Flag of the United States

Flag of the United States of America
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Name The Stars and Stripes; Red, White and Blue; Old Glory; The Star Spangled Banner
Use National flag and ensign National flag and ensign
Proportion 10:19
Adopted June 14, 1777 (original 13-star version)

July 4, 1960 (current 50-star version)

Design Thirteen horizontal stripes alternating red and white; in the canton, 50 white stars on a blue field

The national flag of the United States of America (or the American flag) consists of thirteen equal horizontal stripes of red (top and bottom) alternating with white, with a blue rectangle in the canton (referred to specifically as the "union") bearing fifty small, white, five-pointed stars arranged in nine offset horizontal rows of six stars (top and bottom) alternating with rows of five stars. The 50 stars on the flag represent the 50 states and the 13 stripes represent the thirteen colonies that rebelled against the British monarchy and became the first states in the Union.[1] Nicknames for the flag include the "Stars and Stripes", "Old Glory,"[2] and "The Star-Spangled Banner" (also the name of the national anthem).

Contents

Iconic meaning

The modern meaning of the flag was forged in December 1861 when Major Robert Anderson, acting without orders, moved the American garrison from Fort Moultrie to Fort Sumter, in Charleston Harbor, in defiance of the power of the new Confederate States of America. Goodheart argues this was the opening move of the Civil War, and the flag was used throughout the North to symbolize American nationalism and rejection of secessionism.

Before that day, the flag had served mostly as a military ensign or a convenient marking of American territory, flown from forts, embassies, and ships, and displayed on special occasions like the Fourth of July. But in the weeks after Major Anderson's surprising stand, it became something different. Suddenly the Stars and Stripes flew – as it does today, and especially as it did after September 11 – from houses, from storefronts, from churches; above the village greens and college quads. For the first time American flags were mass-produced rather than individually stitched and even so, manufacturers could not keep up with demand. As the long winter of 1861 turned into spring, that old flag meant something new. The abstraction of the Union cause was transfigured into a physical thing: strips of cloth that millions of people would fight for, and many thousands die for.[3]
Astronaut Edwin Aldrin salutes the United States flag on the surface of the moon during the Apollo 11 mission. Flags accompanied each of the Apollo missions.

The flag of the United States is one of the nation's most widely recognized symbols. Within the United States, flags are frequently displayed not only on public buildings but on private residences. The flag is a common motif on decals for car windows, and clothing ornaments such as badges and lapel pins. Throughout the world the flag has been used in public discourse to refer to the United States, not only as a nation, state, government, and set of policies, but also as a set of ideals.

The flag has become a powerful symbol of Americanism, and is proudly flown on many occasions, with giant outdoor flags used by retail outlets to draw customers. Desecration of the flag is considered a public outrage, but remains protected as freedom of speech. In worldwide comparison, Testi (2010) notes that the United States is not unique in adoring its banner, for in Scandinavian countries their flags are also "beloved, domesticated, commercialized and sacralized objects"[4]

Design

Specifications

Diagram of the flag's design

The basic design of the current flag is specified by 4 U.S.C. § 1; 4 U.S.C. § 2 outlines the addition of new stars to represent new states. The specification gives the following values:

  • Hoist (width) of the flag: A = 1.0
  • Fly (length) of the flag: B = 1.9[5]
  • Hoist (width) of the Union: C = 0.5385 (A × 7/13, spanning seven stripes)
  • Fly (length) of the Union: D = 0.76 (B × 2/5, two fifths of the flag length)
  • E = F = 0.0538 (C/10, One tenth of the width of the Union)
  • G = H = 0.0633 (D/12, One twelfth of the length of the Union)
  • Diameter of star: K = 0.0616
  • Width of stripe: L = 0.0769 (A/13, One thirteenth of the flag width)

These specifications are contained in an executive order which, strictly speaking, governs only flags made for or by the U.S. federal government.[6] In practice, most U.S. national flags available for sale to the public have a different length-to-width ratio; common sizes are 2 × 3 ft. or 4 × 6 ft. (flag ratio 1.5), 2.5 × 4 ft. or 5 × 8 ft. (1.6), or 3 × 5 ft. or 6 × 10 ft. (1.667). Even flags flown over the U.S. Capitol for sale to the public through Representatives or Senators are provided in these sizes.[7] Flags that are made to the prescribed 1.9 ratio are often referred to as "G-spec" (for "government specification") flags.

Colors

The exact red, white, and blue colors to be used in the flag are specified with reference to the CAUS Standard Color Reference of America, 10th edition. Specifically, the colors are "White", "Old Glory Red", and "Old Glory Blue".[8] The CIE coordinates for the colors of the 9th edition of the Standard Color Card were formally specified in JOSA in 1946.[9] These colors form the standard for cloth, and there is no perfect way to convert them to RGB for display on screen or CMYK for printing. The "relative" coordinates in the following table were found by scaling the luminous reflectance relative to the flag’s "white".

Official Colors[10]
Name Absolute Relative
CIELAB D65 Munsell CIELAB D50 sRGB GRACoL 2006
L* a* b* H V/C L* a* b* R G B 8-bit hex C M Y K
White 88.7 −0.2 5.4 2.5Y 8.8/0.7 100.0 0.0 0.0 1.000 1.000 1.000 #FFFFFF .000 .000 .000 .000
Old Glory Red 33.9 51.2 24.7 5.5R 3.3/11.1 39.9 57.3 28.7 .698 .132 .203 #B22234 .196 1.000 .757 .118
Old Glory Blue 23.2 13.1 −26.4 8.2PB 2.3/6.1 26.9 11.5 −30.3 .234 .233 .430 #3C3B6E .886 .851 .243 .122
A subdued-color flag patch, similar to style worn on the United States Army ACU U.S. Military uniform. Note: this patch is normally worn reversed on the right upper sleeve. See explanation in "Display on vehicles and uniforms" section below.

