to winch over the front of the vehicle.
* IMR (Ob'yekt 616) ("Inzhenernaya Mashina Razgrashdeniya") - Combat engineer vehicle. It's a T-55 that had its turret replaced with a hydraulically-operated 2t crane. The crane can also be fitted with a small bucket or a pair of pincer type grabs for removing trees and other obstacles. A hydraulically-operated dozer blade mounts to the front of the hull; it can be used in a straight or V-configuration only. The IMR was developed in 1969 and entered service five years later.
* SPK-12G ("Samokhodniy Pod’yomniy Kran") - Heavy crane mounted on T-55 chassis. Only two were build.

Mine clearing

* BMR-2 ("Boyevaya Mashina Razminirovaniya") - Mine clearing tank based on T-55 chassis. This vehicle has no turret but a fixed superstructure, armed with an NSVT machine gun. It is fitted with a KMT-7 mine clearing set and entered service around 1987 during the war in Afghaistan.
** Improved version of BMR-2 that has been seen fitted with a wide variety of mine roller designs.

Flamethrowers

* OT-54 (Ob'yekt 481) - T-54 with ATO-54 flamethrower instead of 7.62 mm SGMT coaxial machine gun. [http://www.morozov.com.ua/eng/body/tanks/ot-54.php?menu=history5.php morozov.com] ]
* TO-55 (OT-55, Ob'yekt 482 [http://www.jedsite.info/content/jed1.html JEDsite Index] ] ) - This flame-thrower version of the T-55 tank incorporates the ATO-200 flame projector. The flame thrower is ignited by pyrotechnic charges, and 12 charges are the basic load. The stowage tank, which replaces the hull ammunition rack besides the driver, contains 460-litres of flammable liquid, and each burst averages 36 liters. The maximum effective range of the system is 200 meters, with the stream having an initial muzzle velocity of about 100 mps.
* Ob'yekt 483 - Flame-thrower tank prototype, based on the T-54B. This version featured installation of the ATO-1 flame-thrower in short stubby barrel with internal tube instead of the main gun, resulting in a decrease of the tank's firepower. There's also a circular vertical vent on rear of turret and a sight mount level with top of mantlet aperture. Following trials with the prototype vehicle, development work on this ceased.

Armoured personnel carrier

* BTR-T - Heavy APC based on T-55.
** DPM - Convoy escort vehicle.

Self propelled gun

* SU-122-54 (Ob'yekt 600) ("Samokhodnaya Ustanovka") - Self-propelled 122mm gun, based on the T-54A and sometimes known as IT-122. Between 1955 and 1957, 77 vehicles were build with minor differences between production lots (different commander's cupola etc.). The SU-122-54 had a modified chassis that was similar to the T-62's and was armed with a 122mm gun M-62-T with 32 rounds.
** MTP-3 ("Mashina Tekhnicheskoj Pomoshchi") - From 1973, several SU-122-54's were converted into a technical support vehicle with light crane. Used to be called ARV M1977 and T-62T in the West. Some MTP-3's were later used as mine-clearing vehicles.

Firefighting

* GPM-54 ("gusenichnaya pozharnaya mashina" - fire fighting vehicle) - T-54 converted into a tracked fire fighting vehicle. It is equipped with a dozer blade in the front of the vehicle, water tank and a spray unit mounted on the front of tank's top.
* T-55 modified to fight major oil fires. Turret was replaced with twin-jet-engine mount and multiple water nozzles.

International derivatives

Afghanistan

* T-55 tanks have been used for a number of years in Afghanistan and have been subject to much cannabilisation and 'mix n match' of parts to such an extent that when looking at an individual tank it is not possible to say exactly what variant it is or was.

Argentina

* JT-54 Tensa - upgrade for the 500 T-54s operated Peru made in the late 1980s/early 1990s, by the Argentinian company Tensa. Add-on armour was mounted on the turret, with a laser rangefinder being installed above the gun shield. On the turret's rooftop, there was a mast with weather sensors indicating the presence of the ballistic-computer-based fire control system. Rubber sheet side skirts were fitted.

Bosnia

* SO 76 M-18 Mod - Bosnian-Serb hybrid vehicle consisting of the M18 hellcat turret placed on late T-55 hulls that were used for mechanic training before the war. ["Tankograd Gazette"]
* T-55 with Bofors AA Gun - Bosnian Serb SPAAG modification.

Croatia

* T-55 Minocistac - T-55 fitted with UZR-3 explosive hose type mine clearer system in service with HVO.

Cuba

*T-55 converted into a transporter erector launcher of the S-75 surface-air missile.
*T-55 converted into a transporter erector launcher of the S-125 surface-air missile.

