- Alfonso, Count of Poitou
Alfonso or Alphonse (
11 November 1220– 21 August 1271) was the Count of Poitoufrom 1225 and Count of Toulouse (as Alfonso II) from 1247.
Alphonse was a son of Louis VIII,
King of Franceand Blanche of Castile. He was a younger brother of Louis IX of Franceand an older brother of Charles I of Sicily.
The Treaty of Paris stipulated that a brother of King Louis was to marry
Joan of Toulouse, daughter of Raymond VII of Toulouse, and so in 1237 Alphonse married her. [Fawtier 123]
By the terms of his father's will he received an "
appanage" of Poitouand Auvergne. He won the battle of Taillebourgin the Saintonge Warwith his brother Louis IX, against a revolt allied with king Henry III of England.
He took part in two crusades with his brother, St Louis, in 1248 (the
Seventh Crusade) and in 1270 (the Eighth Crusade). For the first of these, he raised a large sum and a substantial force, arriving in Damiettaon October 24, 1249, after the town had already been captured. [Strayer, 496-7] He sailed for home on August 10, 1250. [Strayer 505] His father-in-law had died while he was away, and he went directly to Toulouse to take possession. [Hallam 218] There was some resistance to his accession as count, which was suppressed with the help of his mother Blanche of Castile who was acting as regent in the absence of Louis IX.Hallam 258] The county of Toulouse, since them, was joined to the Alphonse's "appanage".
In 1252, on the death of his mother, Blanche of Castile, he was joint regent with
Charles of Anjouuntil the return of Louis IX. During that time he took a great part in the campaigns and negotiations which led to the Treaty of Paris in 1259, under which King Henry III of Englandrecognized his loss of continental territory to France(including Normandy, Maine, Anjou, and Poitou) in exchange for France withdrawing support from English rebels.
His main work was on his own estates. There he repaired the evils of the Albigensian war and made a first attempt at administrative centralization, thus preparing the way for union with the crown. The charter known as "Alphonsine," granted to the town of
Riom, became the code of public law for Auvergne. Honest and moderate, protecting the middle classes against exactions of the nobles, he exercised a happy influence upon the south, in spite of his naturally despotic character and his continual and pressing need of money. He is noted for ordering the first recorded local expulsion of Jews, when he did so in Poitou in 1249.
Aside from the crusades, Alfonso stayed primarily in Paris, governing his estates by officials, inspectors who reviewed the officials work, and a constant stream of messages. [Petit-Dutaillis 299-300]
When Louis IX again engaged in a crusade (the
Eighth Crusade), Alphonse again raised a large sum of money and accompanied his brother. [Strayer 511] . This time, however, he did not return to France, dying while on his way back, probably at Savonain Italy, on August 21, 1271.
His death without heirs raised some questions as to the succession to his lands. One possibility was that they should revert to the crown, another that they should be redistributed to his family. The latter was claimed by Charles of Anjou, but in 1283
Parlementdecided that the County of Toulouse should revert to the crown, if there were no male heirs. Alfonso's wife Joan (who died five days after Alfonso) had attempted to dispose of some of her inherited lands in her will. Joan was the only surviving child and heiress of Raymond VII, Count of Toulouse, Duke of Narbonne, and Marquis of Provence, so under Provencal and French law, the lands should have gone to her nearest male relative. But, her will was invalidated by Parlement in 1274 One specific bequest in Alfonso's will, giving his wife's lands in the Comtat Venaissinto the Holy See, was allowed, and it became a Papal territory, a status that it retained until 1791.
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1= 1. Alfonso, Count of Poitou
Louis VIII of France
Blanche of Castile
Philip II of France
Isabelle of Hainaut
Alfonso VIII of Castile
Leonora of England
Louis VII of France
Adèle of Champagne
Baldwin V, Count of Hainaut
Margaret I, Countess of Flanders
Sancho III of Castile
13= 13. Blanca of Navarre
Henry II of England
Eleanor of Aquitaine
Louis VI of France
Adelaide of Maurienne
Theobald II, Count of Champagne
19= 19. Matilda of Carinthia
Baldwin IV, Count of Hainaut
21= 21. Alice of Namur
Thierry, Count of Flanders
Sibylla of Anjou
Alfonso VII of León
Berenguela of Barcelona
García Ramírez of Navarre
27= 27. Marguerite de l'Aigle
Geoffrey V, Count of Anjou
29= 29. Matilda of England
30= 30. William X, Duke of Aquitaine
Aenor de Châtellerault
*cite book | title=The Capetian Kings of France | first=Robert | last=Fawtier | year=1960 | isbn=0312119003 (translated by Lionel Butler and R. J. Adam)
* (translated by E. D. Hunt)
* B. Ledain, " _fr. Histoire d'Alphonse, frère de Saint Louis, et du comté de Poitou sous son administration (1241-1271)" (Poitiers, 1869)
* E. Bourarie, " _fr. Saint Louis et Alphonse de Poitiers" (Paris, 1870)
A. Molinier, " _fr. Étude sur l'administration de Saint Louis et d'Alphonse de Poitiers" (Toulouse, 1880)
* A. Molinier, " _fr. Correspondance administrative d'Alphonse de Poitiers" in the " _fr. Collection de documents inédits pour servir à l'histoire de France" (Paris, 1894 and 1895).
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