As with the design, the official colors are only officially required for flags produced for the U.S. federal government, and other colors are often used for mass-market flags, printed reproductions, and other products intended to evoke flag colors. The practice of using more saturated colors than the official cloth is not new. As Taylor, Knoche, and Granville wrote in 1950: "The color of the official wool bunting [of the blue field] is a very dark blue, but printed reproductions of the flag, as well as merchandise supposed to match the flag, present the color as a deep blue much brighter than the official wool."[11]

Sometimes, Pantone Matching System (PMS) approximations to the flag colors are used. One set was given on the website of the U.S. embassy in London as early as 1998; the website of the U.S. embassy in Stockholm claimed in 2001 that those had been suggested by Pantone, and that the U.S. Government Printing Office preferred a different set. A third red was suggested by a California Military Department document in 2002.[12] In 2001, the Texas legislature specified that the colors of the Texas flag should be "(1) the same colors used in the United States flag; and (2) defined as numbers 193 (red) and 281 (dark blue) of the Pantone Matching System."[13]

Pantone Approximations[14]
Source PMS CIELAB D50 sRGB GRACoL 2006
L* a* b* R G B 8-bit hex C M Y K
Safe 100.0 0.0 0.0 1.000 1.000 1.000 #FFFFFF .000 .000 .000 .000
U.S. Emb.,
London
193 C 42.1 64.4 26.7 .756 .076 .238 #C1133D .165 1.000 .678 .063
281 C 15.4 7.0 −41.8 .000 .149 .388 #002663 1.000 .906 .388 .231
U.S. Emb.,
Stockholm
186 C 44.1 67.8 37.9 .800 .048 .185 #CC0C2F .122 1.000 .796 .035
288 C 18.0 7.6 −50.3 .000 .172 .466 #002C77 1.000 .863 .357 .141
CA Mil. Dept. 200 C 41.1 64.2 30.8 .745 .051 .203 #BE0D34 .169 1.000 .749 .074

The 49- and 50-star unions

When Alaska and Hawaii were being considered for statehood in the 1950s, more than 1,500 designs were spontaneously submitted to President Dwight D. Eisenhower. Although some of them were 49-star versions, the vast majority were 50-star proposals. At least three of these designs were identical to the present design of the 50-star flag.[15] At the time, credit was given by the executive department to the United States Army Institute of Heraldry for the design.

Of these proposals, one created by 17-year-old Robert G. Heft in 1958 as a school project has received the most publicity. His mother was a seamstress, but refused to do any of the work for him. He originally received a B- for the project. After discussing the grade with his teacher, it was agreed (somewhat jokingly) that if the flag was accepted by Congress, the grade would be reconsidered. Heft's flag design was chosen and adopted by presidential proclamation after Alaska and before Hawaii was admitted into the union in 1959.[16] Both the 49- and 50-star flags were each flown for the first time ever at Fort McHenry on the Fourth of July one year apart, 1959 and 1960 respectively.[17]

Decoration

Traditionally, the flag may be decorated with golden fringe surrounding the perimeter of the flag as long as it does not deface the flag proper. Ceremonial displays of the flag, such as those in parades or on indoor posts, often use fringe to enhance the beauty of the flag. The first recorded use of fringe on a flag dates from 1835, and the Army used it officially in 1895. No specific law governs the legality of fringe, but a 1925 opinion of the attorney general addresses the use of fringe (and the number of stars) "...is at the discretion of the Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy..." as quoted from footnote in previous volumes of Title 4 of the United States Code law books and is a source for claims that such a flag is a military ensign not civilian. However, according to the Army Institute of Heraldry, which has official custody of the flag designs and makes any change ordered, there are no implications of symbolism in the use of fringe.[18] Several federal courts have upheld this conclusion.[19][20] Traditionally, the Army and Air Force use a fringed National Color for parade, color guard and indoor display, while the Sea Services (Navy, Marine Corps and Coast Guard) use a fringeless National Color for all uses.

Display and use

A boy holds an American flag during the 2009 National Memorial Day Concert in Washington, D.C.

The flag is customarily flown all year-round at most public buildings, and it is not unusual to find private houses flying full-size flags. Some private use is year-round, but becomes widespread on civic holidays like Memorial Day, Veterans Day, Presidents' Day, Flag Day, and on Independence Day. On Memorial Day it is common to place small flags by war memorials and next to the graves of U.S. war veterans. Also on Memorial Day it is common to fly the flag at half staff, until noon, in remembrance of those who lost their lives fighting in U.S. wars.

Flag etiquette

Proper vertical display

The United States Flag Code outlines certain guidelines for the use, display, and disposal of the flag. For example, the flag should never be dipped to any person or thing, unless it is the ensign responding to a salute from a ship of a foreign nation. This tradition may come from the 1908 Summer Olympics in London, where countries were asked to dip their flag to King Edward VII: the American flag bearer did not. Team captain Martin Sheridan is famously quoted as saying "this flag dips to no earthly king", though the true provenance of this quotation is unclear.[21][22]

Tattered and improperly displayed flag at Spokane Valley Police Headquarters, Spokane, Washington

The flag should never be allowed to touch the ground and, if flown at night, must be illuminated. If the edges become tattered through wear, the flag should be repaired or replaced. When a flag is so tattered that it can no longer serve as a symbol of the United States, it should be destroyed in a dignified manner, preferably by burning. The American Legion and other organizations regularly conduct flag retirement ceremonies, often on Flag Day, June 14. It is a common myth that if a flag touches the ground or becomes soiled, it must be burned as well. While a flag that is currently touching the ground and a soiled flag are unfit for display, neither situation is permanent and thus the flag does not need to be burned if the unfit situation is remedied.[23]

Significantly, the Flag Code prohibits using the flag "for any advertising purpose" and also states that the flag "should not be embroidered, printed, or otherwise impressed on such articles as cushions, handkerchiefs, napkins, boxes, or anything intended to be discarded after temporary use".[24] Both of these codes are generally ignored, almost always without comment.

