Fall River, Massachusetts

Infobox Settlement
official_name = Fall River, Massachusetts



imagesize =
image_caption = Downtown Fall River
nickname = "The Scholarship City"
motto = "We'll Try"
image_







mapsize = 250px
map_caption = Location in Bristol County in Massachusetts


mapsize1 =
map_caption1 =
subdivision_type = Country
subdivision_name = United States
subdivision_type1 = State
subdivision_name1 = Massachusetts
subdivision_type2 = County
subdivision_name2 = Bristol
established_title = Settled
established_date = 1670
established_title2 = Incorporated
established_date2 = 1803
established_title3 =
established_date3 =
government_type = Mayor-council city
leader_title = Mayor
leader_name = Bob Correia
leader_title1 =
leader_name1 =
area_magnitude =
area_total_km2 = 99.0
area_total_sq_mi = 38.2
area_land_km2 = 80.3
area_land_sq_mi = 31.0
area_water_km2 = 18.6
area_water_sq_mi = 7.2
population_as_of = 2000
settlement_type = City
population_total = 91938
population_density_km2 = 1144.3
population_density_sq_mi = 2963.7
elevation_m = 61
elevation_ft = 200
timezone = Eastern
utc_offset = -5
timezone_DST = Eastern
utc_offset_DST = -4
latd = 41 |latm = 42 |lats = 05 |latNS = N
longd = 71 |longm = 09 |longs = 20 |longEW = W
website = [http://www.fallriverma.org/ www.fallriverma.org]
postal_code_type = ZIP code
postal_code = 02720-02724
area_code = 508 / 774
blank_name = FIPS code
blank_info = 25-23000
blank1_name = GNIS feature ID
blank1_info = 0612595
footnotes =

Fall River is a city in Bristol County, Massachusetts, in the United States. It is located about convert|46|mi|km south of Boston, convert|16|mi|km southeast of Providence, Rhode Island and convert|12|mi|km west of New Bedford. The city's population was 91,938 during the 2000 census, making it the eighth largest city in the state. The current mayor of the city is Bob Correia.

Located along the eastern shore of Mount Hope Bay at the mouth of the Taunton River, the City became famous during the 19th century as the leading textile manufacturing center in the United States. While the texile industry has long since moved on (first to the South, and now overseas), its impact on the City's culture and landscape remains to this day.

Fall River's motto is "We'll Try." It is nicknamed "The Scholarship City", which is seen on the welcome signs upon entering the city. Fall River is well-known for Lizzie Borden, who was accused, and later acquitted of the 1892 double axe-murder that occurred at her home on Second Street in the city. Fall River is also known for Battleship Cove, the world's largest collection of World War II naval vessels.

History

Early

At the time of the establishment of the Plymouth Colony in 1620, the area what would one day become the City of Fall River was inhabited by the Pokanoket Wampanoag tribe, headquartered at Mount Hope in what is now Bristol, Rhode Island. The "falling" river that the name Fall River refers to is the Quequechan River (pronounced "Quick-a-shan" by locals) which flows through the city, dropping steeply into the bay. Quequechan is a Wampanoag word believed to mean "Falling River" or "Leaping/Falling Waters."

In 1653, Freetown was settled at Assonet Bay by members of the Plymouth Colony, as part of Freeman's Purchase, which included the northern part of what is now Fall River. In 1683 Freetown was incorporated as a town within the colony. The southern part of what is now Fall River was incorporated as the town of Tiverton as part of the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1694, a few years after the merger with Plymouth Colony. In 1746, in the settlement of a colonial boundary dispute between Rhode Island and Massachusetts, Tiverton was annexed to Rhode Island, along with Little Compton and what is now Bristol County, Rhode Island. The boundary was then placed approximately at what is now Columbia Street.

In 1703, Benjamin Church, a hero of King Phillip's War established a saw mill, grist mill and a fulling mill on the Quequechan River. In 1714, Church sold his land, along with the water rights to Richard Borden of Tiverton and his brother Joseph. This transaction would prove to be extremely valuable 100 years later, helping to establish the Borden family as the leaders in the development of Fall River's textile industry.

During the 18th century the area consisted mostly of small farms and relatively few inhabitants. In 1778, the Battle of Freetown, was fought here during the American Revolutionary War, the townspeople put up a strong defense against a British force.

In 1803, when Fall River was separated from Freetown and officially incorporated as its own town. A year later, Fall River changed its name to "Troy." The name "Troy" was used for 30 years and was officially changed back to Fall River on February 12, 1834.

In July 1843, the first great fire in Fall River's history destroyed much of the town center.

During this time, the southern part of what is now Fall River (south of Columbia Street) would remain part of Tiverton, Rhode Island. In 1856, the town of Tiverton, Rhode Island voted to split off its industrial northern section as Fall River, Rhode Island. In 1861, after decades of dispute, the United States Supreme Court moved the state boundary to what is now State Avenue, thereby creating a City of Fall River entirely within Massachsuetts. (Also as part of this decision, Pawtucket, Massachusetts would become part of Pawtucket, Rhode Island. [ [http://homepage.mac.com/joepowers/mill/rhode.html Fall River, Rhode Island] ]

Industrial Development and Prosperity

"See also: List of mills in Fall River, Massachusetts"

The early establishment of the textile industry in Fall River grew out of the developments made in nearby Rhode Island beginning with Samuel Slater at Pawtucket in 1793. In 1811, Col. Joseph Durfee, the Revolutionary War veteran and hero of the Battle of Freetown in 1778 built the Globe Manufactory (a spinning mill) at the outlet of Cook Pond near what is now Globe Corners in the City's South End. (Which was still part of Tiverton, Rhode Island at that time). While Durfee's mill was never very successful, it marked the beginning of the city's rise in the textile business.

