Fils de France


Fils de France

Fils de France ("Son of France") was the style and rank held by the sons of the kings and dauphins of France. A daughter was known as a Fille de France ("Daughter of France").

The children of the Dauphin, being the King's heir apparent, were accorded the same style and status as if they were the king's children instead of his grandchildren. [cite book|last= Spanheim|first= Ézéchiel|editor= ed. Émile Bourgeois|title= Relation de la Cour de France|series= le Temps retrouvé|year = 1973|publisher=Mercure de France|location= Paris|language= French|pages= page 70]

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The king, queen, Queen dowager, "enfants de France" and "petits-enfants de France" constituted the famille du roi ("Royal Family"). [ib. Spanheim, Ézéchiel, pp. 81, 87, 313-314.] More remote legitimate, male-line descendants of France's kings held the designation and rank of princes du sang ("Princes of the Blood") or, if legally recognized despite a bar sinister on the escutcheon, they were customarily deemed "princes légitimés" ("Legitimated Princes"). [ib. Spanheim, Ézéchiel, pp. 100-105, 323-327.]

The Dauphin, the heir to the French throne, was the most senior of the "fils de France" and was addressed as "Monseigneur". The king's next younger brother, also a "fils de France", was known simply as "Monsieur", and his wife as "Madame". [ib. Spanheim, Ézéchiel, p. 72.]

Daughters were referred to by their given name prefaced by the honorific, "Madame", while sons were referred to by their main peerage title (usually ducal), except for the Dauphin. The king's eldest daughter was known as "Madame Royale" until she married, whereupon the next eldest "fille de France" succeeded to the style.

Although the children of monarchs are often referred to in English as "prince" or "princess", those terms were used as general descriptions for royalty in France, but not as titular prefixes or direct forms of address prior to the July Monarchy (1830-1848). Collectively, the legitimate children of the kings and dauphins were known as "enfants de France" ("Children of France") and used "de France" as their surname.

The styles of the royal family varied as follows:

Monsieur le Dauphin

This was a form of address for the Dauphin of France. The "dauphin de France", strictly-speaking the dauphin de Viennois, was the title used for the heir apparent to the throne of France from 1350 to 1791 and then from 1824 to 1830.

*Louis de France (1661-1711), the only surviving son of Louis XIV (1638-1715), was usually not referred to by this style as he was usually referred to at court as either "Monseigneur" (see more below) or, informally, as "le Grand Dauphin".
*His eldest son, Louis, duc de Bourgogne, (1682-1712), who became the dauphin in 1711, was informally known as "le Petit Dauphin".

Madame la Dauphine

This was the style of the dynastic wife of the "Dauphin". Some of holders of the honorific were:

*Maria Anna of Bavaria (1660-1690), also called "Dauphine Victoire". She was the first wife of "Monseigneur", "le Grand Dauphin", and the grandmother of Louis XV (1710-1774)
*Marie-Adélaïde of Savoy (1685-1712), she was the wife of the Dauphin Louis (1682-1712) and the mother of Louis XV. She was also a grand-daughter of "Madame", Henrietta Anne Stuart (1644-1670), the first wife of "Monsieur", Philippe, duc d'Orléans (1640-1701).
*Maria Teresa Rafaela of Spain (1726-1746), she was the first wife of Louis (1729-1765), the only son of Louis XV, and held the style till her death in 1748 at age twenty-one.
*Marie-Josèphe of Saxony (1731-1767), she was the second wife of Louis, son of Louis XV, and the mother of Louis XVI (1754-1793), Louis XVIII (1755-1824) and Charles X (1757-1836).
*Maria Antonia Josepha Johanna von Habsburg-Lothringen, Marie Antoinette was the Dauphine until her husband succeeded to the throne in 1774 as Louis XVI
*Marie-Thérèse-Charlotte of France (1778-1851) ; daughter of Louis XVI and Marie-Antoinette, known as "Madame Royale", she became the last Dauphine of France when her father-in-law, Charles X, succeeded to the throne in 1824.

