- Railroads in Omaha
Omaha, Nebraskahave been integral to the growth and development of the city, the state of Nebraska, the Western United Statesand the entire United States. The convergence of many railroad forces upon the city was by happenstance and synergy, as none of the Omaha leaders had a comprehensive strategy for bringing railroads to the city. [Larsen, L.H. and Cottrell, B.J. (1997) "The Gate City: A history of Omaha." University of Nebraska Press. p 64.]
Omaha was not supposed to be the center of the
First Transcontinental Railroad; its neighbor across the Missouri River, Council Bluffs, Iowawas. In July 1862 President Abraham Lincolnsigned the Pacific Railroad Actinto law, which chartered a new organization called the Union Pacific Railroad. It was authorized to build a single line west from an "initial point" at the 100-degree meridian (near present-day Lexington, Nebraska). [Larsen, L.H. and Cottrell, B.J. (1997) p 23.] While the legislation seemed to favor Omaha, in 1863 Lincoln issued an executive orderdesignating the terminal at Council Bluffs. Thomas C. Durant, the first head of the Union Pacific, arbitrarily decided the railroad should start at Omaha. [Larsen, L.H. and Cottrell, B.J. (1997) p 25.]
First Transcontinental Railroad
In 1863 ground was broken near
Miller's Landingon the Missouri River for the First Transcontinental Railroad. Along with local financier Edward Creighton, [Mullens, P.A. (1901) "Biographical Sketches of Edward Creighton and John A. Creighton." Creighton University. p 24.] George Francis Trainwas the promoter who was chiefly responsible for the city's landing the railroad. He was made rich by its location convenient to the land which he owned near Deer Park. Landing the railroad made the value of his property for development skyrocket. [Bristow, D.L. (2002) "A dirty, wicked town: Tales of 19th century Omaha." Caxton Press. p 66.] The Union Pacific Railroadhas been headquartered in Omaha since its inception in 1867, starting with its fifty-year occupancy of the Herndon Housein downtown. In 1872 Union Pacific opened the first bridge across the Missouri to Omaha. [Larsen, L.H. and Cottrell, B.J. (1997) "The Gate City: A history of Omaha." University of Nebraska Press. p 65.] The historic Overland Route continues to run through the city.
Union Stockyards Railroad Company, a subsidiary of the Union Stockyards Company, was a spur lineestablished to serve the Omaha Stockyards, which opened in the 1880s. It was transformed into the South Omaha Railroadin the 1920s. Because of the Stockyards, by the 1880s Omaha was served by every major railroad in the country. Other railroads in the city included the Omaha Road, Omaha, Lincoln and Beatrice Railway, Omaha Southern Railroad, Kansas, Nebraska and Omaha Railway, Omaha and Republican Valley Railway, Omaha and Southwestern Rail Roadand Omaha, Abilene and Wichita Railway.
Making use of the constellation of railroads, the
US Armybuilt the Omaha Quartermaster Depotin Omaha in 1881. It supplied many military institutions in Nebraska and throughout the Western United States.
In the mid-20th century, Omaha had the second largest stockyards and packing industry in the world. It processed thousands of animals per week. The packing plants received animals from 22 states, with most of the stock transported by railroad.
Omaha Belt Line
The Omaha Belt Line was a 15-mile long railroad that circumnavigated the city starting in 1885. Carrying passengers and cargo, the rail was operated by the
Missouri Pacific Railroad. The railroad also had branches into Lincoln, Wahoo and Nebraska City. [Klein, M. (1986) "The Life and Legend of Jay Gould." Johns Hopkins University Press. p 343.] The line was discontinued in the early 1960s. [Kratville, W. (2002) "Railroads of Omaha and Council Bluffs". Arcadia Publishing. p 75.]