The real development of Fall River's industry however, would occur along the falling river from which it was named, about a mile north of Durfee's first mill. The Quequechan River, with its eight falls combined to make Fall River the best tidewater privilege in southern New England. It was perfect for industrialization - big enough for profit and expansion, yet small enough to be developed by local capital without interference from Boston. [The Run of the Mill, Dunwell, Steve, 1978]

The Fall River Manufactory was established by David Anthony, and others in 1813. That same year the Troy Cotton & Woolen Manufactory was also built at the top end of the falls by a group led by Oliver Chace, from Swansea, who had worked as a carpenter for Samuel Slater in his early years. In 1821, Colonel Richard Borden established the Fall River Iron Works, along with Maj. Bradford Durfee at the lower part of the Quequechan River. Durfee was a shipwright, and Borden was the owner of a grist mill. After an uncertain start, in which some early investors pulled out, the Fall River Iron Works was incorporated in 1825. The Iron Works began producing nails, bar stock, and other items such as bands for casks in the nearby New Bedford whaling industry. They soon gained a reputation for producing nails of high quality, and business flourished. In 1827, Col. Borden began regular steamship service to Providence, Rhode Island. [ [http://www.sailsinc.org/durfee/fallriverironworks.pdf Herald News Article on Fall River Iron Works] ]

Richard Borden also constructed the Metacomet Mill in 1847, which today is the oldest remaining textile (cloth-producing) mill in the City, located on Anawan Street.

The American Print Works was established in 1835 by Holder Borden, uncle of Colonel Richard. With the leadership of the Borden family, the American Print Works (later known as the American Printing Company) would become the largest and most important textile company in the City, employing thousands at its peak in the early 20th Century.

By 1845 however, the Quequechan's available power had been all but maximized. The Massasoit Steam Mill was established in 1846, above the dam near the end of Pleasant Street. However, it would be another decade or so when the improvements in the steam engine by George Corliss would enable the construction of the first large steam-powered mill in the city, the Union Mills in 1859.

The advantage of being able to import baled of cotton and coal to fuel the steam engines to Fall River's deep water harbor, and ship out the finished goods also by water, made Fall River the choice of a series of cotton mill magnates. The first railroad line serving Fall River, The Fall River Branch Railroad, was incorporated in 1844 and opened in 1845. Two years later, in 1847, the first regular steamboat service to New York City began. The Fall River Line as it came to be known operated until 1937, and for many years, was the preferred way to travel between Boston and Manhattan. The Old Colony Railroad and Fall River Railroad merged in 1854, forming the Old Colony and Fall River Railroad.

In 1854, Fall River was officially incorporated as a city, and had a population of about 12,000. [ [http://www.sailsinc.org/durfee/1903.pdf Illustrated History of Fall River, 1903] ] Its first mayor was James Buffington.

Fall River profited well from the Civil War and was in a fine position to take advantage of the prosperity that followed. By 1868, it had surpassed Lowell as the leading textile city in America with over 500,000 total spindles.

Then, during 1871 and 1872, a most dramatic expansion of the City occurred, when 15 new corporations were founded, building 22 new mills throughout the city, while some of the older mills expanded. The city's population increased by an astounding 20,000 people during these two years, while overall mill capacity double to more than 1,000,000 spindles. (One can only imagine the level of excitement and chaos that would have existed in the City at that time).

By 1876 the city had 1/6th of all New England cotton capacity, and one-half of all print cloth production. "King Cotton" had definitely arrived. The "Spindle City" as it became known, was second in the world to only Manchester, England.

To house the thousands of new workers, mostly Irish and French Canadian immigrants during these years, over twelve thousand units of company housing were built. Unlike the well-spaced boardinghouses of early Lowell or the tidy cottages of Rhode Island, worker housing in Fall River consisted of thousands of wood-framed multi-family tenements, usually three floors "triple-decker" with up to six apartments. Many more privately owned tenements supplemented the company housing. [The Run of the Mill, Dunwell, Steve, 1978, p.105-110]

During the 19th Century, the City of Fall River became famous for the granite rock on which much of the city is built upon. Several granite quarries operated during this time, the largest of which was the Beattie Granite Quarry, located near what is now North Quarry Street, near the corner of Locust. [ [http://www.sailsinc.org/durfee/localrock.pdf 2003 Herald News Article on Fall River Granite] ] Many of the mills* in the city were built from this native stone, and it was highly regarded as a building material for many public buildings and private homes alike. The Chateau-sur-Mer mansion in Newport, Rhode Island is perhaps the best example of Fall River Granite being used for private home construction.

*It is interesting to note that while most of the mills "above the hill" were constructed from native Fall River granite, nearly all of their counterparts along the Taunton River and Mount Hope Bay were made of red brick. This was due to the high costs and impracticality associated with transporting the rock through the City and down the hill, where no rail lines existed because of the steep grades. (One notable exception are the Sagamore Mills on North Main Street, which were constructed from similar rock quarried in Freetown, and brought to the site by rail).

