Anatomy

Anatomy (from the Greek "polytonic|ἀνατομία anatomia", from " polytonic|ἀνατέμνειν ana: separate, apart from, and temnein", to cut up, cut open) is a branch of biology that is the consideration of the structure of living things. It is a general term that includes human anatomy, animal anatomy (zootomy) and plant anatomy (phytotomy). In some of its facets anatomy is closely related to embryology, comparative anatomy and comparative embryology, cite web | url=http://www.bartleby.com/107/1.html| title= Introduction page, "Anatomy of the Human Body". Henry Gray. 20th edition. 1918|accessdaymonth = 19 March| accessyear = 2007] through common roots in evolution.

Anatomy is subdivided into gross anatomy (or macroscopic anatomy) and microscopic anatomy. Gross anatomy (also called topographical anatomy, regional anatomy, or anthropotomy) is the study of anatomical structures that can be seen by unaided vision. Microscopic anatomy is the study of minute anatomical structures assisted with microscopes, which includes histology (the study of the organisation of tissues), and cytology (the study of cells).

The history of anatomy has been characterized, over time, by a continually developing understanding of the functions of organs and structures in the body. Methods have also advanced dramatically, advancing from examination of animals through dissection of cadavers (dead human bodies) to technologically complex techniques developed in the 20th century.

Anatomy should not be confused with anatomical pathology (also called morbid anatomy or histopathology), which is the study of the gross and microscopic appearances of diseased organs.

Superficial anatomy

Superficial anatomy or surface anatomy is important in anatomy being the study of anatomical landmarks that can be readily seen from the contours or the surface of the body. With knowledge of superficial anatomy, physicians or veterinary surgeons gauge the position and anatomy of the associated deeper structures.init

Human anatomy

Human anatomy, including gross human anatomy and histology, is primarily the scientific study of the morphology of the adult human body.

Generally, students of certain biological sciences, paramedics, physiotherapists, nurses and medical students learn gross anatomy and microscopic anatomy from anatomical models, skeletons, textbooks, diagrams, photographs, lectures and tutorials. The study of microscopic anatomy (or histology) can be aided by practical experience examining histological preparations (or slides) under a microscope; and in addition, medical students generally also learn gross anatomy with practical experience of dissection and inspection of cadavers (dead human bodies).

Human anatomy, physiology and biochemistry are complementary basic medical sciences, which are generally taught to medical students in their first year at medical school. Human anatomy can be taught regionally or systemically; that is, respectively, studying anatomy by bodily regions such as the head and chest, or studying by specific systems, such as the nervous or respiratory systems. The major anatomy textbook, Gray's Anatomy, has recently been reorganized from a systems format to a regional format, [cite web | url=http://www.intl.elsevierhealth.com/catalogue/title.cfm?ISBN=0443071683| title= Publisher's page for Gray's Anatomy. 39th edition (UK). 2004. ISBN 0-443-07168-3|accessdaymonth = 19 March | accessyear = 2007] [cite web |url= http://www.us.elsevierhealth.com/product.jsp?isbn=0443071683| title=Publisher's page for Gray's Anatomy. 39th edition (US). 2004. ISBN 0-443-07168-3|accessdaymonth = 19 March | accessyear = 2007] in line with modern teaching methods. A thorough working knowledge of anatomy is required by all medical doctors, especially surgeons, and doctors working in some diagnostic specialities, such as histopathology and radiology.

Academic human anatomists are usually employed by universities, medical schools or teaching hospitals. They are often involved in teaching anatomy, and research into certain systems, organs, tissues or cells.

Other branches

Comparative anatomy relates to the comparison of anatomical structures (both gross and microscopic) in different animals.

Anthropological anatomy or physical anthropology relates to the comparison of the anatomy of different races of humans.

Artistic anatomy relates to anatomic studies for artistic reasons.

