April 23

Events

*215 BC - A temple is built on the Capitoline Hill dedicated to Venus Erycina to commemorate the Roman defeat at Lake Trasimene.
*1014 - Battle of Clontarf: Brian Boru defeats Viking invaders, but is killed in battle.
*1229 - Ferdinand III of Castile conquers Cáceres.
*1343 - St. George's Night Uprising.
*1348 - The founding of the Order of the Garter by King Edward III of England is announced on St George's Day.
*1521 - Battle of Villalar: King Charles I of Spain defeats the Comuneros.
*1597 - William Shakespeare's "The Merry Wives of Windsor" is first performed, with Queen Elizabeth I of England in attendance.
*1635 - First public school in the United States, Boston Latin School, is founded in Boston, Massachusetts.
*1660 - Treaty of Oliwa is established between Sweden and Poland.
*1661 - King Charles II of England, Scotland and Ireland is crowned in Westminster Abbey.
*1827 - William Rowan Hamilton presents his "Theory of systems of rays".
*1867 - William Lincoln patents the zoetrope, a machine which shows animated pictures by mounting a strip of drawings in a wheel.
*1920 - The national council in Turkey denounces the government of Sultan Mehmed VI and announces a temporary constitution.
*1920 - The Grand National Assembly of Turkey is founded in Ankara.
*1923 - Inauguration ceremonies take place of Gdynia as a temporary military port and fishers' shelter.
*1932 - The 153-year old De Adriaan Windmill in Haarlem, the Netherlands burns down.
*1935 - Polish Constitution of 1935 is adopted.
*1940 - The Rhythm Night Club fire at a dance hall in Natchez, Mississippi, kills 198 people.
*1941 - World War II: Greek government and King George II evacuate Athens before the attacking Wehrmacht.
*1942 - World War II: Baedeker Blitz – German bombers hit Exeter, Bath and York in retaliation for the British raid on Lübeck.
*1948 - 1948 Arab-Israeli War: Haifa, the major port of Israel, is captured from Arab forces.
*1955 - The Canadian Labour Congress is formed by the merger of the Trades and Labour Congress of Canada and the Canadian Congress of Labour.
*1961 - Algiers putsch by French generals.
*1967 - A group of young radicals are expelled from the Nicaraguan Socialist Party (PSN). This group goes on to found the Socialist Workers Party (POS).
*1968 - Vietnam War: Student protesters at Columbia University in New York City take over administration buildings and shut down the university. " see main article " Columbia University protests of 1968.
*1979 - Fighting in London between the Anti-Nazi League and the Metropolitan Police's Special Patrol Group results in the death of protester Blair Peach.
*1982 - Conch Republic is established.
* 1982 - The ZX Spectrum is released.
* 1985 - Coca-Cola changes its formula and releases New Coke. (The response is overwhelmingly negative, and the original formula is back on the market in less than 3 months.)
*1987 - 28 construction workers die when the L'Ambiance Plaza apartment building collapses while under construction in Bridgeport, Connecticut.
*1988 - Pink Floyd's album "Dark Side of the Moon" leaves the charts for its first time after spending a record of 741 consecutive weeks (over 14 years) on the Billboard 200.
*1990 - Namibia becomes the 160th member of the United Nations and the 50th member of the Commonwealth of Nations.
*1993 - Eritreans vote overwhelmingly for independence from Ethiopia in a United Nations-monitored referendum.
*1997 - Omaria massacre in Algeria: 42 villagers are killed.
*2003 - Beijing closes all schools for two weeks because of the SARS virus.