On August 4, 1892, Fall River was the scene of two murders allegedly committed by Lizzie Borden. These grisly murders are remembered in a children's rhyme originally for jumping rope, according to the Fall River Historical Society. "Lizzie Borden took an axe and gave her mother forty whacks, when she saw what she had done she gave her father forty-one." Borden was ultimately acquitted of the murders. Lizzie Borden is one of the most famous Fall River natives, because of the alleged murders.

Fall River would ride the wave of economic prosperity well into the early 1900s. During this time, the city boasted several fancy hotels, theatres and a bustling downtown. As the city continually expanded during the late 19th Century, its leaders built several fine parks, schools, street car lines and a public water supply and sewerage system to meet the needs of its growing population.

In 1920 the population of Fall River peaked at 120,485. [US Census. 1940 Population Reports. p. 32]

Decline and Urban Renewal

The cotton mills of Fall River had built their business largely on only one product: print cloth. About 1910, the city's largest employer, the American Printing Company (APC) employed 6,000 people, and was the largest company printer of cloth in the world. Dozens of other city mills solely produced print cloth to be printed at the APC. The city's industry truly had all its eggs in one, very large basket.

World War I had provided a general increase in demand for textiles, and many of the mills of New England benefited during this time. The post-war economy quickly slowed however and production quickly outpaced demand. The Northern mills faced serious competition from their Southern counterparts due to factors such as lower labor and transportation costs, as well as the South's large investment in new machinery and other equipment. In 1923, Fall River faced the first wave of mill closures. Some mills merged and were able to limp along until the late 1920s. By the 1930s and the Great Depression, many more mills were out of business and the City was bankrupt. A few somehow managed to survive through World War II and into the 1950s.

The [http://www.sailsinc.org/durfee/fire.pdf Worst Fire in Fall River's History] occurred on the evening of February 2, 1928. It began when workers were dismantling the recently vacated Pocasset Mill. During the night the fire spread quickly and would wipe out a large portion of Downtown. City Hall was spared, but was badly damaged. Today, many of the structures near the corner of North Main and Bedford Street date from the early 1930s, as they were rebuilt soon after the fire.

The once mighty American Printing Company finally closed for good in 1934. In 1937, their huge plant waterfront on Water Street was acquired by the Firestone Tire & Rubber Company, and soon employed 2,600 people. In 1941, just five weeks before the attack on Pearl Harbor, a huge fire broke out in the old 1860's main building of the print works. The fire was a major setback to the U.S. war effort, as $15 million in raw rubber (30,000 lbs.) was lost in the inferno. [ [http://www.sailsinc.org/durfee/fulltext.htm Keeley Library Collection] ]

With the demise of the textile industry, many of the city's mills would be occupied by various smaller companies, including the Garment Industry, traditionally based in the New York City area, but attracted to New England by the lure of cheap factory space and an eager workforce in need of jobs. [ [http://www.sec.state.ma.us/mhc/mhcpdf/Town%20reports/SE-Mass/flr.pdf MHC Survey, 1982] ] The Garment Industry would survive in the city well into the 1990s, but has also largely become a victim of Globilization and foreign competition. [http://www.sailsinc.org/durfee/lambert.pdf History of Fall River's Garment Industry]

In the 1960s the City's landscape was drastically transformed with the construction of the Braga Bridge and Interstate 195, which cut directly through the heart of the city. In the wake of the highway building boom, the City lost forever some great pieces of its history. The Quequechan River was filled in and re-routed for much of its length. The historic falls, which had given the city its name were diverted into underground culverts. A series of elevated steel viaducts was also constructed as to access the new Braga Bridge. Many historic buildings were demolished, including the Old City Hall, the 150-year old Troy Mills, the Second Granite Block (built after the 1928 fire), as well as several other 19th Century brick-and-mortar buildings near Old City Hall.

Constructed directly over Interstate 195, where its predecessor was, the new city hall / Government Center was finally opened in 1976, after years of construction delays and quality control problems. [ [http://www.bostonroads.com/roads/I-195_MA/ Bostonroads.com I-195] ] Built in the Brutalist style so popular in the 1960s and 1970s, the new city hall drew complaints from city workers and residents almost immediately.

Also during the 1970s, several modern apartment high-rise towers were built throughout the City of Fall River, many part of the Fall River Housing Authority. There were two built near Milliken Boulevard, two on Pleasant Street in Flint Village, another on South Main Street and in the north end off Robeson Street. Today, these high-rises are known by a variety of names, and most serve as housing for the elderly.

In 1978, the City opened the new B.M.C. Durfee High School in the north end, replacing the historic Rock Street masterpiece that had become overcrowded and outdated for use as a high school. The "new" Durfee is currently one of the largest high schools in Massachusetts.

Since about 1980, there has been a considerable amount of new development in the North end of the City, with many new single- and multi-family housing developments, particularly along North Main Street.

Recent History

LNG in Fall River

In 2002, Fall River was controversially tapped as the location for a liquefied natural gas (LNG) tank. Weaver's Cove Energy, LLC, a subsidiary of Hess Corporation, proposed building this facility in a densely populated neighborhood (approximately 10,000 people live within a one-mile (1.6 km) radius of the proposed site). A major concern of residents was that no facility of this sort has ever been built in an inner city before, and that LNG has a mixed safety track record. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/3411651.stm BBC NEWS | Africa | Algeria blast shatters gas plant ] ] In spite of the protests, the plan was recently approved by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. Local citizens and politicians, notably Richard Clarke, the former "terror czar" advisor to former president George H. W. Bush , have attempted to derail the project since FERC's approval. [ [http://www.boston.com/news/local/massachusetts/articles/2005/06/10/three_rip_plan_for_fall_river_lng_site/ Three rip plan for Fall River LNG site - The Boston Globe ] ] The Coast Guard, through its Southcoast Commander, Captain Ray Nash, determined in October 2007 that the LNG facility proposed for Weaver's Cove not be constructed, citing problems with navigating large tankers through and around the Brightman Street Bridge.

