Anaxagoras

Anaxagoras (Greek: Unicode|Ἀναξαγόρας, c. 500 BC – 428 BC) was a Pre-Socratic Greek philosopher famous for introducing the cosmological concept of Nous (mind), the ordering force.

Biography

Anaxagoras appears to have had some amount of property and prospects of political influence in his native town of Clazomenae in Asia Minor. However, he supposedly surrendered both of these out of a fear that they would hinder his search for knowledge. Although a Greek, he may have been a soldier of the Persian army when Clazomenae was suppressed during the Ionian Revolt.

In early manhood (c. 464-461 BC) he went to Athens, which was rapidly becoming the centre of Greek culture. There he is said to have remained for thirty years. Pericles learned to love and admire him, and the poet Euripides derived from him an enthusiasm for science and humanity.

Anaxagoras brought philosophy and the spirit of scientific inquiry from Ionia to Athens. His observations of the celestial bodies and the fall of meteorites led him to form new theories of the universal order. He attempted to give a scientific account of eclipses, meteors, rainbows and the sun, which he described as a mass of blazing metal, larger than the Peloponnese. The heavenly bodies, he asserted, were masses of stone torn from the earth and ignited by rapid rotation. However, these theories brought him into collision with the popular faith; Anaxagoras' views on such things as heavenly bodies were considered "dangerous."

About 450 [A.E. Taylor, "On the date of the trial of Anaxagoras" "Classical Quarteryly" 11 (1917), pp 81-87.] Anaxagoras was arrested by Pericles' political opponents on a charge of contravening the established religion (some say the charge was one of Medism). It took Pericles' power of persuasion to secure his release. Even so he was forced to retire from Athens to Lampsacus in Ionia (c. 434-433 BC). He died there in around the year 428 BC. Citizens of Lampsacus erected an altar to Mind and Truth in his memory, and observed the anniversary of his death for many years.

Anaxagoras wrote a book of philosophy, but only fragments of the first part of this have survived, through preservation in work of Simplicius of Cilicia in the sixth century AD.

Cosmological theory

All things have existed from the beginning. But originally they existed in infinitesimally small fragments of themselves, endless in number and inextricably combined. All things existed in this mass, but in a confused and indistinguishable form. There were the seeds ("spermata") or miniatures of wheat and flesh and gold in the primitive mixture; but these parts, of like nature with their wholes (the "homoiomereiai" of Aristotle), had to be eliminated from the complex mass before they could receive a definite name and character.Mind arranged the segregation of like from unlike; "panta chremata en omou eita nous elthon auta diekosmese". This peculiar thing, called Mind ("Nous"), was no less illimitable than the chaotic mass, but, unlike the "logos" of Heraclitus, it stood pure and independent ("mounos ef eoutou"), a thing of finer texture, alike in all its manifestations and everywhere the same. This subtle agent, possessed of all knowledge and power, is especially seen ruling in all the forms of life.Fact|date=April 2008

Mind causes motion. It rotated the primitive mixture, starting in one corner or point, and gradually extended until it gave distinctness and reality to the aggregates of like parts, working something like a centrifuge, and eventually creating the known cosmos. But even after it had done its best, the original intermixture of things was not wholly overcome. No one thing in the world is ever abruptly separated, as by the blow of an axe, from the rest of things.

It is noteworthy that Aristotle accuses Anaxagoras of failing to differentiate between "nous" and "psyche", while Socrates (Plato, "Phaedo", 98 B) objects that his "nous" is merely a "deus ex machina" to which he refuses to attribute design and knowledge.

Anaxagoras proceeded to give some account of the stages in the process from original chaos to present arrangements. The division into cold mist and warm ether first broke the spell of confusion. With increasing cold, the former gave rise to water, earth and stones. The seeds of life which continued floating in the air were carried down with the rains and produced vegetation. Animals, including man, sprang from the warm and moist clay. If these things be so, then the evidence of the senses must be held in slight esteem. We seem to see things coming into being and passing from it; but reflection tells us that decease and growth only mean a new aggregation (sugkrisis) and disruption ("diakrisis"). Thus Anaxagoras distrusted the senses, and gave the preference to the conclusions of reflection. Thus he maintained that there must be blackness as well as whiteness in snow; how otherwise could it be turned into dark water?

Anaxagoras marked a turning-point in the history of philosophy.With him speculation passes from the colonies of Greece to settle at Athens. By the theory of minute constituents of things, and his emphasis on mechanical processes in the formation of order, he paved the way for the atomic theory. However, his enunciation of the order that comes from an intelligent mind suggested the theory that nature is the work of design.

