:"Achilleus" redirects here. For the emperor with this name, see
Achilleus (emperor). For other uses, see Achilles (disambiguation)."
Greek mythology, Achilles (also Akhilleus or Achilleus; Ancient Greek: polytonic|Ἀχιλλεύς) was a Greek heroof the Trojan War, the central characterand the greatest warrior of Homer's " Iliad", which takes for its theme the "Wrath of Achilles".
Achilles also has the attributes of being the most handsome of the heroes assembled against Troy, [
Plato, "Symposium," 180a] as well as the quickest.
Later legends (beginning with a poem by
Statiusin the first century AD) state that Achilles was invulnerable in all of his body except for his heel. These legends state that Achilles was killed in battle by an arrow to the heel, and so an " Achilles' heel" has come to mean a person's principal weakness.
Achilles was the son of the
nymph Thetisand Peleus, the king of the Myrmidons. Zeusand Poseidonhad been rivals for the hand of Thetis until Prometheus, the fire-bringer, warned Zeus of a prophecy that Thetis would bear a son greater than his father. For this reason, the two gods withdrew their pursuit, and had her wed Peleus. [ Aeschylus, "Prometheus Bound" 755-768; Pindar, "Nemean" 5.34-37, "Isthmian" 8.26-47; " Poeticon astronomicon" (ii.15)] As with most mythology there is a tale which offers an alternative version of these events: in " Argonautica" (iv.760) Heraalludes to Thetis's chaste resistance to the advances of Zeus, that Thetis had been so loyal to Hera's marriage bond that she coolly rejected him.
According to the incomplete poem "Achilleis" written by
Statiusin the first century AD, and to no other sources, when Achilles was born Thetis tried to make him immortal by dipping him in the river Styx. However, he was left vulnerable at the part of the body she held him by, his heel. (See Achilles heel, Achilles' tendon.) It is not clear if this version of events was known earlier. In another version of this story, Thetis anointed the boy in ambrosiaand put him on top of a fire to burn away the mortal parts of his body. She was interrupted by Peleus and abandoned both father and son in a rage. [ Apollonius of Rhodes, " Argonautica" 4.869-479.]
However none of the sources before Statius makes any reference to this general invulnerability. To the contrary, in the "Iliad" Homer mentions Achilles being wounded: in Book 21 the
Paeonianhero Asteropaeus, son of Pelagon, challenged Achilles by the river Scamander. He cast two spears at once, one grazed Achilles' elbow, "drawing a spurt of blood."
Also in the fragmentary poems of the
Epic Cyclein which we can find description of the hero's death, Kùpria (unknown author), " Aithiopis" by Arctinus of Miletus, "Ilias Mikrà" by Lesche of Mytilene, Iliou pèrsis by Arctinus of Miletus, there is no trace of any reference to his general invulnerability or his famous weakness (heel); in the later vase-paintings presenting Achilles' death, the arrow (or in many cases, arrows) hit his body.
Peleus entrusted Achilles to
Chironthe Centaur, on Mt. Pelion, to be raised. [ Hesiod, "Catalogue of Women", fr. 204.87-89 MW; "Iliad" 11.830-32]
Achilles in the Trojan War
Giovanni Battista Tiepolo]
The first two lines of the "Iliad" read::Polytonic|μῆνιν ἄειδε θεὰ Πηληϊάδεω Ἀχιλῆος:Polytonic|οὐλομένην, ἣ μυρί' Ἀχαιοῖς ἄλγε' ἔθηκεν,
:Sing Goddess of the rage, of Peleus' son Achilles:the accursed rage that brought pain to thousands of the Achaeans.
Achilles is the only mortal to experience consuming rage ("menis"). His anger is at some times wavering, but at other times he cannot be cooled. The humanization of Achilles by the events of the war is an important theme of the narrative.
When the Greeks left for the Trojan War, they accidentally stopped in
Mysia, ruled by King Telephus. In the resulting battle, Achilles gave Telephus a wound that would not heal; Telephus consulted an oracle, who stated that "he that wounded shall heal". Guided by the oracle, he arrived to Argos, where Achilles heals him in order that he become their guide for the voyage to Troy. According to other reports in Euripides' lost play about Telephus, he went to Aulispretending to be a beggar and asked Achilles to heal his wound. Achilles refused, claiming to have no medical knowledge. Alternatively, Telephus held Orestes for ransom, the ransom being Achilles' aid in healing the wound. Odysseusreasoned that the spear had inflicted the wound; therefore, the spear must be able to heal it. Pieces of the spear were scraped off onto the wound and Telephus was healed. This is an example of sympathetic magic.