Geography

Fall River is located at coor dms|41|41|53|N|71|8|49|W|city (41.698102, -71.146994).GR|1

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of convert|38.2|sqmi|km2|sigfig=3, of which, convert|31.0|sqmi|km2|sigfig=3 of it is land and convert|8.2|sqmi|km2|sigfig=2 of it (18.84%) is water.

The city lies on the eastern border of Mount Hope Bay, which begins at the mouth of the Taunton River starting south from the Charles M. Braga, Jr. Bridge. The greater portion of the city is built on hillsides rising quite abruptly from the water's edge to a height of more than 150 feet (46 m). From the summits of these hills the country extends back in a comparatively level table-land, on which a large section of the city now stands.

Two miles (3 km) eastward from the shore lies a chain of deep and narrow ponds, eight miles (13 km) long (13 km), with an average width of three-quarters of a mile, and covering an area of 3,500 acres (14 km²). These ponds are supplied by springs and brooks, draining a water-shed of 20,000 acres (80 km²). The northern pond is the North Watuppa Pond, the city's main reservoir. The southern pond is the South Watuppa Pond. Where the two ponds meet is called the "The Narrows." East of the North Watuppa Pond is the Watuppa Reservation that includes several thousand acres of forest-land for water supply protection that extends north into the Freetown-Fall River State Forest, and east to Copicut Reservoir. Copicut Pond is located on the border of Dartmouth in North Dartmouth's Hixville section that borders Fall River. The Quequechan River breaks out of its bed in the west part of the South Watuppa Pond, just west of The Narrows, and flows through the city (partially underground in conduits) where it falls to a channel leading to what is now Heritage State Park at Battleship Cove on the Taunton River. The Quequechan River originally flowed unconfined over an almost level course for more than a mile. In the last half-mile (800 m) of its progress it rushes down the hillside in a narrow, precipitous, rocky channel, creating the falls for which Fall River is named. In this distance the total fall is about convert|132|ft|m. and the volume of water convert|122|cuft|m3 per second. Originally an attractive feature of the landscape, the Quequechan has seldom been visible since it was covered over by cotton mills and the Bay Colony Railroad line in the 19th century. As the Quequechan become an underground feature of the industrial landscape, it also became a sewer. In the 20th century the mills were abandoned and some of them burned, exposing the falls once more. Because of highway construction in the 1960s, the waterfalls were buried under Interstate 195, which crosses the Taunton River at Battleship Cove.

Plans exist to "daylight" the falls, restore or re-create them, and build a green belt with a bicycle path along the Quequechan River. In the south end, Cook Pond, also formerly known as Laurel Lake, is located east of the Taunton River and west of the South Watuppa Pond. Between the area of modern day Cook and South Watuppa Ponds, east of the Taunton River and north of Tiverton, Rhode Island, was once referred to as "Pocasset Swamp" during King Philip's War in 1675–1676.

Neighborhoods

(unofficial list)
*Downtown
*Corky Row
*Highlands
**Lower Highlands
**Upper Highlands
*Flint Village
**Bogle Hill
*Globe Village
**South End
**Townsend Hill
*Maplewood
*North End
*Steep Brook

Demographics

USCensusPop
1810= 1296
1820= 1594
1830= 4158
1840= 6738
1850= 11524
1860= 14026
1870= 26766
1880= 48961
1890= 74398
1900= 104863
1910= 119295
1920= 120485
1930= 115274
1940= 115428
1950= 111963
1960= 99427
1970= 96898
1980= 92574
1990= 92703
2000= 91938
estyear=2007
estimate=90905
According to the United States Census of 2000, the population of Fall River is 91,938. The largest racial groups within the city were 91.2% (83,815) White, 2.5% (2,283) African American, 2.2% (1,987) Asian and 0.2% (172) Native American. 47% (43,253) of the population described themselves as being of Portuguese ancestry. The next largest groups by ancestry are French 13.4% (12,343), Irish 9.8% (9,029), English 6.6% (6,085), French Canadian 5.9% (5,458), Italian 3.6% (3,293) and Polish 3.4% (3,148). [ [http://censtats.census.gov/data/MA/1602523000.pdf General Demographic Characteristics for Fall River] ]

Fall River and surrounding communities form a part of the Providence metropolitan area, which has an estimated population of 1,622,520.

In percentage terms Fall River has the largest Portuguese American population in the United States. However the exact percentage of the population they make up is disputed. A 2005 study by the University of Massachusetts Dartmouth has given it at 49.6% [ [http://www.umassd.edu/cfpa/docs/portuguese_education.pdf University of Massachusetts Dartmouth pg. 8] ] while other sources give it as 43.9% [ [http://www.epodunk.com/ancestry/Portuguese.html www.epodunk.com] ] .

