- Andrei Tarkovsky
bgcolour = silver
name = Andrei Tarkovsky
birthname = Andrei Arsenyevich Tarkovsky
birthdate = birth date|1932|4|4|mf=y
birthplace = Zavrazhye,
deathdate = Death date and age|1986|12|29|1932|4|4
restingplace = Cimetière de Liers, Sainte-Geneviève-des-Bois,
yearsactive = 1958-1986
Irma Raush(1957-1970) Larisa Kizilova (1970-1986)
children = Arseny Tarkovsky (1962) Andrei Tarkovsky Jr. (1970)
Arseny TarkovskyMaria Vishnyakova
baftaawards = Best Foreign Film
Andrei Arsenyevich Tarkovsky ( _ru. Андре́й Арсе́ньевич Тарко́вский) (April 4, 1932 - December 29, 1986) was a Soviet
film director, writer and opera director. Tarkovksy is listed among the 100 most critically acclaimed film directors; [cite web
last = Georgaris
first = Bill
coauthors = Vicki Platt
title = The 1,000 Greatest Films: The Top 100 Directors
publisher = They Shoot Pictures, Don't They?
url = http://www.theyshootpictures.com/gf1000_top100directors.htm
accessdate = 2008-10-04] director
Ingmar Bergmanwas quoted as saying "Tarkovsky for me is the greatest [director] , the one who invented a new language, true to the nature of film, as it captures life as a reflection, life as a dream". [Title quote of 2003 Tarkovsky Festival Program, Pacific Film Archive] Tarkovsky attained critical praise for directing such films as "Andrei Rublev", "Solaris" and "Stalker".
Tarkovsky worked extensively as a screenwriter, film editor, film theorist and
theater director. He directed most of his films in the Soviet Union, with the exception of his last two films, which were produced in Italy and Sweden. His films are characterized by Christianspirituality and metaphysical themes, extremely long takes, lack of conventional dramatic structure and plot, and memorable cinematography.
Childhood and early life
Tarkovsky was born in the village of Zavrazhye in Kostroma Province, the son of poet and translator
Arseny Alexandrovich Tarkovsky, native of Kirovohrad, Ukraine, and Maria Ivanova Vishnyakova, a graduate of the Maxim Gorky Literature Institute. He spent his childhood in Yuryevets in the Ivanovo Province. [cite news |first=Marina |last=Sipatova |title=Тайна рода Тарковских |publisher= Moskovskiy Komsomolets|date=2007 |url=http://www.mk.ru/blogs/MK/2007/02/20/culture/92002 |accessdate=2007-11-25] In 1937, his father left the family, subsequently volunteering for the army in 1941. Tarkovsky stayed with his mother, moving with her and his sister Marina to Moscow, where she worked as a proofreader at a printing press. In 1939, Tarkovsky enrolled at the Moscow School № 554. During the war, the three evacuated to Yuryevets, living with his maternal grandmother. In 1943, the family returned to Moscow. Tarkovsky continued his studies at his old school, where the poet Andrey Voznesenskywas one of his classmates. He learned the piano at a music school and attended classes at an art school. The family lived on Shshipok Street in the Zamoskvorechye Districtin Moscow. From November 1947 to spring 1948, he was in a hospital with tuberculosis. Many themes of his childhood - the evacuation, his mother and her two children, the withdrawn father, the time in the hospital - feature prominently in his film "The Mirror".
Following high school graduation, from 1951 to 1952, Tarkovsky studied Arabic at the Oriental Institute in Moscow, a branch of the
Academy of Sciences of the USSR. He did not finish his studies and dropped out to work for the Academy of Science Institute for Non-Ferrous Metals and Gold as a prospector. He participated in a year-long research expedition to the river Kureikye near Turukhanskin the Krasnoyarsk Province. During this time in the TaigaTarkovsky decided to study film.
