- Viktor Vasnetsov
Viktor Mikhailovich Vasnetsov (Виктор Михайлович Васнецов) (
Lop'jal, May 15(N.S.), 1848— Moscow, June 23, 1926) was a Russian artistwho specialized in mythological and historical subjects. He is considered a key figure of the revivalist movement in Russian art.
Viktor Vasnetsov was born in a remote village Lopyal of Vyatka
guberniyain 1848. His father Mikhail Vasilievich Vasnetsov, a village priest, was a well-educated 'philosophy-inclined' man interested in natural science, astronomyand painting. His grandfather was an iconpainter. Two of his three sons, Viktor and Apollinary, became remarkable painters, the third one becoming a schoolteacher. Recalling his childhood in a letter to Vladimir Stasov, Vasnetsov remarked that he "had lived with peasant children and liked them not as a narodnikbut as a friend".
From the age of ten, Viktor studied in a seminary in Vyatka, each summer moving with his family to a rich merchant village of Ryabovo. During his seminary years, he worked for a local
iconshopkeeper. He also helped an exiled Polish artist, Michał Elwiro Andriolli, to execute frescoes for Vyatka's Alexander Nevskycathedral.
Having graduated from the seminary, Viktor decided to move to
Saint Petersburgto study art. He auctioned his paintings of "Woman Harvester" and "Milk-maid" (both 1867) in order to raise money required for the trip to the Russian capital.
aint Petersburg (1867-1876)
In August 1867 Viktor entered the
Imperial Academy of Arts. Three years later, the Peredvizhnikimovement of realist painters rebelled against the Academism.
Vasnetsov befriended their leader
Ivan Kramskoi, referring to him as his teacher. He also became very close to his fellow student Ilya Yefimovich Repin.
It is ironic, but Viktor, whose name is associated with historical and mythological paintings, initially avoided these subjects at all costs. For his graphic composition of "
Christand Pontius PilateBefore the People", the Academy awarded a small silver medal to him.
In the early 1870s he executed a lot of
engravings depicting contemporary life. Two of them ("Provincial Bookseller" from 1870 and "A Boy with a Bottle of Vodka" from 1872) won him a bronze medal at the World Fairin London(1874).
At that period he also started producing genre paintings in oil. Such pieces as "Peasant Singers" (1873) and "Moving House" (1876) were warmly welcomed by democratic circles of Russian society.
In 1876 Repin invited Vasnetsov to join the Peredvizhniki colony in
Paris. While living in France, Viktor studied classical and contemporary paintings, academist and Impressionist alike. At that period, he painted "Acrobats" (1877), produced prints, and exhibited some of his works at the Salon. It was in Paris that he became fascinated with fairy-tale subjects, starting to work on " Ivan TsarevichRiding a Grey Wolf" and "The Firebird". Vasnetsov was a model for Sadkoin Repin's celebrated painting ".
In the late 1870s Vasnetsov concentrated on illustrating Russian fairy tales and
bylinas, executing some of his best known pieces: "Knight at the Crossroads" (1878), " Prince Igor's Battlefield" (1878),"" (1879-1881), "The Magic Carpet" (1880), and "Alionushka" (1881).
These works were not appreciated at the time they appeared. Many radical critics dismissed them as undermining the realist principles of the
Peredvizhniki. Even such prominent connoisseurs as Pavel Mikhailovich Tretyakovrefused to buy them. The vogue for Vasnetsov's paintings would spread in the 1880s, when he turned to religious subjects and executed a series of icons for Abramtsevo estate of his patron Savva Mamontov.
In 1884-1889 Vasnetsov was commissioned to paint
frescos in the St Vladimir's Cathedralof Kiev. This was a challenging work which ran contrary to both Russian and Western traditions of religious paintings. The influential art critic Vladimir Stasovlabelled them a sacrilegious play with religious feelings of the Russian people. Another popular critic, Dmitry Filosofov, referred to these frescoes as "the first bridge over 200 years-old gulf separating different classes of Russian society".
While living in Kiev, Vasnetsov made friends with
Mikhail Vrubel, who was also involved in the cathedral's decoration. While they worked together, Vasnetsov taught the younger artist a great deal. It was in Kiev that Vasnetsov finally finished " Ivan TsarevichRiding a Grey Wolf" and started his most famous painting, the " Bogatyrs".
In 1885 the painter travelled to
Italy. The same year he worked on stage designs and costumes for Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov's opera "The Snow Maiden".
Later years (1890-1926)
The following two decades were productive for Vasnetsov, but most of his later paintings were perceived as being of secondary importance. He increasingly turned to other media during this period. In 1897 he collaborated with his brother Apollinary on the theatrical design of another Rimsky-Korsakov premiere, "
Sadko", and he was commissioned in the 1910s to design a new uniform for the Russian military — the so-called bogatyrka, a Russian army headwear.
At the turn of the century, Vasnetsov elaborated his hallmark "fairy-tale" style of
Russian Revivalist architecture. His first acclaimed design was a church in Abramtsevo(1882), executed jointly with Vasily Polenov. In 1894, he designed his own mansion in Moscow. The Russian pavilion of the World Fair in Parisfollowed in 1898. Finally, in 1904, Vasnetsov designed the best known of his "fairy-tale" buildings — the Tretyakov Gallery.
Between 1906 and 1911, Vasnetsov worked on the design of the mosaics for
Alexander Nevsky Cathedral, Warsaw.
In 1912, Vasnetsov was given a noble title by
Czar Nicholas II.
Even prior to the Russian Revolution, Vasnetsov became active as a regent of that gallery. He allocated a significant portion of his income to the
State Historical Museum, so that a large part of the museum's collection was acquired on Vasnetsov's money. After the October Revolutionhe advocated removing some of the religious paintings (notably those by Alexander Ivanov) from churches to the Tretyakov Gallery.
minor planet 3586 Vasnetsov, discovered by Soviet astronomer Lyudmila Zhuravlyovain 1978 is named after Viktor Vasnetsov and Apollinary Vasnetsov. [cite book | last = Schmadel | first = Lutz D. | coauthors = | title = Dictionary of Minor Planet Names | pages = p. 301 | edition = 5th | year = 2003 | publisher = Springer Verlag | location = New York | url = http://books.google.com/books?q=3575+Anyuta | id = ISBN 3540002383]
In the film "", Vasnetsov's painting of
Ivan the Terrible(see gallery below) is anachronictically presented as if it already existed in that Tsar's liftime, and as being sent by Ivan to England when he offers to marry Queen Elizabeth I.
* A. K. Lazuko Victor Vasnetsov, Leningrad: Khudozhnik RSFSR, 1990, ISBN 5-7370-0107-5
* [http://www.abcgallery.com/V/vasnetsov/vasnetsov.html Vasnetsov Gallery]
* [http://www.russianavantgard.com/master_03_artists_world_of_art/victor_vasnetzov-Master%203.html Victor Vastentzov, Russian Avant Garde Gallery]
* [http://vvedenskoe.com/v.vasnetsov1/ Vasnetsov's tomb]
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