The city has 38,759 households and 23,558 families. The population density was 2,963.7 people per square mile (1,144.3/km²). There were 41,857 housing units at an average density of 1,349.3/sq mi (521.0/km²). Of the 38,759 households 29.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.3% were married couples living together, 16.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 39.2% were non-families. 34.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 3.00.

In terms of age the population was spread out with 24.1% under the age of 18, 9.2% from 18 to 24, 29.8% from 25 to 44, 20.0% from 45 to 64, and 16.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 87.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.9 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $29,014, and the median income for a family was $37,671. Males had a median income of $31,330 versus $22,883 for females. The per capita income for the city was $16,118. About 14.0% of families and 17.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.4% of those under age 18 and 17.4% of those age 65 or over. [ [http://censtats.census.gov/data/MA/1602523000.pdf General Demographic Characteristics for Fall River] ]

Culture

The City of Fall River retains a vibrant mix of cultures from around the globe. While the distinct ethnic neighborhoods formed in the late 19th and early 20th century have changed over the years, the legacy the immigrants who came to work in the mills can be found in the various parishes and restaurants throughout the city.

The city is host to many ethnic festivals throughout the year. The largest, the Great Holy Ghost Festival occurs each August at Kennedy Park, and attracts over 200,000 visitors. [ [http://www.ojornal.com/site/news.cfm?newsid=17082572&BRD=2677&PAG=461&dept_id=543384&rfi=6 O'Journal, August 18, 2006] ]

Each summer, the city utilizes its waterfront at Heritage State Park and Battleship Cove for the annual Fourth of July Fireworks display, as well as the annual Fall River Celebrates America Festival. [ [http://www.fallrivercelebrates.com/index.html Fall River Celebrates America] ]

In recent years, different groups have made an effort to increase awareness in the Arts within the City, utilizing vacant mill space for studios and performance centers, such as the Narrows Center for the Arts on Anawan Street. A proposal is also in place to revitalize the Downtown area by the creation of an Arts District.

Religion

Fall River remains a predominately Roman Catholic city, and is the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Fall River, located at St. Mary's Cathedral on Second Street, formed in the 1850s by Irish immigrants. Another very imposing Catholic church is St. Anne's Church. Dozens of other Catholic parishes existed throughout the city, with each ethnic enclave having its own parish. In recent years, the diocese has merged several parishes within the city, closing some, and renaming the united congregations.

Historically, the Highlands neighborhood was predominantly Protestant, with several churches in the area of North Main and Rock Streets. Various other ethno-religious groups also exist within the city, including an historic Jewish Synagogue on High Street and many newer congregations throughout the city.

Government

City government and services

The city is led by the mayor-council form of government, and the current mayor is Robert Correia.

The city's police department is consolidated into a large central police station. There are six fire stations located around the city. The Fire Headquarters is located on Commerce Drive, just across from the former Fall River Municipal Airport. There are four post offices in the city, located in Flint Village, the South End Branch (near Globe Corners), Highland Station and the central branch just behind Government Center, a post office modeled after the New York City main post office behind Penn Plaza. The city is also home to a Superior Court, a District Court and the new Bristol County Court House, located in the former B.M.C. Durfee High School building on Rock Street. A new District Court is under construction on South Main Street.

tate and federal representation

Fall River is represented by three separate Massachusetts House of Representatives districts (one of which represents the majority of the city) and is represented by David B. Sullivan (6th Bristol), Kevin Aguiar (7th Bristol), and Michael J. Rodrigues (8th Bristol). The city is represented in the state senate in the First Bristol and Plymouth district, which includes the city and the towns of Freetown, Lakeville, Rochester, Somerset and Swansea.

Fall River is patrolled by the Third Barracks of Troop D of the Massachusetts State Police, based out of Dartmouth.

On the national level, the city is divided between Massachusetts Congressional Districts 3 and 4, which are represented by Jim McGovern and Barney Frank, respectively. The state's senior (Class I) Senator, re-elected in 2006, is Ted Kennedy, and the state's junior (Class II) Senator, up for re-election in 2008, is John Kerry.

Education

Public schools

There are 21 elementary schools in the Fall River public school system, which are grouped by the four middle schools they feed into: Matthew J. Kuss Middle School (serving the center of the city), Henry Lord Middle School (serving the South End), James Morton Middle School (serving the North End), and Edmond P. Talbot Middle School (serving the east side of the city).

The city has one public high school, B.M.C. Durfee High School. The school was founded in 1887, its original grand school building being a gift of Mrs. Mary B. Young, in the name of Bradford Matthew Chaloner Durfee, her late son, whose name also graces a dormitory at Yale University. The current school building was opened in 1978, and it was recently announced that a replica of the Durfee Chimes, the original school's red-capped bell tower, will be recreated on the grounds.

Durfee's teams wear black and red (in honor of the old school's black roof and red observatory dome and tower spire), and are called the Hilltoppers, sometimes shortened to Toppers. The nickname dates back to the old school's perch on top of the hill north of the Quequechan River. The school is a member of the Big Three Conference, where it competes with Brockton High School and its longtime natural rival, New Bedford High School.