Film school student
Upon return from the research expedition in 1954, Tarkovsky applied at the State Institute of Cinematography (VGIK) and was admitted to the film-directing-program. He was in the same class as
Irma Raush, whom he married in April 1957. [cite news |first=Anastasia last=Pleshakova |title=Тарковский был «разрешенным контрреволюционером» |publisher= Komsomolskaya Pravda|date=April 4, 2007 |url=http://www.kp.ru/daily/23881/65502/ |accessdate=2007-11-27]
The early Khrushchev era offered unique opportunities for young film directors. Before 1953, annual film production was low and most films were directed by veteran directors. After 1953, more films were produced, many of them by young directors. The
Khrushchev Thawopened Soviet society and allowed, to some degree, Western literature, films and music. This allowed Tarkovksy to see films of Italian neorealists, French New Wave, and of directors such as Kurosawa, Buñuel, Bergman, Bresson and Mizoguchi. Tarkovsky absorbed the idea of the auteur as a necessary condition for creativity.
Tarkovsky’s teacher and mentor was
Mikhail Romm, who taught many film students who would later become influential film directors. In 1956, Tarkovsky directed his first student short film, "The Killers", from a short story of Ernest Hemingway. The short film " There Will Be No Leave Today" and the screenplay "Concentrate" followed in 1958 and 1959.
During his third year at the VGIK, Tarkovsky met
Andrei Konchalovsky. They found that they had much in common as they liked the same film directors and shared the same ideas on cinema and films. In 1959, they wrote the script "Antarctica - Distant Country", which was later published in the Moskovskiy Komsomolets. Tarkovsky submitted the script to Lenfilm, but was rejected. They were more successful with the script " The Steamroller and the Violin," which they sold to Mosfilm. This film became Tarkovsky’s diploma film, earning him his diploma in 1960 and winning him the first prize at the New York Student Film Festival in 1961.
Film career in the Soviet Union
Tarkovsky's first feature film was "
Ivan's Childhood" in 1962. He had inherited the film from director Eduard Abalov, who had to abort the project. The film earned Tarkovksy international acclaim and he won the Golden Lionaward at the Venice Film Festivalin 1962. In the same year, on September 30, his first son Arseny (called Senka in Tarkovsky's diaries) Tarkovsky was born.
In 1965, he directed the film "Andrei Rublev" about the life of
Andrei Rublev, the 15th century Russian icon painter. "Andrei Rublev" was not immediately released after completion due to problems with Soviet authorities. Tarkovsky had to cut the film several times, resulting in several different versions of varying lengths. A version of the film was presented at the Cannes Film Festivalin 1969 and won the FIPRESCI prize. The film was officially released in the Soviet Union in a cut version in 1971.
He divorced his wife,
Irma Raush, in 1970. In the same year, he married Larissa Kizilova ( néeEgorkina), who had been a production assistant for the film "Andrei Rublev". Their son, Andrei Tarkovsky Jr., was born in the same year on August 7.
In 1972, he completed his film "Solaris", an adaptation of the novel "Solaris" by
Stanisław Lem. He had worked on this project, together with the screenwriter Fridrikh Gorenshtein, as early as 1968. The film was presented at the Cannes Film Festivaland won the Grand Prix Spécial du Jury and the FIPRESCI prize and was nominated for the Palme d'Or. From 1973 to 1974, he shot the film "The Mirror", a highly autobiographical film drawing on his childhood experience and incorporating some of his father's poems. Tarkovsky had worked on the screenplay for this film since 1967, under the consecutive titles "Confession", "White day" and "A white, white day". From the beginning the film was not well received by Soviet authorities due to its content and its perceived elitist nature. Presumably these difficulties made Tarkovsky toy with the idea of going abroad and producing a film outside the Soviet film industry. [cite book
last=Tarkovsky |first=Andrei |coauthors=translated by Kitty Hunter-Blair |title= |publisher=Seagull Books |date=1991 |location=
During 1975, Tarkovsky also worked on the screenplay "
Hoffmanniana", about the German writer and poet E. T. A. Hoffmann. In December 1976, he directed " Hamlet", his first and only stage play, at the Lenkom Theatrein Moscow. The main role was played by Anatoly Solonitsyn, who also acted in several of Tarkovsky's films. At the end of 1978, he also wrote the screenplay "Sardor" together with the writer Aleksandr Misharin.