Czech Republic

*T-55C-1 "Bublina" - Turret-less engineer vehicle with BTU-55 dozer blade.
*T-55C-2 "Favorit" - Czech driver training tank.
*SPOT-55 ("Speciální POžárnický Tank") - Czech fire-fighting conversion with large tank with chamfered edges placed on T-55 chassis, two spray units mounted on front of tank top and dozer blade fitted to hull front. It was developed by VOP 025 and has two water tanks for a total of 11,000 liter. Weight is 45 tons. [ [http://www.army.cz/scripts/detail.php?id=6084 Czech Army] ]

East Germany

*T-54Z (Z for "Zusatzausrüstung" - additional equipment) - East German modernization of T-54 similar to T-54AM.
*T-54AZ (Z for "Zusatzausrüstung" - additional equipment) - East German modernization of T-54 similar to T-54AM.
*T-54AMZ (Z for "Zusatzausrüstung" - additional equipment) - East German modernization of T-54 similar to T-54AM.
*T-54T ("Panzerzugmaschine ohne Bergesatz") - East German version of the BTS-2 with recovery and welding equipment. 10 made on Polish-made T-54B chassis. NATO code: T-54(A).
*T-54TB ("Panzerzugmaschine mit Bergesatz") - More specialized version with heavy recovery equipment. 10 made on Polish-made T-54B chassis. NATO code: T-54(B).
*T-55AM Minenräumladung - East German T-55A optimised for mine clearance.
*T-55AM2B with bin on left-hand-side of turret.
*T-55 NAL NRD - East-German modernization of T-55. It wasn't finished because of the political changes in 1990.
*T-55T - Modified VT-55A with push bar and splashboard across glacis plate in service with the NVA.
**T-55T with towing unit on the glacis plate with a mount that protrudes over front of vehicle. Front towing unit also has a flexible 'eye' permanently fitted. The NVA did not appear to differentiate between the various models of the T-55T. NATO code: T-55T.
**T-55T with front dozer blade. NATO code: T-55T.
*Orchidee (Minenräumladung WLWD) - Prototype mine clearing vehicle developed by the East Germany and equipped with KMT-6 M2, EMT-5 electronic mine clearer and an unidentified explosive hose type lane clearer.
*T-54 M1975/1 - Experimental East German roller/flail combination mine clearing vehicle.
**T-54 M1975/2 - Flail only variant of the M1975/1.
*T-55TK - East-Germany received 119 Czechoslovakian JVBT-55A's between 1968 and 1979 and called them "Kranpanzer T-55TK".
*BLG-60 ("Brückenlegegerät") - East German/Polish scissors-type bridge layer. Development started in 1965 (one year after the BLG-34 project was cancelled [http://www.militaertechnik-der-nva.de/Waffensysteme/BLP72/BLP72.htmlmilitaertechnik militaertechnik-der-nva] ] ) and the first vehicle was delivered in 1967. Almost 200 BLG-60's were build by STAG Genthin and SKET Magdeburg.
**BLG-60 trainer - Modified training bridge.
**BLG-60M - Improved BLG-60 that makes it possible to attach 3 bridges together to bridge gaps of up to 52 m. Entered service from 1973.
***BLG-60M2 - Because of the introduction of the bigger T-72 tank, some 30 BLG-60's had to be widened by 20 cm.

Egypt

* T-55E Mark 0 ("E" stands for Egyptian variant) - T-55 modernization fitted with a new Russian engine developing 580 hp. It came in two variants:
** T-55E Mark 0 fitted with a German AEG infrared/white searchlight on the left hand side of the main armament and a Yugoslav "Iskra" laser rangefinder. [http://www.inetres.com/gp/military/cv/tank/T-54.html "Gary's Combat Vehicle Reference Guide"] ]
** T-55E Mark 0 fitted with DShK 1938/46 antiaircraft heavy machine gun and German AEG searchlight.
*T-55E MK I ("E" stands for Egyptian variant) - T-55 modernization fitted with a more powerful engine developing 650 hp, fire control system (which includes a ballistic computer), searchlight, laser rangefinders and appliqué armour. All those additions resulted in weight increasing to 41 tonnes. It retains the original 100 mm tank gun but the performance and ammunition were improved.
*T-55E MK II ("E" stands for Egyptian variant) - Refurbished and modernized T-55 in the mid 1990s. It is fitted with a German engine developing 880 hp, M68 105 mm tank gun, Italian fire control system (which includes an Italian ballistic computer), infrared device, laser rangefinder, stabilization system, modernized suspension, six smoke grenade launchers on each side of the turret, NBC protection system, appliqué armor and armored side skirts. All those additions resulted in weight increasing to 44 tonnes. Conversions are scheduled to be completed by the end of 2008.
* Ramses II - T-54 modernization. In November 1984, US Teledyne Continental Motors corporation (taken over by General Dynamics Land Systems conglomerate) was awarded a contract to upgrade the firepower and mobility of a single T-54. The modernization initial designation was T-54E but it was subsequently renamed as Ramses II. The first prototype was sent to Egypt for extensive firepower and mobility trials in January 1987 and with them ending later that year. In late 1989 Egypt signed a technical assistance agreement with TCM to support continued Egyptian trials of the Ramses II. The new set of trials began in summer of 1990. Ramses II entered production and service between 2004-2005.