One of the most commonly ignored and misunderstood aspects of the Flag Code is section 8. "The flag should never be used as wearing apparel, bedding, or drapery." Section 3 of the Flag Code [25] defines a flag for the purposes of the code. It clarifies the definition to include any picture or representation of the flag purporting to be of the flag of the United States of America. Therefore T-shirts, or other apparel made of or containing a representation of the flag are in violation of the code.

Although the Flag Code is U.S. federal law, it is only binding on government institutions displaying the flag: there is no penalty for a private citizen or group failing to comply with the Flag Code and it is not widely enforced—indeed, punitive enforcement would conflict with the First Amendment right to freedom of speech.[26] Passage of the proposed Flag Desecration Amendment would overrule legal precedent that has been established.

Display on vehicles and uniforms

Flag of the United States on American astronaut Neil Armstrong's space suit

When the flag is affixed to the side of a vehicle, it should be oriented so that the union is towards the front. This is done to give the impression that the flag is blowing backwards from its hoist as the vehicle moves forward. Therefore, U.S. flag decals on the right sides of vehicles may appear to be "reversed", with the union to the observer's right instead of left as more commonly seen.

On U.S. military uniforms, flag patches are oriented the same way, that is, on the right shoulder with the union toward the front. This rule dates back to the Army's early history, when both mounted cavalry and infantry units would designate a standard bearer, who carried the Colors into battle. As he charged, his forward motion caused the flag to stream back. Since the Stars and Stripes are mounted with the canton closest to the pole, that section stayed to the right, while the stripes flew to the left.[27]

Other organizations that wear flag patches on their uniforms can have the flag facing in either direction. The uniform of the Boy Scouts of America, for example, has the stripes facing front, the reverse of the military style.

Postage stamps

Flags depicted on U.S. postage stamp issues

The flag did not appear on U.S. postal stamp issues until the Battle of White Plains Issue was released in 1926, depicting the flag with a circle of 13 stars. The 48-star flag first appeared on the General Pulaski issue of 1931 however the depiction there is noticeable at best[clarification needed]. The first U.S. postage stamp to feature the flag as the sole subject was issued July 4, 1957, pictured (top).[28]

Places of continuous display

By presidential proclamation, acts of Congress, and custom, U.S. flags are displayed continuously at certain locations.

Iwo Jima Memorial, Arlington, Virginia

Particular days for display

Flags covering the National Mall

The flag should especially be displayed at full staff on the following days:

Display at half-staff

The flag is displayed at half-staff (half-mast in naval usage) as a sign of respect or mourning. Nationwide, this action is proclaimed by the president; state-wide or territory-wide, the proclamation is made by the governor. In addition, there is no prohibition against municipal governments, private businesses or citizens flying the flag at half-staff as a local sign of respect and mourning. However, many flag enthusiasts feel this type of practice has somewhat diminished the meaning of the original intent of lowering the flag to honor those who held high positions in federal or state offices. President Dwight D. Eisenhower issued the first proclamation on March 1, 1954, standardizing the dates and time periods for flying the flag at half-staff from all federal buildings, grounds, and naval vessels; other congressional resolutions and presidential proclamations ensued. However, they are only guidelines to all other entities: typically followed at state and local government facilities, and encouraged of private businesses and citizens.

To properly fly the flag at half-staff, one should first briefly hoist it top of the staff, then lower it to the half-staff position, halfway between the top and bottom of the staff. Similarly, when the flag is to be lowered from half-staff, it should be first briefly hoisted to the top of the staff.[42]

Federal guidelines state the flag should be flown at half-staff at the following dates/times:

  • May 15 – Peace Officers Memorial Day, unless it is the third Saturday in May, Armed Forces Day, full-staff all day[43]
  • Last Monday in May – Memorial Day (until noon)
  • July 27 – Korean War Veterans Day (expired 2003 − reinstated 2009)[44][45]
  • September 11 – Patriot Day[46]
  • First Sunday in October – Start of Fire Prevention Week.[47][48]
  • December 7 – National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day [49]
  • For 30 days – Death of a president or former president
  • For 10 days – Death of a vice president, Supreme Court chief justice/retired chief justice, or speaker of the House of Representatives.
  • From death until the day of interment – Supreme Court associate justice, member of the Cabinet, former vice president, president pro-tempore of the Senate, or the majority and minority leaders of the Senate and House of Representatives. Also for federal facilities within a state or territory, for the governor.
  • On the day after the death – Senators, members of Congress, territorial delegates or the resident commissioner of the commonwealth of Puerto Rico

Further, the flag is always flown at half-staff at three locations in the United States. These locations are The Tomb of the Unknown Soldier; Arlington Cemetery; and the Arizona Memorial at Pearl Harbor.[50]

Folding for storage

Folding the U.S. flag

Though not part of the official Flag Code, according to military custom, flags should be folded into a triangular shape when not in use. To properly fold the flag:

  1. Begin by holding it waist-high with another person so that its surface is parallel to the ground.
  2. Fold the lower half of the stripe section lengthwise over the field of stars, holding the bottom and top edges securely.
  3. Fold the flag again lengthwise with the blue field on the outside.
  4. Make a rectangular fold then a triangular fold by bringing the striped corner of the folded edge to meet the open top edge of the flag, starting the fold from the left side over to the right.
  5. Turn the outer end point inward, parallel to the open edge, to form a second triangle.
  6. The triangular folding is continued until the entire length of the flag is folded in this manner (usually thirteen triangular folds, as shown at right). On the final fold, any remnant that does not neatly fold into a triangle (or in the case of exactly even folds, the last triangle) is tucked into the previous fold.
  7. When the flag is completely folded, only a triangular blue field of stars should be visible.
A flag prepared for presentation to the next of kin

Religious themes

Some people believe that each fold of the flag also carries a symbolic meaning, but there is no authority for their belief.[51] The ceremony was taught to soldiers but after protests at the overt religious themes, the Pentagon withdrew it.[52]

The American Legion, a private organization of veterans, has made its own religious interpretation.