The Fall River School Department is currently involved in several major building projects, designed to consolidate several of the smaller neighborhood schools and replace older, smaller schools, some of which are close to 100 years old. [ [http://www.fallriverschools.org/newschools.cfm FRPS - New Schools] ]

Private schools

In addition to public schools, there are several private and parochial schools in the city, including nine Catholic schools, two private schools, a Christian academy, and Atlantis Charter School, a Pre-K through 8 charter school with a marine science-themed curriculum. The city is also home to Bishop Connolly High School, a Catholic high school named for Bishop James L. Connolly, fourth Bishop of the Diocese of Fall River. The city is the home of Diman Regional Vocational-Technical High School, which also serves the towns of Somerset, Swansea, and Westport. Famous chef Emeril Lagasse graduated from this high school, in the Culinary Arts Program that is still run today. The school's roots date back to the days of the Durfee Textile School, which branched out to include Diman. (The college, founded to promote the city's textile sciences, is now a part of University of Massachusetts Dartmouth.)

Transportation

Fall River has always been considered a transportation hub for the South Coast and Mount Hope Bay areas, due to its location along the Taunton River. In addition to the Fall River Line (discussed in the "History" section), Slade's Ferry ran from Fall River to Somerset since the 1600s, connecting the two communities. In 1875, Slade's Ferry Bridge was opened, connecting the two cities for trolley lines as well as cart (and later, car) traffic. It was a two-tiered steel swing span bridge, extending over convert|1100|ft|m from Remington Avenue to the intersection of Wilbur Avenue, Riverside Avenue and Brayton Avenue in Somerset. This bridge was in use until 1970, when it was closed and subsequently demolished. (The path of the bridge is now roughly marked by twin sets of power lines crossing the river.) In 1903, the state authorized a second bridge, the Brightman Street Bridge, a four lane, convert|922|ft|m|sing=on long drawbridge ending at its namesake street, which opened in 1908 and is still standing today. The third bridge to span the river in Fall River was the Charles M. Braga, Jr. Memorial Bridge. Started in 1959 and opened in the spring of 1966, the six-lane cantilever truss highway bridge spans convert|1.2|mi|km and was part of the project to build Interstate 195.

In the late 1980s, problems were beginning to arise with the Brightman Street Bridge. Currently 100 years old, it is often closed for repairs, which puts much strain on local traffic, forced to take long detours across the nearby Braga Bridge. In 1983 plans were being made to build a new bridge convert|1500|ft|m north of the current one, which would directly link with Route 138. Plans were put on hold in 1989 due to Coast Guard concerns, but construction of the new span began in the late 1990s and continues today despite numerous delays and controversy. A new avenue to link the bridge and Route 6 in Somerset has already begun construction a few yards inland. As of yet, no name for the bridge has been decided upon.

Major highways

Interstate 195 is now the main point of entry for the city, entering via the Braga Bridge from Somerset and leaving over "The Narrows," a small strip of land between the North and South Watuppa Ponds that carries Interstate 195, Route 6 and Old Bedford Road into Fall River from Westport as the roads make their way east towards New Bedford and Cape Cod. The highway covers much of the old path parallel to the Bay Colony/New Bedford Cape Cod Railroad as well the original path of the Quequechan River, and has resulted in a unique situation—it is one of the few highways in the country with a city hall (officially known as "Fall River Government Center") standing directly on top of it. The tunnel which passes below Government Center was the site of an accident in March 1999, in which a cement ceiling tile, its supports worn away by corrosion, collapsed, landed on several cars but not causing more than minor injuries. The incident caused major traffic problems in the area, and bears a striking resemblance to the incident involving the I-90 tunnel collapse (a part of the Big Dig) in 2006.

In addition to Interstate 195, Fall River is also served by four other major routes, which include Route 6 (which passes over the Brightman Street Bridge going west before joining the city grid then continuing east into Westport); Route 24, a 2 Lane North/South divided highway linking Fall River to Boston and Newport; Route 79, another divided highway that begins at the Braga Bridge and continues northbound to Route 24; Route 138, which also enters the city via the Brightman Street Bridge before joining the city grid, passing southwards towards Aquidneck Island; and Route 81, which begins near the former site of the Quequechan River and travels south into Tiverton. Additionally, Route 177 clips the extreme southern part of the city for less than convert|0.25|mi|km|sing=on between Westport and Tiverton. Route 138, Route 24, I-195, and US 6 are based upon old Indian routes and trails.

Rail

The Fall River State Pier is still in operation, bringing goods into the city via boat and also by a freight train line which travels north from the pier parallel to Route 79. Plans are in the works to add commuter service along the current Stoughton Line of the MBTA's commuter rail line, which would also connect New Bedford.

Bus

The city, along with New Bedford, shares ownership of the Southeastern Regional Transit Authority (SRTA), a bus line which covers much of the south coast. [" [http://www.srtabus.com/SchIntro.htm Southeastern Regional Transit Authority] " official Web site.]

Air

Until approximately 1990, the Fall River Municipal Airport served as a general aviation airport for small planes and commuter flights to the Cape and Islands just north of the junction of Routes 79 and 24, but the airport has since closed, the land claimed for an industrial park.

port

occer

Fall River has a rich soccer history. The game was first introduced to the city in the 1880s by the arrival of immigrants from Lancashire and Glasgow who worked in the local textile industry. In later decades the arrival of immigrants from Portugal helped to sustain the games popularity. Between 1888 and 1892 teams from Fall River won the American Cup five times in succession. One of these teams, Fall River Rovers also won the National Challenge Cup in 1917. The star and captain of the team was local-born Thomas Swords who in 1916 also captained the United States in their first official international. During the 1920s and early 1930s Fall River Marksmen were one were one of the most successful soccer clubs in the United States and were American soccer champions on seven occasions. In 1932 another club, Fall River F.C., were also champions. The Marksmen also won the National Challenge Cup four times. Among their most notable players were Billy Gonsalves and Bert Patenaude who were both raised in Fall River. In 1930 they both played for the United States at the first ever soccer World Cup. Patenaude is also credited with scoring the first ever hat-trick at a World Cup. During the 1940s Ponta Delgada S.C. became one the most successful amateur teams in the United States. In 1947 the team was even selected en-masse to represent the United States at the North American football championship. In 1950 two of their local born players, Ed Souza and John Souza, also played at the World Cup and helped the United States defeat England 1-0 ["Soccer in a Football World - The Story of America’s Forgotten Game" (2006) : David Wangerin [http://www.amazon.com/dp/0954013476] ] .