The last film Tarkovsky directed in the Soviet Union was "Stalker", inspired by the novel "
Roadside Picnic" by Arkady and Boris Strugatsky. Work on this film began in 1976. The production was mired in troubles; improper development of the negatives had ruined all the exterior shots. Tarkovsky's relationship with cinematographer Georgy Rerbergdeteriorated to the point where Tarkovsky hired Alexander Knyazhinskyas a new first cinematographer. Furthermore, Tarkovsky suffered a heart attack in April 1978, resulting in further delay. The film was completed in 1979 and won the Prize of the Ecumenical Jury at the Cannes Film Festival.
Film career outside the Soviet Union
During the summer of 1979, Tarkovsky traveled to Italy, where he shot the documentary "
Voyage in Time", together with his longtime friend Tonino Guerra. Tarkovksy returned to Italy in 1980 for an extended trip during which he and Tonino Guerra completed the script for the film " Nostalghia". During 1981 he traveled to the United Kingdom and Sweden. During his trip to Sweden he had considered defecting the Soviet Union, but ultimately decided to return because of his wife and his son.
Tarkovsky returned to Italy in 1982 to start shooting "
Nostalghia". He did not return to his home country. As Mosfilmwithdrew from the project, he had to complete the film with financial support provided by the Italian RAI. Tarkovsky completed the film in 1983. " Nostalghia" was presented at the Cannes Film Festivaland won the Grand Prix Spécial du Jury, the FIPRESCI prize and the Prize of the Ecumenical Jury. Soviet authorities prevented the film from winning the Palme d'Or, a fact that hardened Tarkovsky's resolve to never work in the Soviet Union again. In the same year, he also arranged the opera " Boris Godunov" at the Royal Opera Housein Londonunder the musical direction of Claudio Abbado.
He spend most of 1984 preparing the film "
The Sacrifice". At a press conference in Milanon July 10, 1984 he announced that he would never return to the Soviet Union and would remain in the West. At that time, his son Andrei Jr. was still in the Soviet Union and not allowed to leave the country.
During 1985, he shot the film "
The Sacrifice" in Sweden. At the end of the year he was diagnosed with terminal lung cancer. In January 1986, he began treatment in Paris, and was joined there by his wife and his son, who were finally allowed to leave the Soviet Union. " The Sacrifice" was presented at the Cannes Film Festivaland received the Grand Prix Spécial du Jury, the FIPRESCI prize and the Prize of the Ecumenical Jury. As Tarkovsky was unable to attend due to his illness, the prizes were collected by his son, Andrei Jr.
Tarkovsky kept fairly regular from 1970 until shortly before his death. The last entry was on December 15, 1986. His last words are "But now I have no strength left - that is the problem". The diaries are sometimes also known as "Martyrolog" and were published posthumously in 1989, and in English in 1991.
Tarkovsky died in
Parison December 29, 1986. He was buried on January 3, 1987 in the Sainte-Geneviève-des-Bois Russian Cemeteryin Sainte-Geneviève-des-Bois in France. The inscription on his grave stone, which was created by the Russian sculptor Ernst Neizvestny, reads "To the man who saw the Angel".
Tarkovsky is mainly known as a director of films. During his career he directed only seven feature films, and three short films during his time at the film school. He also wrote several screenplays, directed stage play "
Hamlet" in Moscow, the opera " Boris Godunov" in London, and directed a radio production of the short story "Turnabout" by William Faulkner. He also wrote " Sculpting In Time", a book on film theory.