Births

*1170 - Isabelle of Hainaut, queen of France (d. 1190)
*1185 - King Afonso II of Portugal (d. 1223)
*1464 - Joan of France, Duchess of Berry, queen of France (d. 1505)
*1484 - Julius Caesar Scaliger, Italian philosopher (d. 1558)
*1500 - Alexander Ales, Scottish theologian (d. 1565)
*1516 - Georg Fabricius, German poet, historian, and archaeologist (d. 1571)
*1598 - Maarten Tromp, Dutch admiral (d. 1653)
*1621 - William Penn, English admiral (d. 1670)
*1628 - Johann van Waveren Hudde, Dutch mathematician (d. 1704)
*1676 - King Frederick I of Sweden (d. 1751)
*1720 - Vilna Gaon, Lithuanian rabbi (d. 1797)
*1725 - Saint Gerard Majella, Catholic saint (d. 1755)
*1746 - Félix Vicq-d'Azyr, French physician and anatomist (d. 1794)
*1775 - J. M. W. Turner, English painter (d. 1851)
*1791 - James Buchanan, 15th President of the United States (d. 1868)
*1792 - John Thomas Romney Robinson, Irish astronomer and physicist (d. 1882)
*1794 - Wei Yuan, Chinese scholar (d. 1856)
*1805 - Johann Karl Friedrich Rosenkranz, German philosopher (d. 1879)
*1813 - Stephen A. Douglas, U.S. Senator from Illinois and Presidential candidate (d. 1861)
* 1813 - Frédéric Ozanam, French scholar (Society of Saint Vincent de Paul) (d. 1853)
*1823 - Abd-ul-Mejid, Ottoman Sultan (d. 1861)
*1853 - Winthrop M. Crane, 40th Governor of Massachusetts (d. 1920)
*1857 - Ruggiero Leoncavallo, Italian composer (d. 1919)
*1858 - Max Planck, German physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1947)
*1858 - Ethel Mary Smyth, English composer (d. 1944)
*1861 - Edmund Henry Hynman Allenby, British general (d. 1936)
*1865 - Ali-Agha Shikhlinski, Russian-Azerbaijani general (d. 1943)
*1867 - Johannes Andreas Grib Fibiger, Danish scientist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1928)
*1872 - Violet Gordon-Woodhouse, British musician (d. 1951)
*1876 - Arthur Moeller van den Bruck, German historian (d. 1925)
*1880 - Michel Fokine, Russian choreographer and dancer (d. 1942)
*1882 - Albert Coates, British composer (d. 1953)
*1888 - Georges Vanier, French-Canadian soldier and diplomat (d. 1967)
*1889 - Karel Doorman, Dutch admiral (d. 1942)
*1893 - Frank Borzage, American film director (d. 1952)
*1894 - Cow Cow Davenport, American pianist (d. 1955)
*1895 - Ngaio Marsh, New Zealand writer (d. 1982)
*1897 - Lucius Clay, American general (d. 1978)
* 1897 - Lester B. Pearson, fourteenth Prime Minister of Canada, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 1972)
*1899 - Bertil Ohlin, Swedish economist, Bank of Sweden Prize winner (d. 1979)
*1900 - Joseph Green, Polish-born actor and director (d. 1996)
* 1900 - Jim Bottomley, American baseball player (d. 1959)
*1901 - E.B. Ford, British ecological geneticist (d. 1988)
*1902 - Halldór Laxness, Icelandic writer, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1998)
*1903 - Guy Simonds, youngest general officer in the Canadian army (d 1974)
*1904 - Duncan Renaldo, Spanish-American actor (d. 1985)
*1907 - Fritz Wotruba, Austrian sculptor (d. 1975)
*1907 - Lee Miller, American photographer & model (d. 1977)
*1908 - Myron Waldman, American animator (d. 2006)
*1910 - Simone Simon, French actress (d. 2005)
*1917 - Dorian Leigh, American supermodel (d. 2008)
*1918 - Maurice Druon, French author
*1919 - Oleg Penkovsky, Soviet double-agent
*1921 - Janet Blair, American actress (d. 2007)
* 1921 - Warren Spahn, American baseball player (d. 2003)
*1923 - Dolph Briscoe, Governor of Texas
* 1923 - Avram Davidson, American writer (d. 1993)
* 1923 - Antonino Rocca, professional wrestler
*1924 - Chuck Harmon, American baseball player
* 1924 - Bobby Rosengarden, American jazz drummer (d. 2007)
*1926 - J. P. Donleavy, Irish American author
*1928 - Shirley Temple, American actress and politician
*1932 - Jim Fixx, American athlete and writer (d. 1984)
* 1932 - Halston, American fashion designer (d. 1990)
*1935 - Bunky Green, American musician