Fold Meaning
Fold One Life on Earth[51][53][54]
Fold Two Eternal Life[51][53][54]
Fold Three The veteran who gave a portion of his life for the defense of the United States[51][53][54]
Fold Four Humanity's Weaker Nature and the American's reliance on God during both peacetime and wartime[51][53][54]
Fold Five Tribute to our Country[51][53][54]
Fold Six The state of the American's heart[51][53][54]
Fold Seven The United States Armed Forces[51][53][54]
Fold Eight Tribute to the one who entered into the valley of the shadow of death, that humanity might see the light of day[51][53][54]
Fold Nine A tribute to Motherhood[51][53][54]
Fold Ten A tribute to Fatherhood[51][53][54]
Fold Eleven The eleventh fold, in the eyes of a Jewish citizen, represents the lower portion of the seal of King David and King Solomon, and glorifies, in their eyes, the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.[51][53][54]
Fold Twelve The twelfth fold, in the eyes of a Christian citizen, represents an emblem of eternity and glorifies, in their eyes, God the Father, the Son, and Holy Ghost.[51][53][54]

When the flag is completely folded, the stars point upwards, which remind the American of his national motto, "In God We Trust".[51][53][54] After the flag is completely folded and tucked in, it takes on the appearance of a bicorne, reminding the American of the soldiers who served under General George Washington, and the sailors and Marines who served under Captain John Paul Jones, who were followed by their comrades and shipmates in the Armed Forces of the United States.[51][53][54]

Use in funerals

Traditionally, the flag of the United States plays a role in military funerals,[55] and occasionally in those over other civil servants (such as the President). A burial flag is draped over the deceased's casket as a pall during services. Just prior to the casket being lowered into the ground, the flag is ceremonially folded and presented to the deceased's next of kin as a token of respect.[56] If the soldier was enlisted during wartime, and given an Honor Guard at the funeral ceremony, cartridges from the gun salute are gathered and placed into the folded flag.

History

The design of the flag has been modified 26 times officially, since 1777. The 48-star flag was in effect for 47 years until the 49-star version became official on July 4, 1959. The 50-star flag was ordered by President Eisenhower on August 21, 1959.[57]

First flag

Grand Union Flag.svg
FIAV historical.svg The Continental Colors
(aka Grand Union Flag)

At the time of the Declaration of Independence, the Continental Congress would not legally adopt flags with "stars, white in a blue field" for another year. The flag contemporaneously known as "the Continental Colours" has historically been referred to as the first national flag.[58]

The Continental Navy raised the Colors as the ensign of the fledgling nation in the American War for Independence – likely with the expedient of transforming their previous British red ensigns by adding white stripes – and would use this flag until 1777, when it would form the basis for the subsequent de jure designs.[58][59]

The name "Grand Union" was first applied to the Continental Colors by George Preble in his 1872 history of the American flag.[59]


FIAV historical.svg Flag of the British East India Company, 1707–1801

The flag closely resembles the British East India Company flag of the era, and Sir Charles Fawcett argued in 1937 that the Company flag inspired the design.[60] Both flags could have been easily constructed by adding white stripes to a British Red Ensign, the maritime flag used throughout the British Empire. However, an East India Company flag could have from 9 to 13 stripes, and was not allowed to be flown outside the Indian Ocean.[61]

Another theory holds that the red-and-white stripe—and later, stars-and-stripes—motif of the flag may have been based on the Washington family coat of arms, first used to identify the family in the twelfth century, when one of George Washington's ancestors took possession of Washington Old Hall, then in County Durham (now part of Sunderland), north-east England, which consisted of a shield "argent, two bars gules, above, three mullets gules" (a white shield with two red bars below three red stars).[62]

Another theory is based on the family coat of arms of Richard Amerike:

"According to the American Flag Research Center in Massachusetts the heraldic origin of the American flag is not positively known; archives in the British Library confirm that the Stars and Stripes was the coat of arms of the Ap Merike family – and that they pre-date Washington's connection with the continent by 300 years".[63]

In any case, both the stripes (barry) and the stars (mullets) have precedents in classical heraldry. Mullets were comparatively rare in early modern heraldry, but an example of mullets representing territorial divisions predating the US flag are those in the coat of arms of Valais of 1618, where seven mullets stood for seven districts.

The Flag Resolution of 1777

On June 14, 1777, the Marine Committee of the Second Continental Congress passed the Flag Resolution which stated: "Resolved, that the flag of the United States be thirteen stripes, alternate red and white; that the union be thirteen stars, white in a blue field, representing a new Constellation."[64] Flag Day is now observed on June 14 of each year. A false tradition holds that the new flag was first hoisted in June 1777 by the Continental Army at the Middlebrook encampment.[65]

US flag 13 stars.svg
FIAV historical.svg 13-star flag
US flag 13 stars – Betsy Ross.svg
FIAV historical.svg 13-star "Betsy Ross" variant

The 1777 resolution was most probably meant to define a naval ensign. In the late 18th century, the notion of national flag did not yet exist, or was only nascent. The flag resolution appears between other resolutions from the Marine Committee. On May 10, 1779, Secretary of the Board of War Richard Peters expressed concern "it is not yet settled what is the Standard of the United States."[66]

The Flag Resolution did not specify any particular arrangement, number of points, nor orientation for the stars. One famous arrangement features 13 outwardly-oriented five-pointed stars arranged in a circle, the so-called Betsy Ross flag. Although the Betsy Ross legend is controversial, the design is among the earliest 13-star flags. Popular designs at the time were varied and most were individually crafted rather than mass-produced. Examples of 13-star arrangements can be found on other flags attributed to Francis Hopkinson, the Cowpens flag, and the Brandywine flag. Given the scant archaeological and written evidence, it is unknown if one design was the most popular during the period.[citation needed]

