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Shunroku Hata

Shunroku Hata

Infobox Military Person
name=Hata Shunroku
lived=(26 July 1879 - 10 May 1962)
placeofbirth=Fukushima Prefecture
placeofdeath=Tokyo, Japan


caption= Japanese General Hata Shunroku
nickname=
allegiance=Empire of Japan
branch=
serviceyears=1901-1945
rank=Field Marshal
commands=
unit=
battles=Russo-Japanese War
World War II
awards=
family=
laterwork=

Field Marshal nihongo| Shunroku Hata|畑俊六| Hata Shunroku|extra=26 July 1879 - 10 May 1962, was a field marshal in the Imperial Japanese Army during World War II. He was the last surviving Japanese military officer with a marshal's rank.

Biography

Early years

Hata was a native of Fukushima prefecture, where his father was an ex-samurai of the Aizu domain. At the age of 12, the family relocated to Hakodate, Hokkaido, but at the age of 14, he was accepted into the prestigious First Tokyo Middle School. However, his father died the same year, and unable to afford the tuitions, he enrolled in the Army Cadet School instead, going on to graduate of the 12th class of the Imperial Japanese Army Academy, in 1901 as a second lieutenant in the artillery. Hata served in the Russo-Japanese War. He graduated from the 22nd class of the Army Staff College with top rankings in November 1910.

Sent as a military attaché to Germany in March 1912, Hata stayed in Europe throughout World War I as a military observer. He was promoted to major in September 1914 and to lieutenant colonel in July 1918, while still in Europe, and he stayed on as a member of the Japanese delegation to the Versailles Peace Treaty negotiations in February 1919.

On his return to Japan, Hata was given command of the IJA 16th Field Artillery Regiment in July 1921, and was promoted to major general and commander of the IJA 4th Heavy Field Artillery Brigade in March 1926.

Hata was subsequently assigned to the strategic planning division of the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff, serving as chief of the Fourth Bureau in July 1927 and Chief of the First Bureau in August 1928.

Hata was promoted to lieutenant general in August 1931 and became Inspector General of Artillery Training. He was then given a field command, that of the IJA 14th Division in August 1933. After serving as head of the Imperial Japanese Army Air Service from December 1935, he became commander of the Taiwan Army of Japan in 1936. [Ammenthorp, The Generals of World War II]

Second Sino-Japanese War

His rise after the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War was then very rapid: Military Councilor, Inspector General of Military Training and promotion rank of general all in late 1937. He was appointed as commanding general of the Central China Expeditionary Army in February 1938, to replace General Matsui Iwane, who had been recalled to Japan over the Nanjing Incident. Hata became Senior Aide-de-Camp to Emperor Showa in May 1939 followed by a stint as Minister of War from August 1939 to July 1940 during the terms of Prime Minister Nobuyuki Abe and Mitsumasa Yonai.

Hata returned to China as commander-in-chief of the China Expeditionary Army in March 1941. He was the main commander at the time of Zhejiang-Jiangxi Campaign, during which around 250 000 Chinese civilians were killed, and the Changjiao Massacre.

He was requested to take command of the Second General Army, based in Hiroshima from 1944 to 1945 in preparation for the anticipated Allied invasion of the Japanese home islands. He was awarded the rank of field marshal on 2 June 1944.

Hata received "Ultimatum to surrender" from Soviet general Georgii Shelakhov [ Surrender of the Kwantung Army. Military Memoirs. [http://militera.lib.ru/memo/russian/beloborodov/09.html] ] [ Thunder in the East. Vladimir Karpov. 2005. [http://www.gudok.ru/index.php/print/27561] ] in Harbin on August 18, 1945. [ Surrender of the Kwantung Army. Military Memoirs. [http://militera.lib.ru/memo/russian/beloborodov/09.html] ] He was one of the senior generals who agreed with the decision to surrender, but asked that he be stripped of his title of Field Marshal in atonement for the Army’s failures in the war. [Budge, Pacific War Online Encyclopedia]

Judgement

Hata was arrested by the American occupation authorities after the end of the war, and charged with war crimes. In 1948, as a result of the International Military Tribunal for the Far East, he sentenced to life imprisonment under the charges of: “Conspiracy, waging aggressive war, disregarding his duty to prevent atrocities”. [Maga, Judgement at Tokyo] He was paroled in 1955, and died in 1962.

Hata's brother, Eitaro Hata (1872-1930), was also a general in the Imperial Japanese Army, and commanding officer of the Kwangtung Army.

References

Books

*cite book
last = Dupuy
first = Trevor N.
year = 1992
title = The Harper Encyclopedia of Military Biography
publisher = HarperCollins Publishers
location = New York
id = ISBN 0-7858-0437-4

*cite book
last = Fuller
first = Richard
coauthors =
year = 1992
title = Shokan: Hirohito's Samurai
publisher = Arms and Armor
location = London
id = ISBN: 1-85409-151-4

*cite book
last = Hayashi
first = Saburo
coauthors = Cox, Alvin D
year = 1959
title = Kogun: The Japanese Army in the Pacific War
publisher = The Marine Corps Association.
location = Quantico, VA
id =

*cite book
last = Maga
first = Timothy P.
authorlink =
coauthors =
year = 2001
chapter =
title = Judgment at Tokyo: The Japanese War Crimes Trials
publisher = University Press of Kentucky
location =
id = ISBN 0-8131-2177-9

External links

*cite web
last = Ammenthorp
first = Steen
url = http://www.generals.dk/general/Hata/Shunroku/Japan.html
title = Hata, Shunroku
work = The Generals of World War II

*cite web
last = Budge
first = Kent
url = http://pwencycl.kgbudge.com/index.htm
title = Hata Shunroku
work = Pacific War Online Encyclopedia

Notes


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