See also

General anatomy:

* List of anatomical topics
* History of anatomy
* Important publications in anatomy
* Superficial anatomy
* Anatomical terms of location
* Body plan

Human anatomy:

* List of human anatomical features
* List of human anatomical parts named after people

References

* [http://www.bartleby.com/107/ "Anatomy of the Human Body". 20th edition. 1918. Henry Gray]

External links

* [http://www.anatomy.org American Association of Anatomists] promotes anatomical sciences.
* [http://www.anatomia-argentina.org.ar Argentine Association of Anatomy] promotes anatomical information from Argentine anatomists.
* [http://www.hapsweb.org Human Anatomy & Physiology Society] A society to promote communication among teachers of human anatomy and physiology in colleges, universities, and related institutions.
* [http://www.neuroanatomy.org Neuroanatomy] is an annual journal of clinical neuroanatomy.
* [http://www.ijav.org International Journal of Anatomical Variations] is an annual journal of anatomical variations and clinical anatomy case reports.
* [http://brainmaps.org High-Resolution Cytoarchitectural Primate Brain Atlases]
* [http://www.innerbody.com/htm/body.html Free online anatomy atlas]
* [http://www.npac.syr.edu/projects/vishuman/VisibleHuman.html The NPAC Visible Human Viewer]
* [http://www.rtstudents.com/ Online Radiology Anatomy Resources]
* [http://www.getbodysmart.com/ Get Body Smart]
* [http://www.anatomyatlases.org/ Anatomy Atlases - a digital library of anatomy information]
* [http://www.instantanatomy.net Instant Anatomy - Online anatomy website with podcasts]
* [http://danceopedia.org/anatomy/quiz-ocrl2/ Anatomy quiz for the Level 2 OCR Certifcate]
* [http://www.anatomywiz.com The Anatomy Wiz.] An Interactive Cross-Sectional Anatomy Atlas
* [http://link.library.utoronto.ca/anatomia/ Anatomia 1522-1867: Anatomical Plates from the Thomas Fisher Rare Book Library]
* [http://www.asiaing.com/dream-anatomy.html Dream Anatomy]
* [http://web.mac.com/rlivingston/iWeb/Site/Radiology%20Anatomy%20Atlas.html Free Program with Labeled Anatomic Images For Radiologists and Other Physicians]
* [http://sig.biostr.washington.edu/projects/fm/AboutFM.html Foundational Model of Anatomy ontology]
* [http://www.WinkingSkull.com WinkingSkull.com] is a free study aid for must-know anatomy.
* [http://www.equipodediseccion.com.ar Dissection Team from Argentina] home page of the Dissection Team from Argentina.


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Anatomy — • The science of the form and structure of living beings Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Anatomy     Anatomy     † …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • ANATOMY — ANATOMY. There is no systematic account of the anatomy of the human body in the Bible, although abundant use is made there of anatomical facts, metaphors, and expressions. Biblical anatomy is factual, empirical in the good sense of the word, and… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Anatomy — A*nat o*my, n.; pl. {Anatomies}. [F. anatomie, L. anatomia, Gr. ? dissection, fr. ? to cut up; ? + ? to cut.] 1. The art of dissecting, or artificially separating the different parts of any organized body, to discover their situation, structure,… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • anatomy — [n1] study of animal, plant structure analysis, biology, cytology, diagnosis, dissection, division, embryology, etiology, examination, genetics, histology, inquiry, investigation, medicine, morphology, physiology, zoology; concept 349 anatomy… …   New thesaurus

  • anatomy — index body (person), configuration (form), content (structure) Burton s Legal Thesaurus. William C. Burton. 2006 …   Law dictionary

  • anatomy — (n.) late 14c., study of the structure of living beings; c.1400, anatomical structures, from O.Fr. anatomie, from L.L. anatomia, from Gk. anatomia, from anatome dissection, from ana up (see ANA (Cf. ana )) + temnein to cut (see TOME ( …   Etymology dictionary

  • anatomy — *structure, skeleton, framework …   New Dictionary of Synonyms

  • anatomy — ► NOUN (pl. anatomies) 1) the scientific study of bodily structure. 2) the bodily structure of a person, animal, or plant. 3) a detailed examination or analysis. DERIVATIVES anatomical adjective anatomically adverb anatomist noun …   English terms dictionary

  • anatomy — [ə nat′ə mē] n. pl. anatomies [ME & OFr anatomie < LL anatomia < Gr anatomia, anatomē, a cutting up < anatemnein < ana , up + temnein, to cut: see TOMY] 1. the dissecting of an animal or plant in order to determine the position,… …   English World dictionary

  • anatomy — /euh nat euh mee/, n., pl. anatomies. 1. the science dealing with the structure of animals and plants. 2. the structure of an animal or plant, or of any of its parts. 3. dissection of all or part of an animal or plant in order to study its… …   Universalium

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