Despite the 1777 resolution, a number of flags only loosely based on the prescribed design were used in the early years of American independence. One example may have been the Guilford Court House Flag, traditionally believed to have been carried by the American troops at the Battle of Guilford Court House in 1781.[67]

The origin of the stars and stripes design is inadequately documented. The apocryphal story credits Betsy Ross for sewing the first flag from a pencil sketch handed to her by George Washington. No evidence for this exists; indeed, nearly a century had passed before Ross' grandson, William Canby, first publicly suggested it.[68] Another woman, Rebecca Young, has also been credited as having made the first flag by later generations of her family. Rebecca Young's daughter was Mary Pickersgill, who made the Star Spangled Banner Flag.[citation needed]

It is likely that Francis Hopkinson of New Jersey, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, designed the 1777 flag while he was the Chairman of the Continental Navy Board's Middle Department, sometime between his appointment to that position in November 1776 and the time that the flag resolution was adopted in June 1777. This contradicts the Betsy Ross legend, which suggests that she sewed the first Stars and Stripes flag by request of the government in the Spring of 1776.[64][69] Hopkinson was the only person to have made such a claim during his own lifetime, when he sent a bill to Congress for his work. He asked for a "Quarter Cask of the Public Wine" as payment initially. The payment was not made, however, because it was determined he had already received a salary as a member of Congress, and he was not the only person to have contributed to the design.[70] No one else contested his claim at the time.[original research?]

Later flag acts

StarSpangledBannerFlag.svg
FIAV historical.svg 15-star, 15-stripe Star Spangled Banner Flag
US flag 48 stars.svg
FIAV historical.svg 48-star flag, is the second longest in use (1912–1959).

In 1795, the number of stars and stripes was increased from 13 to 15 (to reflect the entry of Vermont and Kentucky as states of the union). For a time the flag was not changed when subsequent states were admitted, probably because it was thought that this would cause too much clutter. It was the 15-star, 15-stripe flag that inspired Francis Scott Key to write "The Star-Spangled Banner", now the national anthem.

Oil painting depicting the 39 historical U.S. flags

On April 4, 1818, a plan was passed by Congress at the suggestion of U.S. Naval Captain Samuel C. Reid[71] in which the flag was changed to have 20 stars, with a new star to be added when each new state was admitted, but the number of stripes would be reduced to 13 so as to honor the original colonies. The act specified that new flag designs should become official on the first July 4 (Independence Day) following admission of one or more new states. The most recent change, from 49 stars to 50, occurred in 1960 when the present design was chosen, after Hawaii gained statehood in August 1959. Before that, the admission of Alaska in January 1959 prompted the debut of a short-lived 49-star flag.[72]

As of July 4, 2011, the 50-star flag has become the longest rendition in use.

The "Flower Flag" arrives in Asia

The U.S. flag was brought to the city of Canton (Guǎngzhōu) in China in 1785 by the merchant ship Empress of China, which carried a cargo of ginseng.[73] There it gained the designation "Flower Flag" (Chinese: 花旗; pinyin: huāqí; Cantonese Yale: fākeì).[74] According to author and U.S. Naval officer George H. Preble:

When the thirteen stripes and stars first appeared at Canton much curiosity was excited among the people. News was circulated that a strange ship had arrived from the farther end of the world, bearing a flag as beautiful as a flower. Everybody went to see the Fah-kay-cheun [花旗船], or flower-flag ship. This name at once established itself in the language, and America is now called Fah-kay-gawk [Chinese: 花旗國; pinyin: Huāqíguó; Cantonese Yale: Fākeìgwok], the flower-flag country, and an American, Fah-kay-gawk-yun [花旗國人], flower flag country man, — a more complimentary designation than that of red-headed barbarian, the name first bestowed on the Dutch.[73]

In the above quote, the Chinese words are written phonetically based on spoken Cantonese. The names given were common usage in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.[75] Other Asian nations have equivalent terms for America, for example Vietnamese: Hoa Kỳ ("Flower Flag"). Chinese nowadays refer to the United States as Chinese: 美国; pinyin: Měiguó. Měi is short for Měilìjiān (a Chinese pronunciation of "America") and "guó" means "country," so this name is unrelated to the flag.

The U.S. flag took its first trip around the world in 1787–90 on board the Columbia.[74] William Driver, who coined the phrase Old Glory, took the U.S. flag around the world in 1831–32.[74] The flag attracted the notice of Japanese when an oversized version was carried to Yokohama by the steamer Great Republic as part of a round-the-world journey in 1871.[76]

Historical progression of designs

In the following table depicting the 28 various designs of the United States flag, the star patterns for the flags are merely the usual patterns, often associated with the United States Navy. Canton designs, prior to the proclamation of the 48-star flag, had no official arrangement of the stars. Furthermore, the exact colors of the flag were not standardized until 1934.[77]