Cycnus of Colonae
According to the
Cypria[ [http://www.stoa.org/hopper/text.jsp?doc=Stoa:text:2003.01.0004 Proclus' Summary of the Cypria] ] of the Epic Cycleand traditions related by Plutarchand the Byzantine scholar John Tzetzes, once the Greek ships arrived in Troy, Achilles fought and killed Cycnus of Colonae, a son of Poseidon. Cycnus was invulnerable, except for his head. [Plutarch, "Greek Questions" 28; Tzetzes, "On Lycophron"]
According to the
Cypria(the part of the Epic Cyclethat tells the events of the Trojan War before Achilles' Wrath), when the Achaeans desired to return home, they were restrained by Achilles, who afterwards attacked the cattle of Aeneas, sacked neighboring cities and killed Troilus. [ [http://www.stoa.org/hopper/text.jsp?doc=Stoa:text:2003.01.0004 Proclus' Summary of the Cypria] ]
Dares Phrygius' "Account of the Destruction of Troy", [ [http://homepage.mac.com/cparada/GML/DaresTW.html Dares' account of the destruction of Troy, Greek Mythology Link. ] ] the Latin summary through which the story of Achilles was transmitted to medieval Europe, Troiluswas a young Trojan prince, the youngest of King Priam's (or sometimes Apollo) and Hecuba's five legitimate sons. Despite his youth, he was one of the main Trojan war leaders. Prophecies linked Troilus' fate to that of Troy and so he was ambushed and decapitated upon an altar-omphalos of Apollo by Achilles. In this version of the myth, Achilles' death came in retribution for a sacrilege he had previously committed, his decapitation of Troilusupon an altar-omphalos of Apollo. [James Davidson, "Zeus Be Nice Now" in "London Review of Books;" 19 July 2007 [http://www.lrb.co.uk/v29/n14/davi02_.html] accessed October 23rd, 2007] Achilles would late die in retribution for this sacrilegious act. Ancient writers treated Troilus as the epitome of a dead child mourned by his parents. Had Troilus lived to adulthood, the First Vatican Mythographerclaimed Troy would have been invincible.
In the "Iliad"
Iliad" is the most famous narrative of Achilles' deeds in the Trojan War. The Homeric epic only covers a few weeks of the war, and does not narrate Achilles' death. It begins with Achilles' withdrawal from battle after he is dishonored by Agamemnon, the commander of the Achaeanforces. Agamemnon had taken a woman named Chryseisas his slave. Her father Chryses, a priest of Apollo, begged Agamemnon to return her to him. Agamemnon refused and Apollo sent a plague amongst the Greeks. The prophet Calchascorrectly determined the source of the troubles but would not speak unless Achilles vowed to protect him. Achilles did so and Calchas declared Chryseis must be returned to her father. Agamemnon consented, but then commanded that Achilles' battle prize Briseisbe brought to replace Chryseis. Angry at the dishonor (and as he says later, because he loved Briseis) ["Iliad" 9.334-343.] and at the urging of Thetis, Achilles refused to fight or lead his troops alongside the other Greek forces.
As the battle turned against the Greeks, Nestor declared that the Trojans were winning because Agamemnon had angered Achilles, and urged the king to appease the warrior. Agamemnon agreed and sent
Odysseusand two other chieftains to Achilles with the offer of the return of Briseis and other gifts. Achilles refused and urged the Greeks to sail home as he was planning to do.
Eventually, however, hoping to retain glory despite his absence from the battle, Achilles prayed to his mother Thetis, asking her to plead with Zeus to allow the Trojans to push back the Greek forces. The Trojans, led by
Hector, subsequently pushed the Greek army back toward the beaches and assaulted the Greek ships. With the Greek forces on the verge of absolute destruction, Patroclus led the Myrmidonsinto battle, though Achilles remained at his camp. Patroclus succeeded in pushing the Trojans back from the beaches, but was killed by Hector before he could lead a proper assault on the city of Troy.