Finland

*T-55M - 70 Finnish T-55 tanks were upgraded to T-55M/MK level with new fire control system FCS-FV/K, new tracks, side skirts, NSVT machine gun, Wegmann 76mm smoke grenade launchers, Lyran 71mm mortar etc.
*KAM-1 - Finnish medium recovery tank build on T-54 hull, developed in 1984. Prototype only. Suomalaiset Panssarivaunut 1918-1997, page 24]
*KAM-2 - Finnish light recovery tank build on T-54 hull, developed in 1985. Prototype only.
*T-55 with 155 mm gun - Finnish 155 mm Tampella gun mounted on a T-55 chassis - experimental prototype only.

Czechoslovakia

*T-54A produced under license in Czechoslovakia. It was of considerably better quality than the Soviet produced version. It was much preferred by non-soviet countries. Among the differences from the standard Soviet version were redesigned engine access plates and three plates fitted to the hull to reduce track shedding. The tank also has oval engine grills in engine decks.
**T-54AK produced in Czechoslovakia under license. It had a base plate on turret roof for radio mast.
*T-54AR "Rieka" - (Rieka - river), T-54 modernization with fording snorkel. It is similar to soviet T-54AM.
*T-54AM - Polish and Czechoslovak production of the T-54B under license.
**T-54AMK - Czechoslovakian production of the T-54BK command tank.
*T-55AMB - Czechoslovak upgraded T-55A with Czechoslovakia-produced laser rangefinder, fire control system and wind sensor mast with thickened center section mounted on rear of turret roof.
*T-55AM1 - Czechoslovakian version of the T-55AM with Czechoslovak-produced "Kladivo" fire control system with a balliustic computer, a laser range finder (different from the Russian KTD-1) on top of the gun and a cross-wind sensor mast mounted on rear of turret roof.
**T-55AM1K3 - Command tank version of the T-55AM1.
**T-55AM2 - T-55AM1 fitted with the passive BDD appliqué armour for turret (horseshoe shape) and hull front (fitted to upper glacis plate), sideplates fitted with extensions protecting catwalk fuel tanks, the improved V-55U engine with an integral supercharger delivering 620hp and the R-173P radio system. The BDD armour panels consist of armoured steel boxes filled with Penpolyurethane. In addition there are cavities which can be filled with water or sand for additional protection. There is also a cluster of 8 smoke-grenade launchers on the right-hand-side of turret. T-55AM2 is fitted with additional headlights on the front fenders.
***T-55AM2 Dyna-1 - T-55AM2 fitted with new armour array.
***T-55AM2B - T-55AM2 with the ability to fire the laser-guided 9M117 "Bastion" (AT-10 Stabber) ATGM via the main gun. The T-55AM2B is fitted with the 1K13 BOM gunner's sight in place of the original TPN-1M-22.
***T-55AM2K1 - command tank for company commanders with an additional radio set R-173.
***T-55AM2K2 - command tank for battalion commanders with an additional radio set R-173.
***T-55AM2K3 - regiment commander's version with radio sets R-173 and R-143T2, a generator NS1250B and a slim 10m antenna mast. Carries 12 rounds less than a standard tank.
*VT-55A ("Vyprošt’ovací Tank" - recovery tank) - Czechoslovak ARV build on T-55A hull and fitted with a crane with 15 tonnes capacity, a main winch with 44 tonnes capacity and a secondary winch with 800 kg capacity. It was first called MT-55 but this designation was given to the bridge laying tank and therefore the designation had to be changed.
**VT-55KS ("kapitalstické státy") - Export version for non-Warsaw Pact countries like Iraq and Syria. A total of 2,321 was produced between 1967 and 1983.
**ZS-55A ("ženijní stroj") - VT-55A fitted with dozer blade BTU-55.
*MT-55A ("Mostni Tank" - bridge layer tank) - Czechoslovakian redesigned version of MT-55. According to some Western sources there are two models, namely the basic model - also known as MT-55K - and the MT-55L with a longer bridge. Between 1969 and 1983, 1,278 MT-55A's were build by TS Martin.
**MT-55KS ("kapitalstické státy") - Export version for non-Warsaw Pact countries like India, Iraq and Syria. 183 vehicles build from 1971.
** PM-55L ("Přepravník Mostu") - Lightweight version that uses a Tatra T-813 truck as carrier and launch platform.
*JVBT-55A ("Jeřábový-Vyprošťovací-Buldozerový Tank") - Czechoslovakian crane tank, fitted with a big 15t crane, a winch and a BTU-55 dozer blade. Combat weight is 42 tons. From 1967, 508 were produced.
**JVBT-55KS ("kapitalstické státy") - Export version of JVBT-55A for non-Warsaw Pact states like Iraq. 172 produced.