Tarkovsky's first feature film was "
Ivan's Childhood" in 1962. He then directed in the Soviet Union "Andrei Rublev" in 1966, "Solaris" in 1972, "Mirror" in 1975 and "Stalker" in 1979. The documentary " Voyage in Time" was produced in Italy in 1982, as was " Nostalghia" in 1983. His last film " The Sacrifice" was produced in Sweden in 1986. Tarkovsky was personally involved in writing the screenplays for all his films, sometimes with a co-writer. To Tarkovsky a director who realizes somebody else's screenplay without being involved in the creation of the screenplay becomes a mere illustrator, resulting in dead and monotonous films. [cite journal |last=Tarkovsky |first=Andrei |title=Lectures on Film Directing (notes from classes taught by Tarkovsky at the State Institute of Cinematography) |journal=Iskusstvo Kino |date=1990 |url=http://www.acs.ucalgary.ca/~tstronds/nostalghia.com/TheTopics/Directing.html |accessdate=2008-01-14] [cite journal |last=Illg |first=Jerzy |coauthors=Leonard Neuger |title=Z Andriejem Tarkowskim rozmawiają Jerzy Illg, Leonard Neuger |journal=Res Publica |volume=1 |pages=137–160 |location=Warsaw |date=1987 |url=http://www.acs.ucalgary.ca/~tstronds/nostalghia.com/TheTopics/interview.html]
Tarkovsky became a film director during the mid and late 1950s, a period during which Soviet society opened to foreign films, literature and music. This allowed Tarkovksy to see films of European, American and Japanese directors, an experience which influenced his own film making. His teacher and mentor at the film school,
Mikhail Romm, allowed his students considerable freedom and emphasized the independence of the film director.
Tarkovsky was, according to Shavka Abdusalmov, a fellow student at the film school, fascinated by Japanese films. He was amazed by how every character on the screen is exceptional and how everyday events such as a Samurai cutting bread with his sword are elevated to something special and put into the limelight. [cite book |last=Abdusalamov |first=Shavkat |coauthors=translated by Sergei Sossinsky |title=Feedback Effects, in About Andrei Tarkovsky, Memoirs and Biographies |publisher=Progress Publishers |date=1990 |location=
In 1972, Tarkovsky told film historian Leonid Kozlov his ten favorite films. The list includes "
Diary of a Country Priest" and " Mouchette" by Robert Bresson, " Winter Light", "Wild Strawberries" and "Persona" by Ingmar Bergman, " Nazarin" by Luis Buñuel, " City Lights" by Charlie Chaplin, " Ugetsu" by Kenji Mizoguchi, " Seven Samurai" by Akira Kurosawaand " Woman in the Dunes" by Hiroshi Teshigahara. Among his favorite directors were Luis Buñuel, Kenji Mizoguchi, Ingmar Bergman, Robert Bresson, Akira Kurosawa, Michelangelo Antonioni, Jean Vigoand Carl Theodor Dreyer. [cite journal |last=Lasica |first=Tom |title=Tarkovsky's Choice |journal=Sight and Sound |volume=3 |issue=3 |date=March 1993 |url=http://www.acs.ucalgary.ca/~tstronds/nostalghia.com/TheTopics/Tarkovsky-TopTen.html |accessdate=2007-12-25 ]
With the exception of "City Lights", the list does not contain any films or directors of the early silent era. The reason is that Tarkovsky saw film as an art as only a relatively recent phenomenon, with the early film-making forming only a prelude. The list has also no films or directors from Tarkovsky's native Russia, although he rated Soviet directors such as
Boris Barnet, Sergei Paradjanovand Alexander Dovzhenkohighly.
Tarkovsky's films are characterised by Christian and metaphysical themes, extremely
long takes, and memorable images of exceptional beauty. Recurring motifs in his films are dreams, memory, childhood, running water accompanied by fire, rain indoors, reflections, levitation, and characters re-appearing in the foreground of long panning movements of the camera.