Achilles versus Hector
After receiving the news of the death of Patroclus from
Antilochus, the son of Nestor, Achilles grieved over his friend and held many funeral games in his honor. His mother Thetis came to comfort the distraught Achilles. She persuaded Hephaestusto make new armor for him, in place of the armor that Patroclus had been wearing which was taken by Hector. The new armor included the Shield of Achilles, described in great detail by the poet.
Enraged over the death of Patroclus, Achilles ended his refusal to fight and took the field killing many men in his rage but always seeking out Hector. Achilles even engaged in battle with the river god
Scamanderwho became angry that Achilles was choking his waters with all the men he killed. The god tried to drown Achilles but was stopped by Heraand Hephaestus. Zeus himself took note of Achilles' rage and sent the gods to restrain him so that he would not go on to sack Troy itself, seeming to show that the unhindered rage of Achilles could defy fate itself as Troy was not meant to be destroyed yet. Finally Achilles found his prey. Achilles chased Hector around the wall of Troy three times before Athena, in the form of Hector's favorite and dearest brother, Deiphobus, persuaded Hector to stop running and fight Achilles face to face. After Hector realized the trick, he knew his death was inevitable and accepted his fate. Hector, wanting to go down fighting, charged at Achilles with his only weapon, his sword. Achilles got his vengeance, killing Hector with a single blow to the neck. He then tied Hector's body to his chariotand dragged it around the battlefield for nine days.
With the assistance of the god
Hermes, Hector's father, Priam, went to Achilles' tent to plead with Achilles to permit him to perform for Hector his funeral rites. The final passage in the "Iliad" is Hector's funeral, after which the doom of Troy was just a matter of time.
Achilles, after his temporary truce with Priam, fought and killed the Amazonian warrior queen
Memnon, and the death of Achilles
Following the death of Patroclus, Achilles's closest companion was Nestor's son
Antilochus. When Memnonof Ethiopia killed Antilochus, Achilles was once again drawn onto the battlefield to seek revenge. The fight between Achilles and Memnon over Antilochus echoes that of Achilles and Hector over Patroclus, except that Memnon (unlike Hector) was also the son of a goddess.
Many Homeric scholars argued that episode inspired many details in the "Iliad"'s description of the death of Patroclus and Achilles' reaction to it. The episode then formed the basis of the cyclic epic "
Aethiopis", which was composed after the "Iliad", possibly in the 7th century BC. The "Aethiopis" is now lost, except for scattered fragments quoted by later authors.
As predicted by
Hectorwith his dying breath, Achilles was thereafter killed by Paris—either by an arrow (to the heel according to Statius), or in an older version by a knife to the back while visiting Polyxena, a princess of Troy. In some versions, the god Apolloguided Paris' arrow.Both versions conspicuously deny the killer any sort of valor owing to the common conception that Paris was a coward and not the man his brother Hector was, and Achilles remained undefeated on the battlefield. His bones were mingled with those of Patroclus, and funeral games were held. He was represented in the lost Trojan War epic of Arctinus of Miletusas living after his death in the island of Leukeat the mouth of the river Danube(see below).
Paris was later killed by
Philoctetesusing the enormous bow of Heracles.
The fate of Achilles' armor
Achilles' armor was the object of a feud between
Odysseusand Telamonian Ajax (Ajax the greater). They competed for it by giving speeches on why they were the bravest after Achilles to their Trojan prisoners, who after considering both men came to a consensus. Odysseus won. Furious, Ajax cursed Odysseus, which earned the ire of Athena. Athena temporarily made Ajax mad with grief and anguish as he began killing sheep, thinking they were his comrades. After a while, Athena had lifted the madness and Ajax had seen that he had actually been killing sheep. In his embarrassment, he then committed suicide. Odysseus eventually gave the armor to Neoptolemus, the son of Achilles.
Achilles and Patroclus
Achilles' relationship with Patroclus is a key aspect of his myth. Its exact nature has been a subject of dispute in both the classical period and modern times. In the "
Iliad", they appeared to be generally portrayed as a model of deep and loyal friendship. However, commentators from the classical period to today have tended to interpret the relationship through the lens of their own cultures. Thus, in 5th century BC Athens the relationship was commonly interpreted as pederastic. Contemporary readers are more likely to interpret the two heroes either as non-sexual "war buddies" or as an egalitarian homosexual couple.