*1936 - Roy Orbison, American singer and musician (d. 1988)
*1939 - Jorge Fons, Mexican film director
* 1939 - Lee Majors, American actor
* 1939 - Ray Peterson, American singer (d. 2005)
*1940 - Michael Copps, American Federal Government official
*1941 - Jacqueline Boyer, French singer
* 1941 - Paavo Lipponen, Prime Minister of Finland 1995-2003
* 1941 - Michael Lynne, American film executive
*1942 - Sandra Dee, American actress (d. 2005)
*1943 - Gail Goodrich, American basketball player
* 1943 - Tony Esposito, Canadian ice hockey player
* 1943 - Frans Koppelaar, Dutch painter
* 1943 - Hervé Villechaize, French actor (d. 1993)
*1947 - Glenn Cornick, British musician (Jethro Tull)
* 1947 - Bernadette Devlin, Irish politician
*1948 - Pascal Quignard, French author
* 1948 - Serge Thériault, French-Canadian comedian and actor
*1949 - David Cross, British violinist (King Crimson)
* 1949 - Joyce DeWitt, American actress
*1952 - Narada Michael Walden, American musician and producer
*1954 - Michael Moore, American filmmaker
*1955 - Judy Davis, Australian actress
* 1955 - Tony Miles, English chess player (d. 2001)
*1957 - Kenji Kawai, Japanese composer
* 1958 - Hilmar Örn Hilmarsson, Icelandic music composer
* 1958 - Ryan Walter, Canadian ice hockey player
*1960 - Valerie Bertinelli, American actress
* 1960 - Steve Clark, English guitarist (Def Leppard) (d. 1991)
* 1960 - Claude Julien, French-Canadian ice hockey player and coach
*1961 - Terry Gordy, American professional wrestler (d. 2001)
* 1961 - George Lopez, American actor and comedian
*1962 - Hillel Slovak Former guitarist for the Red Hot Chili Peppers (1988)
*1962 - John Hannah, Scottish actor
*1963 - Paul Belmondo, French actor and racing driver
* 1963 - Magnús Ver Magnússon, Icelandic powerlifter
*1967 - Rheal Cormier, Canadian baseball player
* 1967 - Melina Kanakaredes, American actress
*1968 - Timothy McVeigh, American terrorist (d. 2001)
* 1968 - Princess Aisha bint Al Hussein of Jordan
* 1968 - Princess Zein bint Al Hussein of Jordan
*1969 - Yelena Shushunova, Russian gymnast
* 1969 - Richard Wolstencroft, Australian Filmmaker
* 1969 - Martin López-Zubero, Spanish swimmer
*1970 - Scott Bairstow, American actor
* 1970 - Andrew Gee, Australian rugby league footballer
* 1970 - Dennis Bayne Culp, American singer/songwriter
* 1970 - Sadao Abe, Japanese actor
*1971 - Charmaine Sinclair, English model
*1972 - Pierre Labrie, Canadian poet
* 1972 - Patricia Manterola, Mexican singer
* 1972 - Sonya Smith, American actress
*1973 - Patrick Poulin, French-Canadian ice hockey player
*1974 - Carlos Dengler, American musician (Interpol)
* 1974 - Barry Watson, American actor
*1975 - Jón Þór Birgisson, Icelandic musician and singer (Sigur Rós)
* 1975 - Bobby Shaw, American football wide receiver for the NFL
*1977 - John Cena, American professional wrestler
* 1977 - Andruw Jones, Curaçaoan baseball player
* 1977 - Willie Mitchell, Canadian ice hockey player
* 1977 - Kal Penn, American actor
* 1977 - Lee Young-Pyo, Korean footballer
*1979 - Barry Fratelli, Scottish bassist (The Fratellis)
* 1979 - Yana Gupta, Indian actress & model
* 1979 - Jaime King, American actress
* 1979 - Lauri Ylönen, Finnish singer (The Rasmus)
*1981 - Sean Henn, American baseball player
* 1981 - Joanna Krupa, Supermodel/actress
* 1981 - Chris Sharma, American rock climber/boulderer
* 1982 - Taio Cruz, London/English R&B, Pop, Hip Hop singer
*1983 - Daniela Hantuchová, Slovakian tennis player
* 1983 - Jennifer Heil, Canadian free style skier
* 1984 - Alexandra Kosteniuk, Chess Woman World Champion
*1985 - Angel Locsin, Filipina TV and movie actress
*1986 - Sven Kramer, Dutch speedskater
* 1986 - Jessica Stam, Canadian supermodel
*1987 - Emily Fox, American cupstacking champion
*1988 - Victor Anichebe, Nigerian footballer
*1989 - Nicole Vaidišová, Czech tennis player
*1990 - Matthew Dillon Underwood, American actor