Madame Royale

This was the style of the eldest surviving daughter of the King. Those who held this honorific were:

*Élisabeth de France (1602-1644), the eldest daughter of King Henry IV of France (1553-1610) and his second wife, Queen Marie de' Medici (1575-1642). In 1615, Élisabeth was married to the future king, Philip IV of Spain (1605-1665). On her death in 1644, the style reverted to her younger sister, Christine Marie of France.
*Christine Marie de France (1606-1663), the second daughter of King Henry IV and Marie de' Medici. In 1619, Christine was married to Victor Amadeus I, Duke of Savoy (1587-1637). She assumed the style of "Madame Royale" upon the death of her older sister, the Queen of Spain.
*Marie-Thérèse de France (1667-1672), the longest surviving daughter of Louis XIV and his Queen Maria Theresa of Spain (1638-1683) and the only one to survive infancy.
*Louise-Élisabeth de France (1727-1759), the eldest daughter of King Louis XV and his wife, Queen Maria Leszczyńska (1703-1768). As a twin, Louise-Élisabeth rarely if ever used this title. She preferred being called "Madame Première", to distinguish herself from her younger twin sister, Henriette-Anne of France (1727-1752), who was referred to as "Madame Seconde".Fact|date=May 2008 See more on this below.
*Marie-Thérèse-Charlotte de France, the eldest daughter of King Louis XVI and his wife, Queen Marie Antoinette. Marie-Thérèse had the tragic privilege of being the sole member of her immediate family to survive the French Revolution. She also exerted a great deal of political influence during the Bourbon Restoration (1815-1830). [Nagel, Susan, "Marie-Thérèse, Child of Terror", Bloomsbury USA, 2008, p.277, ISBN-13: 9781596910577.]

Between the death, in 1672, of Marie-Thérèse of France, the longest living daughter of Louis XIV, and the birth, in 1727, of Louise-Élisabeth of France, the eldest daughter of Louis XV, there were no legitimate daughters of the King. Because of this, during the time between 1672 and 1727, the style was occasionally used by the most senior unmarried princess at the French Court.

It was briefly used by the eldest niece of Louis XIV, Marie Louise d'Orléans (1662-1689), later known as just "Mademoiselle". After her marriage to King Charles II of Spain (1661-1700), in 1679, the style was assumed briefly by her younger sister, Anne Marie d'Orléans (1669-1728), before she married Victor Amadeus II of Sardinia (1666-1732).

Monsieur

This honorific was the style of the oldest living brother of the King. Among those who held this style were:

*Charles, duc d'Orléans (1550-1574), younger brother of Francis II (1544-1560), was known as "Monsieur" at the beginning of the reign of Francis II. He was King of France as Charles IX from 1560 to 1574;
*Henri, duc d'Anjou (1551-1589), younger brother of Francis II and Charles IX, was known as "Monsieur" during the reign of Charles IX. He became King of France as Henry III from 1574-1589;
*Francis, duc d'Anjou (1574-1584), youngest brother of Francis II, Charles IX and Henry III, was known as "Monsieur" during the reign of Henry III;
*Gaston, duc d'Orléans (1608-1660), younger brother of Louis XIII (1601-1643), was known as "Monsieur" during the reign of Louis XIII;
**When Louis XIII died in 1643, Gaston's nephew Philippe, duc d'Anjou (1640-1701) became known as "le Petit Monsieur" and Gaston as "le Grand Monsieur".
*Philippe, duc d'Orléans (1640-1701) was the younger brother of Louis XIV, and known as "Monsieur" in 1660 after the death of his uncle, Gaston. He was the founder of the House of Orléans;
*Louis Stanislas, comte de Provence (1755-1824), younger brother of Louis XVI, known as "Monsieur" during the reign of Louis XVI, and was later King of France as Louis XVIII from 1814 to 1824;
*Charles Philippe, comte d'Artois (1757-1836) was the youngest brother of Louis XVI and Louis XVIII, and known as "Monsieur" at the beginning of the reign of Louis XVIII, and later King of France as Charles X from 1824 to 1830.

