Fort William, Scotland

infobox UK place
country = Scotland
official_name = Fort William
gaelic_name = An Gearasdan
scots_name =
population = 9,908 (2001 Census)
os_grid_reference = NN103738
longitude = -5.10963
latitude = 56.81689
unitary_scotland = Highland
lieutenancy_scotland = Inverness
constituency_westminster = Ross, Skye and Lochaber
constituency_scottish_parliament= Inverness East, Nairn & Lochaber
post_town = FORT WILLIAM
postcode_district = PH33
postcode_area = PH
dial_code = 01397
edinburgh_distance =
london_distance =

Fort William (Scottish Gaelic: "An Gearasdan", "The Garrison") is the largest town in the highlands of Scotland, now that Inverness has achieved City status. Originally based around the still-extant village of Inverlochy, the town lies at the southern end of the Great Glen, on the shores of Loch Linnhe and Loch Eil. It is close to Ben Nevis, the highest mountain in the British Isles, and Glen Nevis.

Fort William is a major tourist centre with Glen Coe just to the south, and Glenfinnan to the west, on the Road to the Isles. It is an important centre for hillwalking and climbing due to its proximity to Ben Nevis and many other Munro mountains. It is also well known for its nearby famous Downhill Mountain Bike Track and its connection to the West Higland Way from Glasgow and the Great Glen Way; a walk/cycle way from Inverness to Fort William through the Great Glen.

Around 726 (7.26%) of the population can speak Gaelic. [ cite web
url = http://195.173.143.171/plintra/iandr/cen/cen.htm
title = Census 2001
work = Population figures
accessmonthday = August 17 | accessyear = 2005
] Far more speak a little Gaelic.

History

Historically, this area of Lochaber was strongly Clan Cameron country, and there were a number of mainly Cameron settlements in the area (such as Blarmacfoldach). The nearby settlement of Inverlochy was the main settlement in the area before the building of the fort, and was also site of the Battle of Inverlochy.

However, the town is not of local origin. It grew up as a settlement next to a fort constructed to control the population after Oliver Cromwell's invasion during the English Civil War, and then to suppress the Jacobite uprisings of the 18th century. The fort was named "Fort William"' after William Of Orange, and the settlement that grew around it was called "Maryburgh", after his wife. This settlement was later renamed "Gordonsburgh", and then "Duncansburgh" [ [http://www.scottish.parliament.uk///vli/language/gaelic/pdfs/placenamesF-J.pdf Faddoch (Ross), An Fhdaich ] ] before being renamed "Fort William", this time after Prince William, Duke of Cumberland; known to some Scots as "Butcher Cumberland". Given these origins, there have been various suggestions over the years to rename the town (for example, to "Invernevis"). These proposals have led to nothing as of yet.

During World War II, Fort William was the home of HMS "St Christopher" which was a training base for Royal Navy Coastal Forces.

Fort William is the end point of the West Highland Way, a long distance footpath which runs 95 miles across the Scottish Highlands from Glasgow, and the start/end point of the Great Glen Way, which runs between Fort William and Inverness.

Geography

Fort William lies on the shores of Loch Linnhe (sea water) beside the mouth of the rivers Nevis and Lochy. They join in the tidal zone to briefly become one river before discharging to the sea. The town and its suburbs, surrounded by picturesque mountains, follow the curved contour of the end of the longest sea loch in Scotland.

The town is centred on the High Street, which was pedestrianised in the 90s. Off this there are several squares. Monzie Square (named after the Cameron Campbells of Monzie, Perthshire, former landowners in the town), Station Square, where the long-since demolished but often lamented railway station used to be, Gordon Square (named for the Gordons, who owned land where the town now stands in the late 1700s, during which time the town was named Gordonsburgh), and Cameron Square.

The main residential areas of the town are unseen from the high street or the A82 main road. Upper Achintore and the Plantation spread steeply uphill from above the high street.

Inverlochy, Claggan, Lochyside, Caol, Banavie and Corpach are the other main residential areas. These areas are built on much flatter land than the town.

Just outside the town is a large aluminium plant, powered by the Lochaber hydroelectric scheme, [ [http://www.mercedes-w123.net/wowe/DjVus/39_Aluminium/39_aluminium.djvu Wonders of Water Power - Aluminium Production] ] in its day the biggest tunnelling project in the world. This was formerly served by the Lochaber Narrow Gauge Railway.