Number of
stars
Number of
stripes
Design(s) States represented
by new stars
Dates in use Duration
0 13 Grand Union Flag.svg N/A 01775-12-03 December 3, 1775[78] – June 14, 1777 1½ years
(18 months)
13 13 US flag 13 stars.svg
US flag 13 stars – Betsy Ross.svg Cowpens Flag.svg
Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Georgia, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Maryland, South Carolina, New Hampshire, Virginia, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island 01777-06-14 June 14, 1777 – May 1, 1795 18 years
(215 months)
15 15 US flag 15 stars.svg Vermont, Kentucky 01795-05-01 May 1, 1795 – July 3, 1818 23 years
(278 months)
20 13 US flag 20 stars.svg US 20 Star GreatStar Flag.svg Indiana, Louisiana, Mississippi, Ohio, Tennessee 01818-07-04 July 4, 1818 – July 3, 1819 1 year
(12 months)
21 13 US flag 21 stars.svg Illinois 01819-07-04 July 4, 1819 – July 3, 1820 1 year
(12 months)
23 13 US flag 23 stars.svg Alabama, Maine 01820-07-04 July 4, 1820 – July 3, 1822 2 years
(24 months)
24 13 US flag 24 stars.svg Missouri 01822-07-04 July 4, 1822 – July 3, 1836
1831 term "Old Glory" coined
14 years
(168 months)
25 13 US flag 25 stars.svg Arkansas 01836-07-04 July 4, 1836 – July 3, 1837 1 year
(12 months)
26 13 US flag 26 stars.svg US 26 Star GreatStar Flag.svg Michigan 01837-07-04 July 4, 1837 – July 3, 1845 8 years
(96 months)
27 13 US flag 27 stars.svg Florida 01845-07-04 July 4, 1845 – July 3, 1846 1 year
(12 months)
28 13 US flag 28 stars.svg Texas 01846-07-04 July 4, 1846 – July 3, 1847 1 year
(12 months)
29 13 US flag 29 stars.svg US 29 Star Diamond Pattern Flag.svg Iowa 01847-07-04 July 4, 1847 – July 3, 1848 1 year
(12 months)
30 13 US flag 30 stars.svg Wisconsin 01848-07-04 July 4, 1848 – July 3, 1851 3 years
(36 months)
31 13 US flag 31 stars.svg California 01851-07-04 July 4, 1851 – July 3, 1858 7 years
(84 months)
32 13 US flag 32 stars.svg Minnesota 01858-07-04 July 4, 1858 – July 3, 1859 1 year
(12 months)
33 13 US flag 33 stars.svg US 33 Star Fort Sumter Flag.svg
US 33 Star GreatStar Flag.svg US 33 Star Flag 2.png
Oregon 01859-07-04 July 4, 1859 – July 3, 1861 2 years
(24 months)
34 13 US flag 34 stars.svg Kansas 01861-07-04 July 4, 1861 – July 3, 1863 2 years
(24 months)
35 13 US flag 35 stars.svg West Virginia 01863-07-04 July 4, 1863 – July 3, 1865 2 years
(24 months)
36 13 US flag 36 stars.svg US 36 Star Wagon Wheel Flag.svg Nevada 01865-07-04 July 4, 1865 – July 3, 1867 2 years
(24 months)
37 13 US flag 37 stars.svg US 37 Star Medallion Centennial Flag.svg Nebraska 01867-07-04 July 4, 1867 – July 3, 1877 10 years
(120 months)
38 13 US flag 38 stars.svg US 38 Star Flag concentric circles.svg Colorado 01877-07-04 July 4, 1877 – July 3, 1890 13 years
(156 months)
43 13 US flag 43 stars.svg Idaho, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Washington 01890-07-04 July 4, 1890 – July 3, 1891 1 year
(12 months)
44 13 US flag 44 stars.svg Wyoming 01891-07-04 July 4, 1891 – July 3, 1896 5 years
(60 months)
45 13 US flag 45 stars.svg Utah 01896-07-04 July 4, 1896 – July 3, 1908 12 years
(144 months)
46 13 US flag 46 stars.svg Oklahoma 01908-07-04 July 4, 1908 – July 3, 1912 4 years
(48 months)
48 13 US flag 48 stars.svg Arizona, New Mexico 01912-07-04 July 4, 1912 – July 3, 1959 47 years
(564 months)
49 13 US flag 49 stars.svg Alaska 01959-07-04 July 4, 1959 – July 3, 1960 1 year
(12 months)
50 13 Flag of the United States (Pantone).svg Hawaii 01960-07-04 July 4, 1960 – present 51 years
(616 months)

Future of the flag

There are political movements supporting statehood in Puerto Rico (by the New Progressive Party of Puerto Rico) and the District of Columbia, among other areas. A 51st state will require a new design to accommodate the additional star.

A possible United States 51-star flag
A possible United States 51-star flag
Another possible United States 51-star flag
Another possible United States 51-star flag
Yet another possible United States 51-star flag
Yet another possible United States 51-star flag

Similar national flags

Flag of Bikini Atoll
Flag of Bikini Atoll
Flag of Liberia
Flag of Liberia
Flag of Malaysia
Flag of Malaysia
  • The flag of Bikini Atoll is symbolic of the islanders' belief that a great debt is still owed to the people of Bikini because in 1954 the United States government detonated a thermonuclear bomb on the island as part of the Castle Bravo test.
  • The flag of Liberia bears a close resemblance, showing the ex-American-slave origin of the country. The Liberian flag has 11 similar red and white stripes, which stand for the 11 signers of the declaration there, as well as a blue square with only a single large white star for the union.
  • The flag of Malaysia also has a striking resemblance, with red and white stripes (14 total), and a blue canton, but displaying instead of stars a star and crescent emblem. This is due, however, to the great influence of the British East India Company, rather than the later United States flag. Also quite similar is the flag of the Federation of Malaya, a predecessor to current day Malaysia.


Flag of Togo
Flag of Togo
First Republican Flag of Brazil: November 15–19, 1889
First Republican Flag of Brazil: November 15–19, 1889
Flag of El Salvador: 1865–1912
Flag of El Salvador: 1865–1912
Flag of Greece
Flag of Greece
Flag of Brittany
Flag of Brittany
Flag of the Republic of China
Flag of the Republic of China
  • The flag of Togo resembles a Liberian flag with 5 stripes, though the colors are Pan-African colors.
  • The very short lived First Flag of the Republic of the United States of Brazil, (November 15–19, 1889) resembles the U.S flag, but uses Brazil's traditional colors of green, yellow, and blue instead of the U.S. flag's red, white, and blue. It was indeed designed to honor the U.S people and the 1776 revolution.
  • The flag of El Salvador from 1865 to 1912. A different flag was in use, based on the flag of the United States, with a field of alternating blue and white stripes and a red canton containing white stars.
  • The flag of Brittany called the Gwenn-ha-du (White and Black in Breton) was created in 1923 and was partially inspired by the flag of the United States.
Flag of Samoa
Flag of Samoa
1st National Flag of the Confederate States of America
1st National Flag of the Confederate States of America
Flag of Chile
Flag of Chile
Flag of the Philippines
Flag of the Philippines
Flag of the Republic of Texas
Flag of the Republic of Texas
Flag of Puerto Rico
Flag of Puerto Rico
Flag of Cuba
Flag of Cuba
Flag of Hawaii
Flag of Hawaii