Points of interest

*Battleship Cove The world's largest historic naval ship exhibit featuring the USS Massachusetts
* [http://www.battleshipcove.org/carousel.htm Historic Lincoln Park Carousel] - Restored 1920 Carousel, located at Battleship Cove
*Fall River Heritage State Park The focal point of Fall River's waterfront.
* [http://www.ocandfrrailroadmuseum.com Old Colony & Fall River Railroad Museum]
*The Marine Museum of Fall River.
*Freetown-Fall River State Forest
* [http://www.lizzieborden.org Fall River Historical Society]
* [http://www.lizzie-borden.com/ Lizzie Borden Bed and Breakfast]
*Kennedy Park, North Park and Ruggles Park, all designed by Frederick Law Olmsted
* [http://www.fccfallriver.org The First Congregational Church]
* [http://www.stanneshrine.com/shrine/restoration.htm St. Anne's Church and Shrine]
* [http://www.ncfta.org Narrows Center for the Arts]

People from Fall River

"see cl|People from Fall River, Massachusetts"

References

Further reading

*Images of America: Fall River by: Rob Lewis (Introduction History Pages 7 and 8)

External links

* [http://www.fallriverma.org Fall River, MA Official Website]
* [http://www.battleshipcove.org Battleship Cove Website]
* [http://www.myspace.com/fallriverchronicles - Fall River Chronicles : Volume I]
* [http://www.myspace.com/fallriverchroniclesvolume2 - Fall River Chronicles : Volume II]
* [http://www.myspace.com/fallriverchroniclesvolume3 - Fall River Chronicles : Volume III]
* [http://www.fccfallriver.org The First Congregational Church of Fall River]
* [http://www.fallriverpreservation.org Preservation Society of Fall River]
* [http://www.sailsinc.org/Durfee/colborden.pdf Article on Richard Borden]
* [http://www.sailsinc.org/Durfee/fallriverironworks.pdf Article on Fall River Iron Works]
* [http://www.sailsinc.org/durfee/frenchcame.pdf Article on French Canadians in Fall River]
* [http://www.southcoasttoday.com/apps/pbcs.dll/section?category=TOWN04 SouthCoastToday.com/FallRiver] - local news and city information for Fall River, MA
* Wall & Gray. 1871 [http://www.salemdeeds.com/atlases_results.asp?ImageType=index&atlastype=MassWorld&atlastown=&atlas=MASSACHUSETTS+1871&atlas_desc=MASSACHUSETTS+1871 "Atlas of Massachusetts".] [http://www.salemdeeds.com/atlases_pages.asp?ImageName=PAGE_0010_0011.jpg&atlastype=MassWorld&atlastown=&atlas=MASSACHUSETTS+1871&atlas_desc=MASSACHUSETTS+1871&pageprefix= Map of Massachusetts.] [http://www.salemdeeds.com/atlases_pages.asp?ImageName=PAGE_0002_0003.jpg&atlastype=MassWorld&atlastown=&atlas=MASSACHUSETTS+1871&atlas_desc=MASSACHUSETTS+1871&pageprefix= USA] . [http://www.salemdeeds.com/atlases_pages.asp?ImageName=PAGE_0006_0007.jpg&atlastype=MassWorld&atlastown=&atlas=MASSACHUSETTS+1871&atlas_desc=MASSACHUSETTS+1871&pageprefix= New England] . Counties - [http://www.salemdeeds.com/atlases_pages.asp?ImageName=PAGE_0014_0015.jpg&atlastype=MassWorld&atlastown=&atlas=MASSACHUSETTS+1871&atlas_desc=MASSACHUSETTS+1871&pageprefix= Berkshire] , [http://www.salemdeeds.com/atlases_pages.asp?ImageName=PAGE_0017.jpg&atlastype=MassWorld&atlastown=&atlas=MASSACHUSETTS+1871&atlas_desc=MASSACHUSETTS+1871&pageprefix= Franklin] , [http://www.salemdeeds.com/atlases_pages.asp?ImageName=PAGE_0020_0021.jpg&atlastype=MassWorld&atlastown=&atlas=MASSACHUSETTS+1871&atlas_desc=MASSACHUSETTS+1871&pageprefix= Hampshire and Hampden] , [http://www.salemdeeds.com/atlases_pages.asp?ImageName=PAGE_0024_0025.jpg&atlastype=MassWorld&atlastown=&atlas=MASSACHUSETTS+1871&atlas_desc=MASSACHUSETTS+1871&pageprefix= Worcester] , [http://www.salemdeeds.com/atlases_pages.asp?ImageName=PAGE_0044_0045.jpg&atlastype=MassWorld&atlastown=&atlas=MASSACHUSETTS+1871&atlas_desc=MASSACHUSETTS+1871&pageprefix= Middlesex] , [http://www.salemdeeds.com/atlases_pages.asp?ImageName=PAGE_0058_0059.jpg&atlastype=MassWorld&atlastown=&atlas=MASSACHUSETTS+1871&atlas_desc=MASSACHUSETTS+1871&pageprefix= Essex