Defunct railroads from Omaha
There were several railroads that went from Omaha throughout the state of Nebraska and beyond. The Kansas, Nebraska and Omaha Railway ran from Omaha to southwestern
Kansas, specifically to provide access from the cattle regions of present-day Oklahomaand Texas. [(1888) [http://www.usgennet.org/usa/ne/topic/resources/OLLibrary/Omaha_book/omaha039.htm "Omaha Railroads"] , "Omaha Illustrated: A history of the pioneer period and the Omaha of today." Omaha: D.C. Dunbar & Co. p. 111. Retrieved September 17 2008.]
Ezra Millard, Andrew J. Hanscom, and Augustus Kountzeformed the Omaha Horse Railway, the first horsecarin the city. The Omaha Cable Tramway Companywas the city's only cable car. It started in 1884 and ended in 1895 after consolidating with the Horse Railway as the Omaha Street Railway Company. In 1896 the new company disbanded as competitors moved in. [ [http://www.omahahistory.org/Education_Timeline6.htm "Omaha Timeline."] Douglas County Historical Society. Retrieved 9/23/07.] An electric carwas built between Omaha and Benson specifically to promote that suburb's development during these years.
Gurdon Wattlesconsolidated several of the older companies to organize the Omaha and Council Bluffs Streetcar Company. After receiving a 30-year franchise from the City of Omaha, the company established a mass transitsystem that covered the entire city, including commuter trains and interurbans. [Larsen, L.H. and Cottrell, B.J. (1997) "The Gate City: A history of Omaha." University of Nebraska Press. p 107.] Streetcar lines operated in Omaha until 1955.
By the opening of the
Trans-Mississippi Expositionin 1898 the city boasted two important train stations. The Union Station was served by the Chicago and North Western Railroad, Wabash Railroad, Missouri Pacific Railroad, Chicago Great Western Railway, Rock Island Railroad, Milwaukee Roadand the Union Pacific Railroad.
It also served as the Union Pacific headquarters, which needed to expand in the 20th century. Architect
Gilbert Stanley Underwoodremarked on his 1931 design of Union Station, "We have tried to express the distinctive character of the railroad: strength, power, masculinity." Union Station was the first Art Deco station in the country. [Potter, J. G. (1996) "Great American Railroad Stations." John Wiley and Sons. p. 377.]
Burlington Stationwas served by the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad, and later the Amtrak. Other stations in the city included the Webster Street Station, Gibson Station, Ralston Station, Florence Depotand the North 34 Street Station.
In 1939 "Union Pacific", a major
Hollywoodfilm, was premiered in Omaha to celebrate the city's railroad heritage. The McKeen railroad motor car was a specialized self-propelled passenger car manufactured in Omaha.
The railroads continued to be important to freight, business and passenger travel into the 20th century. In 1947 the city's two stations had 114 passenger trains per day that connected all across the West and Midwest.
Railroads carried many of the tens of thousands of animals for processing at the packing plants, located near the stockyards and railroads. The city's stockyards and packing industry were the second largest in the world, close to those of Chicago.
Railroads in the 21st century
Omaha Rail and Commerce Historic Districtcelebrates this connection, as do the listing of the Burlington Train Stationand the Union Station on the National Register of Historic Places. Two large train engines have been placed as monuments and industrial art in Kenefick Parkin South Omaha. They face Interstate 80, one of the successor transportation modes.
Several major railroads formerly served Omaha, including Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific (CRIP), Chicago, Burlington & Quincy (CBQ); Chicago Great Western (CGW); Illinois Central (IC); Chicago & Northwestern (CNW); Wabash (WAB); Chicago, Milwaukee, St Paul & Pacific (The Milwaukee Road) (CMStP&P); Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis and Omaha; Missouri Pacific (MP); and the Union Pacific.
Omaha is the location of Union Pacific Railroad's corporate headquarters. Located downtown,
Union Pacific Centeris the largest building by square feet in the state of Nebraska, and the 4th tallest in Omaha. Amtrak, the national passenger rail system, provides service through Omaha, operating its California Zephyrdaily in each direction between Chicago and Emeryville, California, across the bay from San Francisco.
Transportation in Omaha
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