See also

Article sections

Associated people

References

  1. ^ States are represented collectively; there is no meaning to particular stars nor stripes.
  2. ^ Coined by Captain William Driver, a nineteenth century shipmaster.
  3. ^ Adam Goodheart, "Prologue," in 1861: The Civil War Awakening (2001)
  4. ^ Arnaldo Testi, Capture the Flag: The Stars and Stripes in American History (New York University Press, 2010), p. 2 ISBN 978-0-8147-8322-1
  5. ^ Note that the flag ratio (B/A in the diagram) is not absolutely fixed. Although the diagram in Executive Order 10834 gives a ratio of 1.9, earlier in the order is a list of flag sizes authorized for executive agencies. This list permits eleven specific flag sizes (specified by height and width) for such agencies: 20.00 × 38.00; 10.00 × 19.00; 8.95 × 17.00; 7.00 × 11.00; 5.00 × 9.50; 4.33 × 5.50; 3.50 × 6.65; 3.00 × 4.00; 3.00 × 5.70; 2.37 × 4.50; and 1.32 × 2.50. Eight of these sizes conform to the 1.9 ratio, within a small rounding error (less than 0.01). However, three of the authorized sizes vary significantly: 1.57 (for 7.00 × 11.00), 1.27 (for 4.33 × 5.50) and 1.33 (for 3.00 × 4.00).
  6. ^ Ex. Ord. No. 10834, August 21, 1959, 24 F.R. 6865 (governing flags "manufactured or purchased for the use of executive agencies", Section 22). Section 32 explains that, "As used in this order, the term "executive agencies" means the executive departments and independent establishments in the executive branch of the Government, including wholly owned Government corporations."
  7. ^ Architect of the Capitol: "Flag Request Form", retrieved on 2009-06-25
  8. ^ General Services Administration "Federal Specification DDD-F-416F: Flag, National, United States of America and Flag, Union Jack". 31 March 2005.
  9. ^ Genevieve Reimann, Deane B. Judd, and Harry J. Keegan (1946). "Spectrophotometric and Colorimetric Determination of the Colors of the TCCA Standard Color Cards". JOSA 36(3), 128–159.
  10. ^ In the 9th edition of the Standard Color Card of America, "White", "Old Glory Red", and "Old Glory Blue" were, respectively, Cable No. 70001, Cable No. 70180, and Cable No. 70075. The Munsell renotation coordinates for these were taken directly from the Reimann et al. paper, the CIELAB D65 coordinates were found by converting the xyY values in that paper to be relative to CIE Illuminant D65 from Illuminant C using the CAT02 chromatic adaptation transform, and relative to a perfect diffuse reflector as white. The "relative" values in the table were found by taking Cable No. 70001’s luminosity to be that of the white point, and were converted to D65 or D50 also using the CAT02 transformation. The values for CMYK were found by converting from the CIELAB D50 values using the Adobe CMM and the GRACoL 2006 ICC profile in Adobe Photoshop.
  11. ^ Helen Taylor, Lucille Knoche, and Walter Granville, eds. (1950), Descriptive Color Names Dictionary. Container Corporation of America.
  12. ^ In 1998, "U.S. Flag Facts" at the website of the U.S. embassy in London listed the colors red PMS 193 and blue PMS 282 (presumably PMS solid coated colors). By October 2002, these had changed to red PMS 193 and blue PMS 281. These latter PMS equivalents are listed on many websites including various other U.S. Government organizations, such as the Millennium Challenge Corporation’s website. See also "United States of America", Flags of the World.
    The website of the U.S. Embassy in Stockholm instead lists PMS 186 and PMS 288 as the colors specified by the U.S. Government Printing Office: "Colors of the U.S. Flag". United States Embassy Stockholm. November 2001.
    The Military Department of the State of California suggested PMS 200 for red in a 2002 document, "Flags over California, a history and guide".
  13. ^ The Government Code; Title 11. State Symbols and Honors; Subtitle A; Chapter 3100. Statutes.legis.state.tx.us. Retrieved on 2011-05-27.
  14. ^ The values in this table were taken by converting the CIELAB D50 coordinates for PMS 193 C, 200 C, and 281 C given in the Pantone color palettes of Adobe Photoshop to sRGB and GRACoL using the Adobe CMM and the GRACoL 2006 and sRGB profiles in Photoshop. Since PMS 281 C (blue) is outside the gamut of sRGB, and both PMS 281 C and PMS 183 C (red) are outside the gamut of GRACoL, the RGB and CMYK values for those in the table below are necessarily less-colorful approximations to the colors of the Pantone swatches.
  15. ^ These designs are in the Eisenhower Presidential Archives in Abilene, Kansas. Only a small fraction of them have ever been published.
  16. ^ "Robert G. Heft: Designer of America's Current National Flag". USFlag.org: A website dedicated to the Flag of the United States of America. http://www.usflag.org/flagdesigner.html. Retrieved 2006-12-07. 
  17. ^ Rasmussen, Frederick N. "A half-century ago, new 50-star American flag debuted in Baltimore," ''The Baltimore Sun'', Saturday, July 3, 2010. Baltimoresun.com (2010-07-02). Retrieved on 2011-05-27.
  18. ^ "Fringe on the American Flag". Archived from the original on 2006-09-11. http://web.archive.org/web/20060911213421/http://www.tioh.hqda.pentagon.mil/FAQ/FringeOnAmFlg.htm. Retrieved 2006-06-27. 