and Norfolk] , [http://www.salemdeeds.com/atlases_pages.asp?ImageName=PAGE_0048_0049.jpg&atlastype=MassWorld&atlastown=&atlas=MASSACHUSETTS+1871&atlas_desc=MASSACHUSETTS+1871&pageprefix= Boston - Suffolk] , [http://www.salemdeeds.com/atlases_pages.asp?ImageName=PAGE_0032_0033.jpg&atlastype=MassWorld&atlastown=&atlas=MASSACHUSETTS+1871&atlas_desc=MASSACHUSETTS+1871&pageprefix= Plymouth] , [http://www.salemdeeds.com/atlases_pages.asp?ImageName=PAGE_0028_0029.jpg&atlastype=MassWorld&atlastown=&atlas=MASSACHUSETTS+1871&atlas_desc=MASSACHUSETTS+1871&pageprefix= Bristol] , [http://www.salemdeeds.com/atlases_pages.asp?ImageName=PAGE_0036_0037.jpg&atlastype=MassWorld&atlastown=&atlas=MASSACHUSETTS+1871&atlas_desc=MASSACHUSETTS+1871&pageprefix= Barnstable and Dukes (Cape Cod)] . Cities - [http://www.salemdeeds.com/atlases_pages.asp?ImageName=PAGE_0077.jpg&atlastype=MassWorld&atlastown=&atlas=MASSACHUSETTS+1871&atlas_desc=MASSACHUSETTS+1871&pageprefix= Springfield] , [http://www.salemdeeds.com/atlases_pages.asp?ImageName=PAGE_0078.jpg&atlastype=MassWorld&atlastown=&atlas=MASSACHUSETTS+1871&atlas_desc=MASSACHUSETTS+1871&pageprefix= Worcester] , [http://www.salemdeeds.com/atlases_pages.asp?ImageName=PAGE_0079.jpg&atlastype=MassWorld&atlastown=&atlas=MASSACHUSETTS+1871&atlas_desc=MASSACHUSETTS+1871&pageprefix= Lowell] , [http://www.salemdeeds.com/atlases_pages.asp?ImageName=PAGE_0080.jpg&atlastype=MassWorld&atlastown=&atlas=MASSACHUSETTS+1871&atlas_desc=MASSACHUSETTS+1871&pageprefix= Lawrence] , [http://www.salemdeeds.com/atlases_pages.asp?ImageName=PAGE_0081.jpg&atlastype=MassWorld&atlastown=&atlas=MASSACHUSETTS+1871&atlas_desc=MASSACHUSETTS+1871&pageprefix= Haverhill] , [http://www.salemdeeds.com/atlases_pages.asp?ImageName=PAGE_0082.jpg&atlastype=MassWorld&atlastown=&atlas=MASSACHUSETTS+1871&atlas_desc=MASSACHUSETTS+1871&pageprefix= Newburyport] , [http://www.salemdeeds.com/atlases_pages.asp?ImageName=PAGE_0083.jpg&atlastype=MassWorld&atlastown=&atlas=MASSACHUSETTS+1871&atlas_desc=MASSACHUSETTS+1871&pageprefix= Salem] , [http://www.salemdeeds.com/atlases_pages.asp?ImageName=PAGE_0084.jpg&atlastype=MassWorld&atlastown=&atlas=MASSACHUSETTS+1871&atlas_desc=MASSACHUSETTS+1871&pageprefix= Lynn] , [http://www.salemdeeds.com/atlases_pages.asp?ImageName=PAGE_0085.jpg&atlastype=MassWorld&atlastown=&atlas=MASSACHUSETTS+1871&atlas_desc=MASSACHUSETTS+1871&pageprefix= Taunton] , [http://www.salemdeeds.com/atlases_pages.asp?ImageName=PAGE_0086.jpg&atlastype=MassWorld&atlastown=&atlas=MASSACHUSETTS+1871&atlas_desc=MASSACHUSETTS+1871&pageprefix= Fall River] . [http://www.salemdeeds.com/atlases_pages.asp?ImageName=PAGE_0087.jpg&atlastype=MassWorld&atlastown=&atlas=MASSACHUSETTS+1871&atlas_desc=MASSACHUSETTS+1871&pageprefix= New Bedford] . These 1871 maps of the Counties and Cities are useful to see the roads and rail lines.
* Beers, D.G. 1872 "Atlas of Essex County" [http://www.salemdeeds.com/atlases_pages.asp?ImageName=PLATE_0005.jpg&atlastype=Atlases&atlastown=ESSEX+COUNTY&atlas=ESSEX+COUNTY+1872&atlas_desc=ESSEX+COUNTY+1872&pageprefix= Map of Massachusetts Plate 5] . Click on the map for a very large image. Also see detailed map of [http://www.salemdeeds.com/atlases_pages.asp?ImageName=PLATE_0007.jpg&atlastype=Atlases&atlastown=ESSEX+COUNTY&atlas=ESSEX+COUNTY+1872&atlas_desc=ESSEX+COUNTY+1872&pageprefix= 1872 Essex County Plate 7] .


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