Germany

*T-54 upgrade developed in 1991 by Jung Jungenthal to meet the requirements of the Egyptian army (but was never purchased). The upgraded T-54 is equipped with additional passive armour, a new transmission LSG 3000, an improved cooling system, a new all-electric gun control system, under-armour fuel tanks "Superflexit" on either side of the hull and 76mm smoke grenade discharges. The original 100mm gun is retained.

Great Britain

*T-54A, a proposal by Royal ordnance to upgrade the T-54A's of the Egyptian Army to the standard NATO 105mm gun.
*T-55 upgrade package made by A F Budge, FFG and Perkins it included a Perkins Condor V8 800TCA engine, XTG-411-5 transmission, new cooling system oil cooled brakes, Pilkington fire control system, IR25 thermal sight, and L7 105mm gun.
*T-55 Marksman - a T-55 SPAAG version equipped with the British Marksman turret. In Finnish service.ItPsv 90"'

Hungary

*T-55AM was a 1980's modernization of the basic T-55 tank, which added a laser rangefinder, mounted over the barrel, inside a large rectangular armoured box. The T-55AM tank received better main weapon stabilization and sights, as well cast steel add-on armour blocks on the turret front-sides area (know as the "horse-shoes" or the "Brezhnev's eyebrow" armour). T-55AM tanks were withdrawn from service during the early 2000s, some scrapped, some mothballed, leaving only a handful of T-72B and T-72M vehicles in active hungarian army service.

India

*T-54/T-55 with sheet steel tubes placed on 100mm barrels to distinguish them from Pakistani Type 59s.
*T-54B modified by India.
*T-55A upgraded with 105mm gun.

Iraq

* T-55 "Enigma" - T-55, Type 59, and Type 69 tanks used by Iraqi Brigade commanders had appliqué armour on turrets and hulls composed of several layers of spaced armour (the technique of choice for the Iraqi Engineers) plates enclosed in steel boxes. It was successful at defeating shaped charge warheads during the battle of Khafji, where one unit is reported to have survived several hits from MILAN missiles before being dispatched by a helicopter. [Zaloga, Steven: "T-54 and T-55 Main Battle Tanks 1944-2004". Osprey Publishing, 2004. Page 36.]
** T-55 "Enigma" with smoke grenade discharges.
* T-55QM - had NATO-standard 105 mm L7 or M68 gun installed replacing the old 100 mm gun, along with a French laser range-finder, upgrades done in mid to late 1980s.
* T-55QM2 - T-55 upgraded by Soviet technicians with a Soviet 125 mm/L52 smoothbore gun and French laser range-finder, 1986-1991.
* T-72Z - At the International Arms Exhibition, which took place in Baghdad between 28 April - 2 May, 1989, a T-55 equipped with the 2A46 125mm gun with fume extractor one third of the way down the barrel from the T-72 tank was displayed. This modernized vehicle was designated as T-72Z, which at first mislead foreign experts since it was believed that the project was based on the T-72 tank. In fact, the number "72" originated from the year of modernization - 1372 according to the Muslim calendar. The loading mechanism of this vehicle was also taken from T-72. The fitting of the loading mechanism required increasing the aft section of the turret. A stub case ejection port on rear of turret. The tank's armour protection was also reinforced through the use of add-on armour on the tank's front glacis. The vehicle also mounted the EFCS-3 fire control system developed by the Slovenian firm 'Fotana' and a new transmission. A set of explosive reactive armour is an optional extra. It is believed that around 200 T-54/T-55 tanks and 150 Chinese Type-59 tanks were brought up to the T-72Z standard.
* T-55 modified to fire 122 mm rockets by removing the main armament and fitting an multi-barrel-rocket launcher on the rear of the turret. Reloads appear to have been stowed in the turret and passed out through a crudely-cut access on the rear of the turret. It has a square sided platform mount with drop down sides and rear.
* T-54 fitted with 160mm mortar.
* T-55 fitted with the S-60 anti-aircraft gun in a square sided platform mount with drop down sides and rear.
* BTS-2 - Rebuilt late production BTS-2 fitted with antiaircraft heavy machine gun pintle mount and additional stowage boxes.
* BTS-Saddam - Iraqi produced armoured recovery vehicle based on obsolete T-54 chassis. It's equipped with small fixed turret on left of driver fitted with antiaircraft heavy machine gun, large winch in fighting compartment covered with metal sheet framework, earth anchor on rear of hull. Like most Iraqi produced equipment it was named in honour of Saddam Hussein.