The cult of Achilles in antiquity
There was an archaic
heroic cultof Achilles on the White Island, "Leuce", in the Black Seaoff the modern coasts of Romaniaand Ukraine, with a temple and an oraclewhich survived into the Roman period. [Guy Hedreen, "The Cult of Achilles in the Euxine" "Hesperia" 60.3 (July 1991), pp. 313-330.]
In the lost epic "
Aithiopis", a continuation of the " Iliad" attributed to Arktinus of Miletos, Achilles’ mother Thetis returned to mourn him and removed his ashes from the pyre and took them to Leuce at the mouths of the Danube. There the Achaeans raised a tumulus for him and celebrated funeral games. Pliny's Natural History(IV.27.1) mentions a tumulusthat is no longer evident ("Insula Akchillis tumulo eius viri clara"), on the island consecrated to him, located at a distance of fifty Roman miles from Peuceby the Danube Delta, and the temple there. Pausanias has been told that the island is "covered with forests and full of animals, some wild, some tame. In this island there is also Achilles’ temple and his statue” (III.19.11). Ruins of a square temple 30 meters to a side, possibly that dedicated to Achilles, were discovered by Captain Kritzikly in 1823, but there has been no modern archeological work done on the island. Pomponius Melatells that Achilles is buried in the island named Achillea, between Boristhene and Ister ("De situ orbis", II, 7). And the Greek geographer Dionysius Periegetus of Bithynia, who lived at the time of Domitian, writes that the island was called "Leuce" "because the wild animals which live there are white. It is said that there, in Leuce island, reside the souls of Achilles and other heroes, and that they wander through the uninhabited valleys of this island; this is how Jove rewarded the men who had distinguished themselves through their virtues, because through virtue they had acquired everlasting honor” ("Orbis descriptio", v. 541, quoted in Densuşianu 1913).
The "Periplus of the Euxine Sea" gives the following details: "It is said that the goddess Thetis raised this island from the sea, for her son Achilles, who dwells there. Here is his temple and his statue, an archaic work. This island is not inhabited, and goats graze on it, not many, which the people who happen to arrive here with their ships, sacrifice to Achilles. In this temple are also deposited a great many holy gifts, craters, rings and precious stones, offered to Achilles in gratitude. One can still read inscriptions in Greek and Latin, in which Achilles is praised and celebrated. Some of these are worded in Patroclus’ honor, because those who wish to be favored by Achilles, honor Patroclus at the same time. There are also in this island countless numbers of sea birds, which look after Achilles’ temple. Every morning they fly out to sea, wet their wings with water, and return quickly to the temple and sprinkle it. And after they finish the sprinkling, they clean the hearth of the temple with their wings. Other people say still more, that some of the men who reach this island, come here intentionally. They bring animals in their ships, destined to be sacrificed. Some of these animals they slaughter, others they set free on the island, in Achilles’ honor. But there are others, who are forced to come to this island by sea storms. As they have no sacrificial animals, but wish to get them from the god of the island himself, they consult Achilles’ oracle. They ask permission to slaughter the victims chosen from among the animals that graze freely on the island, and to deposit in exchange the price which they consider fair. But in case the oracle denies them permission, because there is an oracle here, they add something to the price offered, and if the oracle refuses again, they add something more, until at last, the oracle agrees that the price is sufficient. And then the victim doesn’t run away any more, but waits willingly to be caught. So, there is a great quantity of silver there, consecrated to the hero, as price for the sacrificial victims. To some of the people who come to this island, Achilles appears in dreams, to others he would appear even during their navigation, if they were not too far away, and would instruct them as to which part of the island they would better anchor their ships”. (quoted in Densuşianu)
The heroic cult of Achilles on Leuce island was widespread in antiquity, not only along the sea lanes of the Pontic Sea but also in maritime cities whose economic interests were tightly connected to the riches of the Black Sea.