Madame

This was the style of the wife of "Monsieur". Examples of this were:

*Marie de Bourbon, duchesse de Montpensier (1605-1627), first wife of Gaston, duc d'Orléans ("Monsieur") and mother of "la Grande Mademoiselle" (1627-1693).
*Princess Henrietta-Anne of England (1644-1670), the first wife of King Louis XIV's younger brother, Philippe I, duc d'Orléans, ("Monsieur").
*Elizabeth Charlotte, Princess Palatine (1652-1722), the second wife of Philippe I, duc d'Orléans ("Monsieur").
*Marie Josephine Louise of Savoy (1753-1810), wife of the comte de Provence, the future Louis XVIII.

Other

Monseigneur

This was another style of addressing "Le Grand Dauphin", the only legitimate son of Louis XIV. After the death of "le Grand Dauphin", the heir apparent to the throne of France for half a century, the style of "Monseigneur" was not used again to describe the "Dauphin" himself. Rather, it became the style used by his sons before their titles (see more below).

Madame Première

King Louis XV and his wife, Maria Leszczyńska, had ten children, eight of whom were girls. To distinguish between these eight princesses, the daughters were known in birth order as "Madame 'number"', such as "Madame Première", "Madame Seconde", etc.

*Louise-Élisabeth (1727-1759), twins with her younger sister, Henriette; married Philip, Duke of Parma (1720-1765). Before her marriage, she was known as "Madame Première". After her marriage she was the Duchess of Parma, and as such was known as "Madame Infante, duchesse de Parme".
*Henriette-Anne (1727-1752), twins with her older sister, Louise-Élisabeth, known as "Madame Seconde".
*Marie-Louise (1728-1733), known as "Madame Troisième".
*Adélaïde (1732-1800), originally known as "Madame Quatrième"; after her elder sister died in 1733, she was known as "Madame Troisième". Later, she was known as "Madame Adélaïde".
*Victoire (1733-1799), originally known as "Madame Quatrième", and later as "Madame Victoire".
*Sophie (1734-1782), "Madame Cinquième", known later as "Madame Sophie".
*Thérèse-Félicité (1736-1744), known as "Madame Sixième".
*Louise (1737-1787), originally, known as "Madame Septième" or "Madame Dernière"; known later as "Madame Louise".

"Note: This style was not a traditional right and was merely a way the court used to distinguish between the many daughters of Louis XV."

Petit-fils de France

Petit-fils de France ("Grandson of France") was the style and rank accorded to the sons of the "fils de France", who were themselves the sons of the kings and dauphins of France. Females had the style petite-fille de France ("Granddaughter of France"). However, as surnames, they used their paternal main peerage title.

The "petits-enfants de France", like the "enfants de France", were entitled to be addressed as "Son Altesse Royale" (Royal Highness). Additionally, they traveled and lodged wherever the king did, could dine with him, and were entitled to an armchair in his presence.

Yet, as hosts, they only offered armchairs to foreign monarchs -- whom they addressed as "Monseigneur" rather than "Sire". Nor did they pay visits to foreign ambassadors or extend to them a hand in greeting. They only wore full mourning for deceased members of the royal family.

When entering a town, they were greeted with the presentation of arms by the royal garrison, by the firing of cannon, and by a delegation of local officials. However, only the sons and daughters of France were entitled to dine "au grand couvert", that is, alone on a canopied dais amidst non-royal onlookers. [ib. Spanheim, Ézéchiel, pp. 87, 313-314.]

Monseigneur

During the lifetime of "le Grand Dauphin", the only legitimate son of Louis XIV, his three sons were addressed as:

*"Monseigneur, le Duc de Bourgogne"
*"Monseigneur, le Duc d'Anjou"
*"Monseigneur, le Duc de Berry"

Mademoiselle

This style was held by the eldest daughter of "Monsieur" and his wife, "Madame" [ib. Spanheim, Ézéchiel, pp.76, 80.] . Those who held this style were:

*Anne Marie Louise d'Orléans (1627-1693). She was the eldest daughter of Gaston, Duke of Orléans|Gaston, duc d'Orléans, the younger brother of Louis XIII.
*Marie Louise d'Orléans (1662-1689), later the wife of King Charles II of Spain. She was the eldest daughter of King Louis XIV's younger brother, Philippe I, duc d'Orléans.