Iran

* T-72Z/Type 72Z/Safir-74 - Iranian upgraded T-54/55 and Type-59 (Chinese copy of the T-54A), T-72Z being the name given to the upgraded T-55s, Safir 74 being the name given to the upgraded T-54s and Type 72Z being the name given to the upgraded Type-59s. The upgrades Include the new fire control system Fontana EFCS-3B (with laser rangefinder, cross-wind sensor, ballistic computer and gunner's passive night vision device), a 105mm tank gun, side skirts, smoke grenade launchers, ERA package, a new power-pack with 780 hp 12 cylinder V-46-6 diesel engine and new tracks. Iranian sources state there was also a plan to arm the tanks with a 2A46 125mm tank gun, but it seems as if this project was canceled.
* Safir-86 - Standard T-55 fitted with an ERA kit developed by Iran.
** Safir-86 with improved ERA layout.

Israel

* Tiran-1 - Virtually unmodified T-54 in Israeli Army service.
* Tiran-2 - Virtually unmodified T-55 in Israeli Army service.
* Tiran-4/5 - upgraded Israeli version built on tanks captured in 1967 and 1973. No longer in service in Israel but many were sold off.
** Tiran-4 - Modified T-54 with original 100 mm gun.
*** Tiran-4Sh - upgraded T-54, fitted with "Sharir" 105 mm gun.
** Tiran-5 - Modified T-55 with original 100 mm gun.
*** Tiran-5Sh - upgraded T-55, fitted with "Sharir" 105 mm gun.
*** Tiran-5 with a dozer blade.
** Ti-67 - The Ti-67 series were upgraded versions of the Tiran tanks (mainly Tiran-5 tanks) which were themselves captured T-54 and T-55 tanks adapted for Israeli use. In addition to all of the previous Tiran modifications there were many other improvements including the fitting of a 105mm M68 tank gun and external turret stowage. Ammunition racks modified to suit the 105mm ammunition. Ti-67 tanks are also has new communications equipment, modified commander's seat, new gunner's seat, azimuth indicator installed, driver's hatch modified so that it can opened from the outside, coaxial machine gun replaced by a 7.62mm Browning machine gun and the cuploa mounted DShK 1938/46 antiaircraft heavy machine gun replaced by a 12.7mm Browning heavy machine gun, new fire control, sights, night vision equipment and electrical system, air-conditioning system, antennae mounts on turret rear, infantry tank-telephone on hull rear, Browning 7.62mm machine gun at loader's station, exhaust outlet angled upwards, additional track stowage and fire-extinguishing system installed.
*** Ti-67 fitted with Blazer ERA.
*** Ti-67s - This is the Ti-67 with many other improvements in addition to all of the previous modifications. They include fitting the American Detroit Diesel 8V-71T engine developing 609 hp, new semi-automatic hydromechanical transmission equipped with a torque converter, new air cleaners, Blazer explosive reactive armor added to the hull and turret, Cadillac-Gage-Textron gun stabilization system, installation of EL-OP Matador computerized fire control system, low-profile commander's cupola, IR detectors, Image-intensifier night vision equipment for the commander, gunner and driver, Spectronix fire detection and suppression system, new turret basket, extensive external stowage, modernized driver's station including replacement of tillers by a steering wheel, new final drives, new all-internal fuel system and improved suspension.
* Achzarit - T-55 tank converted into heavy armored personnel carrier.
* VT-55A captured from Egyptians or Syrians and modified to meet the needs of Israeli Army. It has a post mount forward of commanders cupola for 50cal HMG.
* VT-55KS captured from Egyptians or Syrians and modified to meet the needs of Israeli Army.
* T-54 converted into an improvised APC. Rebuilt/modified by the Israeli Army who quickly passed them on to the South Lebanon Christian militias. It has the armour screens around turret ring and armour shields on either side of drivers hatch. Known as the Tiran or T-54 APC, it consists of 5 crewmembers and an unknown number of transported troops.

Pakistan

*Al-Zarar - Even though it is a Type 59 upgrade, Pakistan provides suitable upgrade facility for foreign armies equipped with T-54/55 or Type 59 tanks.

Peru

Around 300 T-55 has been acquired in the 70s from the Soviet Union and since then Peru has been trying to upgrade its fleet, one try was made in Argentina in the late 1980s without success, and a simpler one consisting of replacing the V-55 engine with a Caterpillar diesel which didn't work as expected. In the last years has been another try, an the two local-made upgrades has been rejected too, as follow:

* T-55M1 "Leon 1" - Proposed by the Peruvian engineer Sergio Casanave, the project was named "DIEDE 2005" in collaboration with the Peruvian Army, this upgrade improves the T-55 to T-55M1 standard with a new Fire Control System, Laser Range Finder, twin SACLOS "9M14-2T" HEAT tandem system (Yugoimport design) "Malyutka 2M" (NATO code: AT-3D Sagger) ATGM launchers on each side of the turret and the ability to fire 100 mm M-43A1 APFSDS (Produced by Diseños Casanave S.A.). At least three prototypes was made. Rejected by the Peruvian Army.