Tarkovsky included levitation scenes into several of his films, most notably "Solaris". To him these scenes possess great power and are used for its photogenic value and its magic inexplicability. [Citation |last=de Brantes |first=Charles |title=La foi est la seule chose qui puisse sauver l'homme |newspaper=La France Catholique |year=1986 |date=June 20 |url=http://www.acs.ucalgary.ca/~tstronds/nostalghia.com/TheTopics/AT_On.html |accessdate=2008-01-14]
Water, clouds, and reflections were used by him for its surreal beauty and photogenic value, as well as its symbolism, such as waves or the form of brooks or running water. [cite press release |title=English Programme Booklet for "The Sacrifice" |publisher=Swedish Film Institute |url=http://www.acs.ucalgary.ca/~tstronds/nostalghia.com/TheTopics/AT_For_Dummies.html |accessdate=2008-01-14]
Bells and candles are also frequent symbols. These are symbols of film, sight and sound, and Tarkovsky's film frequently has themes of self refelction.
Tarkovsky developed a theory of cinema that he called "sculpting in time". By this he meant that the unique characteristic of cinema as a medium was to take our experience of time and alter it. Unedited movie footage transcribes time in real time. By using long takes and few cuts in his films, he aimed to give the viewers a sense of time passing, time lost, and the relationship of one moment in time to another.
Up to, and including, his film "Mirror", Tarkovsky focused his cinematic works on exploring this theory. After "Mirror", he announced that he would focus his work on exploring the
dramatic unitiesproposed by Aristotle: a concentrated action, happening in one place, within the span of a single day.
Several of Tarkovsky's films are shot both in color and black and white, including for example "Andrei Rublev" which features an epilogue in color, as well as "Solaris", "Mirror" (Zyrkalo), and Stalker, which feature monotone sequences as well as in color. In 1966, in an interview conducted shortly after finishing "Andrei Rublev", Tarkovsky dismisses color film as a "commercial gimmick" and doubts that contemporary films meaningfully use color. He claims that in everyday life one does not consciously notice colors most of the time. Hence in film color should be used mainly to emphasize certain moments, but not all the time as this distracts the viewer. To him, films in color are like moving paintings or photographs, which are too beautiful to be a realistic depiction of life. [cite journal |last=Chugunova |first=Maria |title=On Cinema - Interview with Tarkovsky |journal=To the Screen |date=December 1966 |url=http://www.acs.ucalgary.ca/~tstronds/nostalghia.com/TheTopics/On_Color.html |accessdate=2008-01-14]
Awards, honors and recognitions
Numerous awards were bestowed on Tarkovsky throughout his lifetime. At the
Venice Film Festivalhe was awarded the " Golden Lion". At the Cannes Film Festivalhe won several times the "FIPRESCI prize", the " Prize of the Ecumenical Jury" and the "Grand Prix Spécial du Jury". He was also nominated for the " Palme d'Or" two times. In 1987, the British Academy of Film and Television Artsawarded the BAFTA Award for Best Foreign Language Film to " The Sacrifice".