ee also

*The Anaxagoras crater
*Squaring the circle

Notes

References and further reading

Books

*1911
*Bakalis Nikolaos (2005) "Handbook of Greek Philosophy: From Thales to the Stoics Analysis and Fragments", Trafford Publishing, Victoria, BC., ISBN 1-4120-4843-5
*Barnes J. (1979) "The Presocratic Philosophers", Routledge, London, ISBN 0-7100-8860-4, and editions of 1982, 1996 and 2006
*Burnet J. (1892) "Early Greek Philosophy" A. & C. Black, London, [http://worldcat.org/oclc/4365382 OCLC 4365382] , and subsequent editions, 2003 edition published by Kessinger, Whitefish, Montana, ISBN 0-7661-2826-1
*Cleve, Felix M. (1949) "The Philosophy of Anaxagoras: An attempt at reconstruction" King's Crown Press, New York [http://worldcat.org/oclc/2692674 OCLC 2692674] ; republished in 1973 by Nijhoff, The Hague, as "The Philosophy of Anaxagoras: As reconstructed" ISBN 90-247-1573-3
*Curd, Patricia (2007) "Anaxagoras of Clazomenae : Fragments and Testimonia : a text and translation with notes and essays" University of Toronto Press, Toronto, Ontario, ISBN 978-0-8020-9325-7
*Gershenson, Daniel E. and Greenberg, Daniel A. (1964) "Anaxagoras and the birth of physics" Blaisdell Publishing Co., New York, [http://worldcat.org/oclc/899834 OCLC 899834]
*Graham, Daniel W. (1999) "Empedocles and Anaxagoras: Responses to Parmenides" Chapter 8 of Long, A. A. (1999) "The Cambridge Companion to Early Greek Philosophy" Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 159-180, ISBN 0-521-44667-8
*Guthrie, W. K. C. (1965) "The Presocratic tradition from Parmenides to Democritus" volume 2 of "A History of Greek Philosophy" Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [http://worldcat.org/oclc/4679552 OCLC 4679552] ; 1978 edition ISBN 0-521-29421-5
*Kirk G. S.; Raven, J. E. and Schofield, M. (1983) "The Presocratic Philosophers: a critical history with a selection of texts" (2nd ed.) Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, ISBN 0-521-25444-2; originally authored by Kirk and Raven and published in 1957 [http://worldcat.org/oclc/870519 OCLC 870519]
*Taylor, C. C. W. (ed.), "Routledge History of Philosophy: From the Beginning to Plato", Vol. I, pp. 192 - 225, ISBN 0-203-02721-3 Master e-book ISBN, ISBN 0-203-05752-X (Adobe eReader Format) and ISBN 0-415-06272-1 (Print Edition).
*Teodorsson, Sven-Tage (1982) "Anaxagoras' theory of matter" Acta Universitatis Gothoburgensis, Göteborg, Sweden, ISBN 91-7346-111-3, in English
*Zeller, A. (1881) "A History of Greek Philosophy: From the Earliest Period to the Time of Socrates", Vol. II, translated by S. F. Alleyne, pp. 321 - 394

External links

*MacTutor Biography | id=Anaxagoras
*ScienceWorldBiography | urlname=Anaxagoras | title=Anaxagoras of Clazomenae (ca. 500-ca. 428 BC)
* [http://www.ellopos.net/elpenor/greek-texts/ancient-greece/anaxagoras-nous.asp Anaxagoras in English and Greek, Select Online Resources]
* [http://www.classicpersuasion.org/pw/burnet/egp.htm?chapter=6#124 Translation and Commentary] from John Burnet's "Early Greek Philosophy".
*sep entry|anaxagoras|Anaxagoras|Patricia Curd

Persondata
NAME=Anaxagoras
ALTERNATIVE NAMES=
SHORT DESCRIPTION=pre-Socratic Greek philosopher
DATE OF BIRTH=c. 500 BCE
PLACE OF BIRTH=Clazomenae, Asia Minor
DATE OF DEATH=428 BCE
PLACE OF DEATH=Lampsacus in Ionia


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  • Anaxagoras — (griechisch Ἀναξαγόρας, * 499 v. Chr.; † 428 v. Chr.) war ein Vorsokratiker aus Klazomenai in Kleinasien. Sein nur in Fragmenten und hauptsächlich von Aristoteles überliefertes philosophisches Denken wird als Zusammenführung der Ansätze Heraklits …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Anaxágoras — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Anaxágoras (Αναξαγόρας) Anaxágoras Filosofía occidental Filosofía presocrática …   Wikipedia Español

  • Anaxagoras — Anaxagoras,   griechischer Philosoph aus Klazomenai in Ionien, * um 500 v. Chr., ✝ Lampsakos (Hellespont) 428 v. Chr.; kam mit zwanzig Jahren nach Athen. Weil er die Sonne für eine glühende Steinmasse hielt, wurde er der Gottlosigkeit bezichtigt… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Anaxagoras — Anaxagoras, geb. um 499 v. Chr. zu Klagomenä in Ionien, kam zur Zeit der Perserkriege nach Athen, wo er die angesehensten Männer zu Schülern hatte. Allein schon bei ihm kam die Volksreligion mit der Philosophie in Konflikt; der ernste und strenge …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

  • Anaxagŏras — Anaxagŏras, griechischer Männername, d.i. der in der Volksversammlung den Ton Angebende. 1) A., Sohn des Megapenthes, König von Argos. 2) A., griechischer Philosoph aus der Ionischen Schule zu Klazomenä, geb. 500 v. Chr., widmete sich den… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Anaxagŏras — Anaxagŏras, griech. Philosoph der ionischen Schule, geb. 500 v. Chr. in Klazomenä in Ionien, gest. 428, stammte aus reicher und vornehm er Familie, kam etwa 464 nach Athen, wo er die Philosophie aufbrachte, der Freund des Perikles und des… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Anaxagoras — Anaxagŏras, griech. Philosoph, geb. um 500 v. Chr. zu Klazomenä, Lehrer zu Athen, von wo er, des Atheismus angeklagt, fliehen mußte, gest. 428 zu Lampsakus; er nahm neben dem Stoff ein zweites, geistiges Prinzip (Nūs) an, das die Welt geordnet… …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

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  • Anaxágoras — (Anaxagóras) ► (¿500 428 a C) Filósofo griego presocrático de la escuela llamada jónica. Compuso el tratado Sobre la naturaleza. Creía que la materia es infinitamente indivisible y que la inteligencia (nous) es la fuerza ordenadora, que puso en… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Anaxagoras — [an΄aks ag′ə rəs] 500? 428? B.C.; Gr. philosopher from Ionia who taught in Athens …   English World dictionary

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