* T-55M2A1 "Leon 2" - Designed by Diseños Casanave S.A., include a new thermal fire control system and optics, ability to fire M-43A1/M-43A3 APFSDS ammo (up to 2,600 m) with 800 mm RHAe penetration after ERA, and 9M117 (3UBK23-1) laser beam-riding anti-tank missile (AT-10) "Bastion" laser guided ammo up to 6,000 m with 750 mm RHAe penetration after ERA, engine upgrade up to 630 hp, and new night vision system. At least three prototypes was made. Rejected by the Peruvian Army.

People's Republic of China

* Type 59 - copy of T-54A
* Type 69 - redesigned Type 59
* Type 79 - Type 69 with 105 mm gun

Poland

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* Polish-produced tanks often have different stowage arrangements. The arrangement includes a rectangular box mounted on the left side of the turret, a smaller square stowage box on the left side of the turret-rear, and a slightly different rear decking.
* T-54AD - Polish T-54A command tank with additional radios and a radio range of 100 miles. [ [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/russia/t-54.htm Global Security.com] ]
* T-54AM - Polish and Czechoslovak production of the T-54B under license.
* T-55U - Polish T-54 upgrade. [ [http://free.polbox.pl/l/leszekch/mveh.html free.polbox.pl ] ]
* T-54 fitted with stand-off armour plates fitted to hull front and wire mesh screens around the turret to provide protection against ATGM.
* T-55L - New-build polish versions of the T-55A.
* T-55LD - Polish T-54 tanks rebuilt to T-55A standard. 200 T-54 tanks have been rebuilt in 1975.
* T-55AD-1 - Polish T-55A command tank with additional R-130 radio and reduced ammo storage to 38 rounds. Technika Wojska Polskiego, Bellona, Warsaw 1998.]
* T-55AD-2 - Polish T-55A command tank with additional R-123 radio and reduced ammo storage to 38 rounds.
* T-55AM "Merida" - Polish version of T-55AM developed between late 1970s and early 1980s, fitted with a new SKO "Merida" (SKO stands for "System Kierowania Ogniem" - fire control system) fire control system with cross-wind sensor and a new CCDN-1 (CCDN stands for "celownik-dalmierz dzienno-nocny" - day/night sight-rangefinder) day/night sight-rangefinder system. The tank is also equipped with additional passive armour (type BDD) on the hull and turret front, and with a protection system that consists of a laser-warning system WPL-1 "Bobrawa" ("Wykrywacz Promieniowania Laserowego") and WWGD-1 "Erb" ("Wyrzutnia Wybuchowych Granatów Dymnych") and WPD-1 "Tellur" ("Wyrzutnia Pocisków Dymnych") 81 mm smoke grenade launchers, both in clusters of 8 on each side of the turret. Finally, the original engine has been replaced by an upgraded W-55 WAX developing 613 hp (457 kW).Technika Wojska Polskiego, Bellona, Warsaw 1998 page 87] Some were fitted with new radio sets like the R-123 or R-173. Considered to be a second generation MBT because of the high degree of modernization.
** T-55AMS - Version without armour on the hull front, can be fitted with mine-clearing systems ZB/WLWD or KMT-5 or a dozer blade USCz-55. One per company.
** T-55AD-1M - T-55AM "Merida" command tank with additional R-130 radio and reduced ammo storage to 38 rounds.
** T-55AD-2M - T-55AM "Merida" command tank with additional R-123 radio and reduced ammo storage to 38 rounds.
* T-55AM2BP - Polish licence version of the Czech T-55AM2B. For export only.
* W-125SC - T-55A, or WZT-1 and BLG-67, converted into a transporter erector launcher of the S-125SC "Newa-SC" air-defence missile system. A fully rotating launcher for 4 missiles 5V27 is replacing the turret. Outer launcher arms fold against inner when moving and because of that two missiles are carried when moving and four when the vehicle is holding position.
* WZT-1 ("Wóz Zabezpieczenia Technicznego" - Armoured recovery vehicle) - Polish ARV based on soviet BTS-2. It was build on T-55 and later T-55A hull. It was produced between 1970 and 1978. [ [http://softland.com.pl/aerojac/aaa/wzt-1/wzt1.htm softland.com.pl] ]
* WZT-2 ("Wóz Zabezpieczenia Technicznego" - Armoured recovery vehicle) - Polish ARV build on T-55 hull. It was build to perform repairs on T-55 and T-55A tanks. When it entered service in 1973 it was not only the best ARV in the whole Warsaw Pact but probably in the whole world. It is still able to carry out tasks that NATO gives ARVs of its class. Unlike the T-55 and the WZT-1, the WZT-2 is still the basic ARV of the Polish army used for field repairs. It's able to perform repairs not only on Soviet tanks like the T-54/T-55 and T-72 but also on Polish PT-91 and German Leopard 2A4. However because all tanks currently in Polish service weigh more than 40 tons it is unable to tow them. It is used to tow lighter vehicles like BWP-1 and 2S1. A total number of 600 was produced. 80 were in service as of 2004. Some are used by Ratownictwo Kolejowe (Railroad emergency respond services). Many have private owners who bought them from the Polish Army. 196 of these vehicles were also sold to India. The vehicles were also bought by Iraq and Yugoslavia. [ [http://www.ratownictwo.org.pl/categories.php?cat_id=149 ratownictwo.org.pl] ]
* T-55A engineer tank, with KMT-4 mine plow on the front and boxes containing PW-LWD rapid explosive breaching system (similar to Giant Viper).
*IWT ("Inżynieryjny Wóz Torujący") - Polish combat engineer vehicle, based on the WZT-2 and fitted with a hydraulic dozer blade, a hydraulic arm and mine-clearing systems PW-LWD and KMT-5. It uses DShK 1938/46 heavy machine gun for antiaircraft protection. Entered service in very small numbers in 1978.
*BLG-60 - East German/Polish scissors-type bridge layer.