Achilles from Leuce island was venerated as "Pontarches" the lord and master of the Pontic (Black) Sea, the protector of sailors and navigation. Sailors went out of their way to offer sacrifice. To Achilles of Leuce were dedicated a number of important commercial port cities of the Greek waters: Achilleion in Messenia (
Stephanus Byzantinus), Achilleios in Laconia (Pausanias, III.25,4) Nicolae Densuşianu(Densuşianu 1913) even thought he recognized Achilles in the name of Aquileiaand in the north arm of the Danube delta, the arm of Chilia ("Achileii"), though his conclusion, that Leuce had sovereign rights over Pontos, evokes modern rather than archaic sea-law."
Leuce had also a reputation as a place of healing. Pausanias (III.19,13) reports that the Delphic Pythia sent a lord of Croton to be cured of a chest wound.
Ammianus Marcellinus(XXII.8) attributes the healing to waters ("aquae") on the island.
The cult of Achilles in modern times: The Achilleion in Corfu
In the region of Gastouri (Γαστούρι) to the south of the city of
Corfu Greece, Empress of Austria Elisabeth of Bavariaalso known as Sissi built in 1890 a summer palace with Achilles as its central theme and it is a monument to platonic romanticism. The palace, naturally, was named after Achilles: "" (Αχίλλειον). This elegant structure abounds with paintings and statues of Achilles both in the main hall and in the lavish gardens depicting the heroic and tragic scenes of the Trojan war.
The name of Achilles
Achilles' name can be analyzed as a combination of Polytonic|ἄχος ("akhos") "grief" and Polytonic|λαός ("Laos") "a people, tribe, nation, etc." In other words, Achilles is an embodiment of the grief of the people, grief being a theme raised numerous times in the "Iliad" (frequently by Achilles). Achilles' role as the hero of grief forms an ironic juxtaposition with the conventional view of Achilles as the hero of "kleos" (glory, usually glory in war).
"Laos" has been construed by
Gregory Nagy, following Leonard Palmer, to mean "a corps of soldiers". With this derivation, the name would have a double meaning in the poem: When the hero is functioning rightly, his men bring grief to the enemy, but when wrongly, his men get the grief of war. The poem is in part about the misdirection of anger on the part of leadership.
The name Achilleus was a common and attested name among the Greeks early after 7th century BC [ [http://epigraphy.packhum.org/inscriptions/search_main.html Epigraphical database] gives 164 matches for Ἀχιλλεύς and 368 for Ἀχιλλε.The earliest ones: Corinth 7th c. BC,Delphi 530 BC,Attica and Elis 5th c. BC.] .It was also turned into the female form of Ἀχιλλεία,firstly attested in Attica,4th century BC, (IG II² 1617) and Achillia, as the name of a female gladiator fighting, 'Amazonia'. Roman gladiatorial games often referenced classical mythology and this seems to reference Achilles' fight with Penthesilea, but give it an extra twist of Achilles being 'played' by a woman.
Other stories about Achilles
Some post-Homeric sources claim that in order to keep Achilles safe from the war, Thetis (or, in some versions, Peleus) hides the young man at the court of
Lycomedes, king of Skyros. There, Achilles is disguised as a girl and lives among Lycomedes' daughters, perhaps under the name "Pyrrha" (the red-haired girl). With Lycomedes' daughter Deidamia, whom in the account of Statiushe rapes, Achilles there fathers a son, Neoptolemus(also called Pyrrhus, after his father's possible alias). According to this story, Odysseus learns from the prophet Calchasthat the Achaeans would be unable to capture Troy without Achilles' aid. Odysseus goes to Skyros in the guise of a peddler selling women's clothes and jewelry and places a shield and spear among his goods. When Achilles instantly takes up the spear, Odysseus sees through his disguise and convinces him to join the Greek campaign. In another version of the story, Odysseus arranges for a trumpet alarm to be sounded while he was with Lycomedes' women; while the women flee in panic, Achilles prepares to defend the court, thus giving his identity away.
In Homer's "
Odyssey", there is a passage in which Odysseus sails to the underworld and converses with the shades. One of these is Achilles, who when greeted as "blessed in life, blessed in death", responds that he would rather be a slave to the worst of masters than be king of all the dead. This has been interpreted as a rejection of his warrior life, but also as indignity to his martyrdom being slighted. Achilles was worshipped as a sea-god in many of the Greek colonieson the Black Sea, the location of the mythical "White Island" which he was said to inhabit after his death, together with many other heroes.
The kings of the Epirus claimed to be descended from Achilles through his son, Neoptolemus.