Deaths

* 303 - Saint George, Roman soldier and Christian martyr
* 725 - Wihtred, King of Kent
* 871 - Ethelred of Wessex
* 997 - Saint Adalbert of Prague, bishop (b. ca. 956)
*1014 - Brian Boru, High King of Ireland (killed in battle)
*1016 - Ethelred II of England
*1124 - King Alexander I of Scotland (b. 1078)
*1151 - Queen Adeliza of England (b. 1103)
*1217 - King Inge II of Norway (b. 1185)
*1407 - Olivier de Clisson, French soldier (b. 1326)
*1605 - Tsar Boris Godunov of Russia (b. ca. 1550)
*1616 - Miguel Cervantes, Spanish author (b. 1547)
* 1616 - William Shakespeare, English writer and actor (b. 1564) (Julian calendar)
* 1616 - El Inca Garcilaso de la Vega, Peruvian writer (b. 1539)
*1625 - Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange (b. 1567)
*1702 - Margaret Fell, English Quaker leader (b. 1614)
*1740 - Thomas Tickell, English writer (b. 1685)
*1781 - James Abercrombie, British general (b. 1706)
*1792 - Karl Friedrich Bahrdt, German theologian and adventurer (b. 1741)
*1794 - Guillaume-Chrétien de Lamoignon de Malesherbes, French statesman (executed) (b. 1721)
*1827 - Georgios Karaiskakis, Greek hero of the Greek War of Independence
*1839 - Jacques Félix Emmanuel Hamelin, French explorer (b. 1768)
*1850 - William Wordsworth, English poet (b. 1770)
*1889 - Jules Barbey d'Aurevilly, French writer (b. 1808)
*1895 - Carl Ludwig, German physician (b. 1815)
*1905 - Gédéon Ouimet, Quebec politician (b. 1823)
*1907 - Alfred Packer, American Cannibal (b. 1842)
*1915 - Rupert Brooke, English poet (b. 1887).
*1936 - Teresa de la Parra, Venezuelan writer (b. 1889)
*1951 - Charles G. Dawes, Vice President of the United States, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (b. 1865)
*1952 - Julius Freed, American inventor and banker (b. 1887)
*1975 - William Hartnell, English actor (b. 1908)
*1979 - Blair Peach, New Zealand-born anti-fascist (b. 1946)
*1981 - Josep Pla, Catalan journalist and writer (b. 1897)
*1983 - Buster Crabbe, American swimmer and actor (b. 1908)
*1984 - Red Garland, American jazz pianist (b. 1923)
*1985 - Sam Ervin, American politician (b. 1896)
*1986 - Harold Arlen, American composer (b. 1905)
*1986 - Jim Laker, English cricketer (b. 1922)
*1986 - Otto Preminger, Austrian-born film director (b. 1906)
*1990 - Paulette Goddard, American actress (b. 1911)
*1991 - Johnny Thunders, American musician (b. 1952)
*1992 - Satyajit Ray, Indian filmmaker (b. 1921)
*1993 - César Chávez, American labor activist (b. 1927)
*1995 - Howard Cosell, American sports journalist (b. 1918)
*1995 - John C. Stennis, U.S. Senator from Mississippi (b. 1904)
*1996 - Jean-Victor Allard, Canadian military officer (b. 1913)
* 1996 - P. L. Travers, Australian author (b. 1899)
*1997 - Denis Compton, English cricketer (b. 1918)
*1998 - Constantine Karamanlis, Greek politician (b. 1907)
* 1998 - James Earl Ray, American assassin (b. 1928)
*2003 - James H. Critchfield, American Central Intelligence agent (b. 1917)
* 2003 - Fernand Fonssagrives, French photographer (b. 1910)
*2005 - Joh Bjelke-Petersen, Premier of Queensland (b. 1911)
* 2005 - Al Grassby, Australian immigration minister (b. 1928)
* 2005 - John Mills, English actor (b. 1908)
* 2005 - Romano Scarpa, Italian-born comic artist (b. 1927)
* 2005 - Earl Wilson, American baseball player (b. 1934)
*2006 - Johnnie Checketts, New Zealand fighter pilot (b. 1912)
*2007 - Paul Erdman, American economist and author (b. 1932)
* 2007 - David Halberstam, American journalist, historian and author (b. 1934)
* 2007 - Boris Yeltsin, first President of the Russian Federation (b. 1931)

Holidays and observances

*UNESCO International Day of the Book in honor of the death of both William Shakespeare and Miguel de Cervantes on April 23, 1616.
*Turkey - National Sovereignty and Children's Day (1920)
*Feast Day of Saint George:
**Patron saint and National Day of England
**Patron saint of Catalonia
*Castile and León - Castile and León Day
*Saint Adalbert of Prague
*Saint Gerard (d. 1138)
*World Book and Copyright Day

External links

* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/april/23 BBC: On This Day]
*
* [http://www1.sympatico.ca/cgi-bin/on_this_day?mth=Apr&day=23 On This Day in Canada] ----


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