Rhodesia

*T-55LD with South African radios and headsets as those used on the Eland 90 AFVs instead of the Soviet-manufactured radios. These used a throat-activated microphone system and were far superior to the Soviet models. In Soviet tanks the radios were operated by the loader and the Rhodesians, reasoning that the he had more than enough to keep him occupied, moved the radios to the tank's commander's position.

Romania

* T-55AM - General designator for three different models in Romanian service: the Russian T-55AM "Volna", the Czech T-55AM2 "Kladivo" and a locally upgraded model with "Ciclop" fire control system of the TR-85 (sometimes incorrectly called T-55AM2R ).
* TR-580 - (TR-580 stands for "Tank Romanesc 580" - Romanian Tank 580) Romanian variant of the T-55 with a new hull and stretched chassis with 6 road wheels and metal side skirts. TR-580 still uses the 580hp engine of the T-55 (hence the name). The TR-580 was developed from 1974 and some 400 were build between 1979 and 1985. The tank's official designator is TR-77-580 (Romanian tank Model 1977 with 580 hp engine) but initially it was simply called TR-77 or M1977 in the West. [http://www.actrus.ro/reviste/3_2000/art25.html actrus.ro] ]
** TM-800 - Improved export model of the TR-580.
*** TER-800 - Armoured recovery vehicle version of the TM-800.
** TR-580M - Improved version with laser rangefinder mounted over barrel.
** TCZ-580 - Recovery variant with the same specialized equipment as the Slovak VT-55A.
* TR-85 - (TR-85 stands for "Tank Romanesc 1985" - Romanian Tank 1985) with new turret, new suspension,new targeting system and a German engine.(Tr 85 M1-Latest model respects NATO standards)

erbia

* T-55H - highly modernized version. Mobility improvement is: engine of increased power by building-in new, domestically produced, high pressure pump, building in new water cooler and oil cooler and modification of transmission by building-in new toothed wheels.Firepower improvement: building-in antiaircraft machine gun 12,7mm M-87 and building-in coupled machine-gun 7,62mm M-84.Protection improving in: building –in explosive protective armor, building –in anti cumulative shields, building –in new fire extinguisher using halon, modernization of device for nuclear protection, building –in of smoke scren laying active protection system (active masking) and building –in assembly block for fixing crewis cupola lid partly closed.Other improvements are building –in device for self-entrenching, building –in device for digging and deactivating mines KMT-6, building –in assembly block for fixing crewi's cupola lid, partly closed and modernization of active IR (infrared) devices and converting them into passive.
* VIU-55 Munja - T-55 converted into engineering IFV, similar to Israeli IDF Achzarit

lovakia

*UOS-155 "Belarty" ("Univerzálny Odtarasovací Stroj") - Slovak combat engineer vehicle fitted with mine cleaner. The vehicle consist of a T-55 chassis with the armoured turret (with a hydraulic excavator fitted with shovel) of the UDS-214 engineer vehicle. [ [http://www.brigadyr.ic.cz/pozemni_technika/zenijni_den_06/uos155/uos155.htm brigadyr.ic.cz] ]
**UOS-155B ("Univerzálny Odtarasovací Stroj") - UOS-155 "Belarty" with hydraulic excavator fitted with mine clearing device.