Younger daughters of "Monsieur" were named after one of his inherited fiefdoms. An example of this was "Mademoiselle de Chartres" (1676-1744), the third surviving daughter of Philippe I, duc d'Orléans.

Other families also did this such as the "House of Bourbon-Condé" with "Anne-Louise-Bénédicte de Bourbon-Condé" being known as "Madmoiselle d’Enghien" (1676-1753). A Conti example is "Mademoiselle de Conti".

La Grande Mademoiselle

After 1662, Anne, Duchess of Montpensier, who was originally called "Mademoiselle" as the eldest daughter of Gaston, Duke of Orléans, became known as "la Grande Mademoiselle" at court, in order to distinguish her from her younger cousin, Maria Luisa of Orléans, now also called "Mademoiselle", as the daughter of Anne's first cousin, the new "Monsieur". After her death in 1693, the style of "Grande Mademoiselle" was not used again.

"Note: this style was not an official style but simply a means the court used to distinguish between the two princesses who held the style of Mademoiselle at the same time."

Legitimised royal offspring

Legitimised children of the King of France, and of other males of his dynasty, took surnames according to the branch of the House of Capet to which their father belonged, e.g. Louis-Auguste de Bourbon, duc du Maine, was the elder son of Louis XIV by his mistress, Mme de Montespan. [ib. Spanheim, Ézéchiel, pp. 323, 107-108.]

Examples

After the legitimisation occurred, the child was given a title. Males were given titles from their father's lands and estates and females were given the style of "Mademoiselle de X". Examples of this are (children of Louis XIV and Mme de Montespan):

*Louise Françoise de Bourbon (1669-1672);
*Louis-Auguste de Bourbon (1670-1736), titled "duc du Maine" - later married to Anne-Louise-Bénédicte de Bourbon-Condé.
*Louis César de Bourbon (1672-1683), titled "comte de Vexin";
*Louise-Françoise de Bourbon (1673-1743), titled "Mademoiselle de Nantes" - later wife of Louis III de Bourbon-Condé, "prince de Condé"
*Louise Marie Anne de Bourbon (1674-1681), titled "Mademoiselle de Tours";
*Françoise-Marie de Bourbon (1677-1749), titled "Mademoiselle de Blois" - wife of Philippe II d'Orléans, "duc d'Orléans".
*Louis-Alexandre de Bourbon (1678-1737), titled "comte de Toulouse" - later married to Marie Victoire de Noailles.

Also the child would be called a Légitimé de France or Bourbon; such as Marie Anne de Bourbon, Légitimée de France, "Mademoiselle de Blois" daughter of Louis XIV and Louise de La VallièreHer full brother was Louis de Bourbon, later given the title of "comte de Vermandois".

Orléans-Longueville

The branch of the "ducs de Longueville", extinct in 1672, bore the surname "d'Orléans", as legitimised descendants of Jean, bâtard d'Orléans, the son of a Valois prince who held the appanage of Orléans before the Bourbons did. [ib. Spanheim, Ézéchiel, pp. 104-105.] Non-legitimised natural children of royalty took whatever surname the king permitted, which might or might not be that of the dynasty.

Children born out of wedlock to a French king or prince were never recognized as "fils de France". However, if legitimised, the king might raise them to a rank just below or even equivalent to that of a "prince du sang". [ib. Spanheim, Ézéchiel, pp. 100-105, 323-327.]

References

ee also

*Dauphin
*Madame Royale
*Monsieur
*Madame
*Prince of the blood
*First Prince of the Blood
*Prince du Sang
*Infante and its feminine form, "infanta", for princes and princesses of Spain and Portugal


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