Robert Zajonc

Robert Zajonc

Robert B. Zajonc (pronounced Zy-unce - like Science with a Z; born 1923) is a Polish-born American social psychologist who is known for his decades of work on a wide range of social and cognitive processes. One important contribution was the demonstration of the mere exposure effect, the phenomenon that repeated exposure to a stimulus brings about an attitude change in relation to the stimulus. His official faculty description notes that he focuses on processes involved in social behavior, with an emphasis on the relationship between affect, or emotion, and cognition [http://zajonc.socialpsychology.org/] . Zajonc is also well known for demonstrating how social facilitation (how the presence of others increases or decreases performance) works in humans and other animals, notably in cockroaches, which indicated that social facilitation is not entirely the result of higher cognitive processes.

Zajonc, along with Greg Markus, developed the Confluence Model (1975), which provided a mathematical model of the effect of birth order and family size on IQ scores. This theory suggests that children are born into intellectual environments that affect intelligence--first born children are born into adults-only families, all others are born into mixed adult/child families. As families increase in size, the overall IQ of the family drops; children from larger families do have slightly lower IQs. The last child in the family is denied the opportunity to tutor younger children, and there is a slight "extra" decrement for being the youngest child in a family. These effects are theoretically important, but the size of the effects is fairly small (amounting to a range of about 3 IQ points).

In 1980, a speculative and widely-argued paper entitled "Feeling and Thinking: Preferences Need No Inferences," invited in honor of his receipt of the 1979 Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award from the American Psychological Association, made the argument that affective and cognitive systems are largely independent, and that affect is more powerful and comes first. This paper precipitated a great deal of interest in affect in psychology, and was one of a number of influences that brought the study of emotion and affective processes back into the forefront of American and European psychology.

Zajonc is married to American social psychologist Hazel Rose Markus, known for her contributions to cultural psychology.

ee also

* Audience effect ("in subjects ranging from cockroaches to humans")
* Facial feedback hypothesis

elected bibliography of Zajonc's work

This is a partial bibliography of Zajonc's works in English.

* 1968. Attitudinal effects of mere exposure, "Journal of Personality and Social Psychology".
* 1975. Birth Order and Intellectual Development, with G. Markus, "Psychological Review", 82, 74-88.
* 1980. Feeling and thinking: Preferences need no inferences, "American Psychologist".
* 1966. Social facilitation of dominant and subordinate responses. "Journal of Experimental Social Psychology". 2(2) 1966, 160-168.

External links

* [http://www-psych.stanford.edu/faculty/zajonc.html Robert B. Zajonc] - Faculty page at Stanford
* [http://zajonc.socialpsychology.org/ Robert Zajonc] - Professional Profile at Social Psychology Network


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Robert Zajonc — Robert B. Zajonc (né en 1923, mort à Stanford le 2 décembre 2008) était un psychologue américain spécialisé dans la psychologie sociale et les phénomènes de groupe. Sommaire 1 Œuvre 2 Éléments biographiques …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Robert Zajonc — Robert Boleslaw Zajonc (* 23. November 1923 in Łódź, Polen; † 3. Dezember 2008 in Stanford, Kalifornien) war ein US amerikanischer Psychologe und Hochschullehrer an der Stanford University. Er trug wesentlich zur Entwicklung der Sozialpsychologie …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Zajonc — ist der Familienname von: Miroslav Zajonc (* 1960), tschechoslowakischer Rodelsportler Robert Zajonc (1923–2008), US amerikanischer Psychologe Diese Seite ist eine Begriffsklärung zur Unterscheidung mehrerer mit demselben W …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Robert Lawlor — (born 1939) [http://auroville.org/journals media/avtoday/Mar 03/forecomersf.htm A forecomer looks back ] , Deborah Lawlor, Auroville Today , March 2003] is an anthropologist, mythographer, symbologist and author of several books.After training as …   Wikipedia

  • Robert A. McDermott — Robert McDermott is professor of Philosophy and Religion at the California Institute of Integral Studies in San Francisco. He received his Ph.D. in 1969 in philosophy from Boston University and is president emeritus of the California Institute of …   Wikipedia

  • Зайонц Роберт / Zajonc, Robert В. — (p. 1923). Зайонца интересовала связь между структурой семьи и интеллектуальным развитием. Его имя неразрывно связано с двумя открытиями в области социальной психологии: динамической теорией социального содействия (эффект присутствия) и теорией… …   Психологическая энциклопедия

  • Mere exposure effect — The mere exposure effect is a psychological phenomenon by which people tend to develop a preference for things merely because they are familiar with them. In social psychology, this effect is sometimes called the familiarity principle. The effect …   Wikipedia

  • Drive theory — The terms drive theory and drive reduction theory refer to a diverse set of motivational theories in psychology. Drive theory is based on the principle that organisms are born with certain physiological needs and that a negative state of tension… …   Wikipedia

  • Social Facilitation — Die Social Facilitation Theorie (frei übersetzt Soziale Erleichterung) besagt, dass Lebewesen bei bloßer Anwesenheit von Artgenossen bei einfachen Aufgaben bessere Resultate erzielen. Bei komplexen Aufgaben kehrt sich diese Erleichterung um und… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Exposure effect — The Exposure Effect (also known as the Mere Exposure Effect) is a psychological phenomenon well known to advertisers: people express undue liking for things merely because they are familiar with them. This effect has been nicknamed the… …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.