lovenia

* M-55 S - One of the latest derivatives of the T-55 was carried out in Slovenia by the STO RAVNE company and engineers of the Israeli company Elbit. Slovenia modernized 30 T-55 tanks in the inventory of its armed forces. The latest M-55 S upgrade was handed over to the customer in May 1999. A 105-mm gun with a thermal sleeve was installed, with the tank's armour was considerably reinforced by Rafael explosive reactive armour attached to the hull and the turret. The fire control system was also improved through the integration of a digital ballistic computer. The gunner has the two-axis stabilized Fontana SGS-55 day-and-night sight with an integral laser rangefinder. In addition to the integral optic sight the commander has the Fontana COMTOS-55 sight with an independent line-of-sight stabilization, which allows him to acquire targets and lay the gun independently if required. The driver has the Fontana CODRIS combined day/night observation periscope. The laser illumination warning receiver LIRD-1A was mated with front-mounted smoke grenade dischargers IS-6 and can be automatically activated in an emergency. Modernization of the V-12 diesel engine resulted in an increase in power from 520 hp to 600 hp. Replacement of this engine with a German 850hp MAN diesel engines is being considered. The running gear has rubber side skirts and the tank was outfitted with new rubber and metal tracks. Communications aids were also improved.
** M-55 S-1 - Fitted with an additional box mounted on the rear of the turret bin - the function of which is unknown.
** M-55 S-USP or LM-55 or USP9 - Driver trainer vehicle. This is actually a T-55 tank with its turret replaced by a training enclosure with seats for an instructor and two trainee drivers. A third driver is in the normal driving position of the vehicle.

udan

*Digna - Sudanese produced T-55 copy. [ [http://mic.sd/images/products/wepons/ar/endb/dbDIGNA.htm dbDIGNA] ]

Ukraine

*T-55 version modernized by Kharkiv Morozov Machine Building Design Bureau fitted with 4 smoke grenade discharges cluster fitted to each side of turret front and laser rangefinder fitted above main armament.
*T-55 version modernized by Kharkiv Morozov Machine Building Design Bureau fitted with 125mm KBM1 smoothbore gun.
*T-55AGM - Ukrainian T-54/T-55 modernization. It brings up the T-54/T-55 tanks to T-80 standard. It can also be applied to Chinese made Type 59 and Soviet T-62. It is fitted with 5TDFM, two-stroke liquid-cooled multi-fuel supercharged diesel engine with boxing pistons which develops 850 hp (634 kW), improved running gear, automated movement control system with a steering handlebar control, additional passive protection, built-in explosive reactive armour, countermeasures system, new fire suppression system with over-ride facilities at the commander's station, automatic loader which holds 18 rounds and anti-aircraft machine gun that can be aimed and fired from within the turret under a complete armour protection. The anti-aircraft machine gun is installed on the commander's cupola and is intended to be fired at air and ground targets. The buyer can choose between two main armament options: 125 mm KBM1 smoothbore gun or 120 mm KBM2 smoothbore gun. Both of them with use of enhanced performance conventional ammunition and barrel-launched ATGM can defeat modern tanks form distance of 2000-3000 m and up to 5,000 m using the ATGM. The tank can carry at least 30 rounds. The 125 mm KBM1 smoothbore gun weighs 2,5 tonnes, has a barrel length of 6 m (48 calibers) and can fire APFSDS, HEAT and HE-FRAG rounds while 120 mm KBM2 smoothbore gun weighs 2,63 tonnes, has a barrel length of 6 m (50 calibers) and can fire all types of ammunition that meet the requirements of NATO standards and Ukrainian-made ATGM. Both guns have normal recoil length of 26-30 cm and maximum recoil length of 31 cm. The tank can be armed with either the KT-7.62 or the PKT-7.62 coaxial machine gun and can carry 3,000 rounds for it. The tank can also be armed with either KT-12.7 or NSVT-12.7 heavy machine gun for AA protection and can carry 450 rounds for it. The approximate successful range is 2 km during day and 800 m during night. The AA HMG can be elevated between -5 to +70 degrees. The remote control for anti-aircraft machine gun is stabilized in the vertical axis during automatic mode (by using the TKN-5 sight) and is using the PZU-7 sight for semi-automatic mode. [ [http://morozov.com.ua/eng/body/t55agma.php?menu=def2.php morozov.com] ]
*T-55-64 - With T-64 suspension and hull.
*T-55MV - The former Soviet Army tank repair plants number 7 in Kiev and number 17 in Lvov in the Ukraine have been promoting the T-55MV on the world market for several years. The turret, hull front section and side skirts of this version are protected by the Kontakt-5 explosive reactive armour capable of withstanding hits from the American M829 120mm armour-piercing depleted uranium ammunition. The main armament of the T-55MV was improved by employing the 9M117 "Bastion" (AT-10 Stabber) ATGM which can be launched through the barrel of the standard T-54/55 rifled gun. With an effective range of 4,000 m, the 9M117 "Bastion" (AT-10 Stabber) ATGM is capable of penetrating armour equivalent to 550mm of steel plate. If the missile is equipped with a tandem warhead, its armour penetration capability increases. The Volna fire control system with its digital ballistic computer was also fitted. Syria was the first country to order 200 of its T-55s upgraded into the T-55MV.

Yugoslavia

*TZI-JVBT - Czechoslovak JVBT-55A in service with Yugoslav Army.
*T-55TZI - Yugoslavian modification of the VT-55A armoured recovery vehicle.

Gallery

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