Under the influence of
Glasnostand Perestroika, Tarkovsky was finally recognized in the Soviet Union in the fall of 1986, shortly before his death, by a retrospective of his films in Moscow. After his death, an entire issue of the film magazine "Iskusstvo Kino" was devoted to Tarkovsky. In their obituaries, the film committee of the Council of Ministers of the USSR and the Union of Soviet Film Makers expressed their sorrow that Tarkovsky had to spend the last years of his life in exile. [cite news |title=Obituary |publisher= Literaturnaya Gazeta|date=1987-01-07]
Posthumously, he was awarded the "
Lenin Prize" in 1990, one of the highest state honors in the Soviet Union. In 1989 the "Andrei Tarkovsky Memorial Prize" was established, with its first recipient being the Russian animator Yuriy Norshteyn. Since 1993, the Moscow International Film Festivalawards the annual "Andrei Tarkovsky Award". In 1996 the Andrei Tarkovsky Museum opened in Yuryevets, his childhood town. [cite web |title=МУЗЕЙ А.ТАРКОВСКОГО |url=http://www.museum.ru/tarkovsky |accessdate=2007-11-30 ] A minor planet, 3345 Tarkovskij, discovered by Soviet astronomer Lyudmila Georgievna Karachkinain 1982 has also been named after him. [cite book |last=Schmadel |first=Lutz |title=Dictionary of Minor Planet Names |publisher=Springer |url=http://books.google.com/books?q=3345+tarkovskij |isbn=3-54-000238-3]
Tarkovsky has been the subject of several documentaries. Most notable is the 1988 documentary
Moscow Elegyby Russian film director Alexander Sokurov. Sokurov's own work has been heavily influenced by Tarkovsky. The film consists mostly of narration over stock footage from Tarkovsky's films. "Directed by Andrei Tarkovsky" is 1988 documentary film by Michal Leszczylowski, an editor of the film "The Sacrifice". Film director Chris Markerproduced the television documentary " One Day in the Life of Andrei Arsenevich" as an homage to Andrei Tarkovsky in 2000. [cite web |title=Significant Documentaries |url=http://www.acs.ucalgary.ca/~tstronds/nostalghia.com/TheDocumentaries/Documentaries.html |accessdate=2008-01-15 ]
Tarkovsky is widely considered to be one of the greatest film makers of all time. [cite web|last=Georgaris|first=Bill|authorlink=|coauthors=Vicki Platt|title=The 1,000 Greatest Films: The Top 100 Directors|work=| publisher = They Shoot Pictures, Don't They?|date=|url=http://www.theyshootpictures.com/gf1000_top100directors.htm|doi=|accessdate=2008-10-04]
Ingmar Bergmanwas quoted as saying "Tarkovsky for me is the greatest [of us all] , the one who invented a new language, true to the nature of film, as it captures life as a reflection, life as a dream". [Title quote of 2003 Tarkovsky Festival Program, Pacific Film Archive] Film historian Steven Dillonclaims that much of subsequent film was deeply influenced by the films of Tarkovsky. [cite book|last=Dillon|first=Steven|title=The Solaris Effect: Art and Artifice in Contemporary American Film|publisher= University of Texas Press|date=2006|isbn=9780292713451]
cquote|Art is born and takes hold wherever there is a timeless and insatiable longing for the spiritual." -Andrei Tarkovsky [ [http://www.talkingpix.co.uk/Article_Tarkovsky.html Interview] ]
title = Tarkovsky
editor-last = Dunne
editor-first = Nathan
publisher = Black Dog Publishing
isbn = 1-906155-04-6
title = Andrei Tarkovsky: Interviews (Conversations With Filmmakers Series)
editor-last = Gianvito
editor-first = John
publisher = University Press of Mississippi
isbn = 1-57806-220-9
last = Le Fanu
first = Mark
title = The Cinema of Andrei Tarkovsky
publisher = British Film Institute
isbn = 0-85170-194-9
last = Johnston
first = Vida T.
last2 = Petrie
first2 = Graham
title = The Films of Andrei Tarkovsky: A Visual Fugue
isbn = 0-253-20887-4
last = Martin
first = Sean
title = Andrei Tarkovsky
publisher = Pocket Essentials
isbn = 1-904048-49-8
last = Jónsson
first = Gunnlaugur A.
last2 = Óttarsson
first2 = Thorkell Á.
title = Through the Mirror: Reflections on the Films of Andrei Tarkovsky
publisher = Cambridge Scholars Press
isbn = 1-904303-11-0
title = Dossier Andrei Tarkovsky
editor-last = revue "NUNC"
volume = n°11, 2006
publisher = Editions de Corlevour [http://corlevour.fr]
* [http://www.nostalghia.com Nostalghia.com] – An Andrei Tarkovsky Information Site.
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