Alexander the Great, son of the Epiran princess Olympias, could therefore also claim this descent, and in many ways strove to be like his great ancestor; he is said to have visited his tomb while passing Troy.
Achilles fought and killed the Amazon Helene. Some also said he married
Medea, and that after both their deaths they were united in the Elysian Fields of Hades — as Hera promised Thetis in Apollonius' Argonautica. In some versions of the myth, Achilles has a relationship with his captive Briseis.
Achilles in Greek tragedy
The Greek tragedian
Aeschyluswrote a trilogy of plays about Achilles, given the title "Achilleis" by modern scholars. The tragedies relate the deeds of Achilles during the Trojan War, including his defeat of Hectorand eventual death when an arrow shot by Paris and guided by Apollopunctures his heel. Extant fragments of the "Achilleis" and other Aeschylean fragments have been assembled to produce a workable modern play. The first part of the "Achilleis" trilogy, "The Myrmidons", focused on the relationship between Achilles and chorus, who represent the Achaean army and try to convince Achilles to give up his quarrel with Agamemnon; only a few lines survive today. [Pantelis Michelakis, "Achilles in Greek Tragedy", 2002]
Sophoclesalso wrote a play with Achilles as the main character, "The Lovers of Achilles". Only a few fragments survive.
Achilles in Greek philosophy
Zeno of Eleacentered one of his paradoxes on an imaginary footrace between "swift-footed" Achilles and a tortoise, in which he proved that Achilles could not catch up to a tortoise with a head start, and therefore that motion and change were impossible. As a student of the monist Parmenides and a member of the Eleatic school, Zeno believed time and motion to be illusions.
poken-word myths (audio)
Achilles in later art
*Achilles is portrayed as a former hero, who has become lazy and devoted to the love of Patroclus, in
William Shakespeare's " Troilus and Cressida".
*Achilles is a major character in "Paris", a musical based on the Trojan War written by Jon English and David MacKay which premiered in October 2003 in Australia.
* Achilles appears in the novels "Ilium" and "Olympos" by science fiction author
*Achilles the novel by Elizabeth Cook
*Achilles appears in Dante's "The Inferno."
*"The Wrath of Achilles" is a starship in 'Gene Rodenberry's Andromeda'
* Achilles appears in the novel "Inside The Walls of Troy", with emphasis on his relationship to Polyxena
* Achilles appears in the book trilogy "Troy" by the late heroic fantasy novelist David Gemmell
* Achilles is featured heavily in the novel "The Firebrand" by Marion Zimmer Bradley
* The comic book hero "Captain Marvel" is endowed with the courage of Achilles, as well as other legendary heroes.
* Achilles is featured in the 1998 computer game
Battlezoneas a fictional planet orbiting UranusIt is destroyed at the end of the game.
* Achilles has a supporting role in the
Marvel Comicsminiseries Ares as the Greek God Ares' favorite warrior and battlefield commander of Greek soldiers on Mount Olympus.
* Achilles is a hero unit in the
Real-time Strategyvideo game Empire Earth.
The role of Achilles has been played by:
* Gordon Mitchell in "Achilles" (UK) / "Fury of Achilles" (US) (1962)
Piero Lulliin "Ulysses" (1955)
Riley Ottenhofin "Something about Zeus" (1958)
Stanley Bakerin "Helen of Troy" (1956)
Arturo Dominiciin "La Guerra di Troia" (1962)
Derek Jacobi[voice] in Achilles (Channel Four Television) by Barry Purves(1995)
Steve Davislimin "La Belle Hélène" (TV, 1996)
Richard Trewettin the miniseries The Odyssey (TV, 1997)
Joe Montana (actor)in "Helen of Troy" (TV, 2003)
Brad Pittin "Troy" (2004)
*In the animated television series "
Class of the Titans", the character Archie is descended from Achilles and has inherited both his vulnerable heel and part of his invincibility.
Achilles has frequently been mentioned in music.
Achilles Last Stand", by Led Zeppelin; from the album " Presence", 1976, Atlantic Records.
*Achilles is referred to in
Bob Dylan's song, "Temporary Like Achilles".
*"Achilles' Revenge" is a song by Warlord.
*Achilles Heel is an album by the indie rock band
Pedro the Lion.