Transport

The West Highland Line passes through Fort William. Owing to the difficult terrain in the area, the line from Glasgow, to the south, enters from the northeast and trains from Glasgow to Mallaig, the terminus of the line, have to reverse at Fort William railway station. [ [http://www.railscot.co.uk/West_Highland_Railway/frame.htm RAILSCOT | West Highland Railway ] ]

The Caledonian Canal connects the Scottish east coast at Inverness with the west coast at Corpach near Fort William.

Famous people

* Charles Kennedy - Former leader of the Liberal Democrat party was brought up and educated in Fort William.
* Daniel McLean McDonald - Founder of the BSR company and benefactor of the McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research in the University of Cambridge. [ [http://www.mcdonald.cam.ac.uk/history/ McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research in the University of Cambridge] ]

Mountain Biking

Just outside the town, parallel to the Nevis Range Gondola there is a large downhill mountain bike track, this attracts thousands every year, from international backgrounds. Alongside this, there are the "Witches Trails", which unusually attract more than the downhill track.

Each year since 2002, Fort William has hosted a round of UCI Mountain Bike World Cup, and in 2007 it hosted the UCI Mountain Bike & Trials World Championships ('The Worlds'). Also a trials competition is held, at the various courses at the bottom. The four-cross track is used and the Witches trails get used for the cross-country competition. The 2007 winner of 'The Worlds', in the downhill men's section was Sam Hill, with a time of Four minutes and Fifty-one seconds.

Other facts

* In a celebration of mountains and the culture that surrounds them, and in recognition of the importance of climbing and walking tourism to the town, the Fort William Mountain Film Festival is held there each year. For a number of years this volunteer led festival has concentrated mostly around film but, starting in the Year of Highland Culture - Highland 2007, its scope was widened, and it dropped the 'film' from its title. [http://www.mountainfilmfestival.co.uk/ Fort William Mountain Festival website]
* Fort William has two major shinty teams, Fort William Shinty Club and Kilmallie Shinty Club.
* The opening sequence for Warner Bros. 2007 film, "Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix" was shot in Fort William.
* Fort William is home to an Outward Bound Adventure and Activity centre. Schools such as St Benedict's Ealing visit annually.
* On 2 June 2006, a fire destroyed McTavish's Restaurant in Fort William High Street along with the two shops which were part of the building. The restaurant had been open since the 1970s and prior to that the building had been Fraser's Cafe since the 1920s. The site is still empty in 2008 and the adjacent Grand Hotel has now also closed. [ [http://www.lochaber-news.co.uk/news/fullstory.php/aid/80/Fort_stunned_by_devastating_blaze.html Lochaber News 9 June 2006] ]
* A controversial "Waterfront" development has been proposed by the Council though there is not overwhelming support for this in the town. [ [http://www.lochaber-news.co.uk/poll/poll_display.php/poll=8 Lochaber News] ] The development will include a hotel, some shops and some housing but it was discovered early in 2008 that it is unlikely to be completed before 2020. [ [http://www.lochaber-news.co.uk/news/fullstory.php/aid/2057/Waterfront_just_a_2020_vision_.html Lochaber News 12 January 2008] ]
* Is the home of the Scottish Six Day Motorcycle Trial (SSDT), held annually in the first full week of May.
* Movies filmed in or near Fort William include Harry Potter, Highlander, Braveheart and Rob Roy. The TV series Rockface was filmed mainly around Fort William and some scenes of Monarch of the Glen were filmed around Fort William though most was done near Newtonmore.

References

* cite book
last = MacCulloch | first = Donald B.
year = 1971
title = Romantic Lochaber
publisher = Chambers
id = ISBN 0-550-50347-1

External links

* [http://www.visit-fortwilliam.co.uk/ Visit Fort William]
* [http://www.outdoorcapital.co.uk/ Fort William - Outdoor Capital of the UK]
* [http://www.walkhighlands.co.uk/fortwilliam/ Fort William walks and outdoors guide]
* [http://fortwilliamworldchamps.co.uk/fwwc_home.html] Fort William World Mountain Biking Championships
* [http://www.railscot.co.uk/West_Highland_Railway/frame.htm West Highland Railway]
* [http://www.fortwilliamweather.com Fort William Weather]
* [http://www.lochaberjobs.co.uk Lochaber Jobs]
* [http://www.nevisrange.co.uk Nevis Range]
* [http://www.walkinginscotland.org Fort William the End of the West Highland Way]
* [http://www.nls.uk/digitallibrary/map/military/record.cfm?id=77 Map of Ft William and area, dated 1710]
* [http://www.users.zetnet.co.uk/mbriscoe/StChristopher.htm History of HMS St Christopher]


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