*Achilles and his heel are referenced in the song "Special K" by the rock band Placebo.
*"Achilles' Heel" is a song by the UK band
*"Achilles" is a song by the Colorado-based power metal band
Jag Panzer, from the album "Casting the Stones".
*Achilles is referenced in the
Indigo Girlssong "Ghost".
*Song by Melbourne band Love Outside Andromeda called "Achilles (All 3)".
*"Achilles, Agony & Ecstasy In Eight Parts", by Manowar; from the album "
The Triumph of Steel", 1992, Atlantic Records.
*Although not mentioned by name, "Citadel" (about the Siege of Troy) by
The Crüxshadowsmentions Paris' arrow 'landing true'.
*"Achilles' Wrath", a concert piece by
*Achilles is mentioned in "Little Joanna" by McFly: "Achilles wears a necklace".
*Achilles is mentioned in the song "Third Temptation Of Paris" by
*HMNZS "Achilles" was a "Leander" class cruiser which served with the
Royal New Zealand Navyin World War II. She became famous for her part in the Battle of the River Plate, alongside HMS "Ajax" and HMS "Exeter".
Prince Achileas-Andreas of Greece and Denmark, the grandson of the deposed Greek king, Constantine II
"If Achilles was anything, he was a man who believed his own press releases."
Roger Ebert[ [http://rogerebert.suntimes.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20040514/REVIEWS/405140304/1023 Roger Ebert, "Review of Troy"] ] , commenting on the classical depiction of Achilles's character and personality
Homer, " Iliad"
Homer, "Odyssey" XI, 467-540
*Apollodorus, "Bibliotheca" III, xiii, 5-8
*Apollodorus, "Epitome" III, 14-V, 7
Ovid, "Metamorphoses" XI, 217-265; XII, 580-XIII, 398
Ovid, "Heroides" III
Apollonius Rhodius, "Argonautica" IV, 783-879
Dante, " The Divine Comedy", Inferno, V.
* Ileana Chirassi Colombo, “Heroes Achilleus— Theos Apollon.” In "Il Mito Greco", ed. Bruno Gentili & Giuseppe Paione, Rome, 1977;
* Anthony Edwards:
** “Achilles in the Underworld: Iliad, Odyssey, and Æthiopis”, "Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies", 26 (1985): pp. 215-227 ;
** “Achilles in the Odyssey: Ideologies of Heroism in the Homeric Epic”, "Beitrage zur klassischen Philologie", 171, Meisenheim, 1985 ;
** “Kleos Aphthiton and Oral Theory,” "Classical Quarterly", 38 (1988): pp. 25-30 ;
*cite journal | author=Hedreen, Guy | title= The Cult of Achilles in the Euxine | journal=Hesperia | year=1991 | volume=60 | issue=3 | pages= 313–330 | url=http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0018-098X%28199107%2F09%2960%3A3%3C313%3ATCOAIT%3E2.0.CO%3B2-3 | doi= 10.2307/148068
* cite book | last=Kerenyi | first=Karl | authorlink=Károly Kerényi | title=The Heroes of the Greeks | publisher=Thames and Hudson | location=New York/London | year=1959
* Hélène Monsacré, "Les larmes d'Achille. Le héros, la femme et la souffrance dans la poésie d'Homère", Paris, Albin Michel, 1984;
** "The Best of The Acheans: Concepts of the Hero in Archaic Greek Poetry", Johns Hopkins University, 1999 (rev. edition);
** "The Name of Achilles: Questions of Etymology and 'Folk Etymology"', "Illinois Classical Studies", 19, 1994;
* Dale S. Sinos, "The Entry of Achilles into Greek Epic", Ph.D. thesis, Johns Hopkins University;
* Hamilton, Edith, "Mythology", New York: Mentor, 1942
* [http://www.androphile.org/preview/Library/Mythology/Greek/ The Story of Achilles and Patroclus]
* [http://www.historyguide.org/ancient/troy.html Trojan War Resources]
Nicolae Densuşianu, "Dacia Preistorică", 1913, I.4] Cult of Achilles: literary references to the island "Leucos" in Antiquity
* [http://ancientrome.ru/art/artworken/result.htm?alt=Achilles&pnumber=20 Gallery of the Ancient Art: Achilles]
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