  19. ^ See McCann v. Greenway, 952 F. Supp. 647 (W.D. Mo. 1997), which discusses various court opinions denying any significance related to trim used on a flag.
  20. ^ Rebuttal of "martial law flag" claims by tax protesters. Evans-legal.com. Retrieved on 2011-05-27.
  21. ^ LA84 Foundation. (PDF) . Retrieved on 2011-05-27.
  22. ^ London Olympics 1908 & 1948. Web.archive.org. Retrieved on 2011-05-27.
  23. ^ Snopes.com: Flag Disposal. Retrieved June 14, 2008.
  24. ^ 4 U.S.Code Sec. 8(i).
  25. ^ 4 U.S.Code Chapter 1 Sec. 3
  26. ^ Texas v. Johnson, 491 U.S. 397 (1989); United States v. Eichman, 496 U.S. 310 (1990).
  27. ^ About.com. Usmilitary.about.com (2005-10-01). Retrieved on 2011-05-27.
  28. ^ Scotts Specialized Catalogue of United States Postage Stamps
  29. ^ Presidential Proclamation No. 2795, July 2, 1948 Code of Federal Regulations of the United States, Title 3 Compilation (1943–1948), HathiTrust, Google Books/University of Michigan scan, pages 212–213.
  30. ^ Public Law 83-319, approved March 26, 1954
  31. ^ Presidential Proclamation No. 3418, June 12, 1961
  32. ^ Public Law 89-335, approved November 8, 1965
  33. ^ Presidential Proclamation No. 4000, September 4, 1970
  34. ^ Presidential Proclamation No. 4064, July 6, 1971, effective July 4, 1971
  35. ^ Presidential Proclamation No. 4131, May 5, 1972
  36. ^ Gettysburg College – News Detail. Gettysburg.edu. Retrieved on 2011-05-27.
  37. ^ Pub.L. 94−53, 89 Stat. 259, S.J.Res. 98, approved July 4, 1975
  38. ^ With the consent of Congress, Old Glory kept perpetual shine, PE Press Archive.
  39. ^ With the consent of Congress, Slover Mountain, The Sun, 14 May 2008
  40. ^ By Act of Congress. California Portland Cement Co
  41. ^ MDVA: Flag Information. Mdva.state.mn.us. Retrieved on 2011-05-27.
  42. ^ US Code, Title 4, Chapter 1, §7.
  43. ^ 36 U.S.C. Sec. 136. None. Retrieved on 2011-05-27.
  44. ^ 36 U.S.C. Sec. 127. None. Retrieved on 2011-05-27.
  45. ^ Pub.L. 111-41, 123 Stat. 1962, July 27, 2009.
  46. ^ Patriot Day, 2005. Georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov. Retrieved on 2011-05-27.
  47. ^ Public Law 107-51. Ushistory.org. Retrieved on 2011-05-27.
  48. ^ Presidential Proclamation Fire Prevention Week | The White House. Whitehouse.gov. Retrieved on 2011-05-27.
  49. ^ National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day, 2007. Georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov. Retrieved on 2011-05-27.
  50. ^ What's Hot at Ft. McPherson. Mcpherson.army.mil. Retrieved on 2011-05-27.
  51. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "Flag Folding". US Flag. http://www.usflag.org/foldflag.html. Retrieved 2007–10–18. 
  52. ^ "Army's 'Spiritual Fitness' Test Angers Some Soldiers". National Public Radio. http://www.npr.org/2011/01/13/132904866/armys-spiritual-fitness-test-angers-some-soldiers. Retrieved 2007–10–18. 
  53. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "Flag folding procedures and symbols". American Legion. http://www.legion.org/flag/folding. Retrieved 2007–10–18. 
  54. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Carlos Zamorano. God Bless America. Xlibris, Corp.. http://books.google.com/books?id=lti2VdlRkxEC&pg=PA128&dq=Flag+Folding++meaning&hl=en&ei=6pRXTerrLcSgtwfip9XbDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CEAQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Flag%20Folding%20%20meaning&f=false. Retrieved 2007–10–18. 
  55. ^ "Sequence of Events for an Army Honors Funeral At Arlington National Cemetery". Arlington National Cemetery. http://www.arlingtoncemetery.org/ceremonies/military_funerals.html. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  56. ^ "Flag Presentation Protocol". Virginia Army National Guard. http://www.vi.ngb.army.mil/html/content/Flags/Flag_Presentation.htm. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  57. ^ USFlag.org: A website dedicated to the Flag of the United States of America - The 50 Star Flag
  58. ^ a b Leepson, Marc (2004). Flag: An American Biography. 
  59. ^ a b Ansoff, Peter (2006). "The Flag on Prospect Hill". Raven, a Journal of Vexillology 13: 91–98. http://www.nava.org/Flag%20Information/articles/ansoff_pp77-100.pdf. 
  60. ^ The Striped Flag of the East India Company, and its Connexion with the American "Stars and Stripes" at Flags of the World
  61. ^ East India Company (United Kingdom) at Flags of the World
  62. ^ A 2002 BBC documentary featuring the town of Selby and Selby Abbey showed the coat of arms with the commentator referring to it as the inspiration for the U.S. flag, a commonly held belief in Britain.
  63. ^ Peter MacDonald. History – The Naming of America. BBC (2011-03-29). Retrieved on 2011-05-27. Cited in MacDonald's article: Naming of America: Continents, Countries, States, Counties and Cities by Allan Wolk.
  64. ^ a b Federal Citizen Information Center: The History of the Stars and Stripes. Retrieved June 7, 2008.
  65. ^ Guenter (1990)
  66. ^ Mastai, 60
  67. ^ Other evidence suggests it dates only to the nineteenth century. The original flag is at the North Carolina Historical Museum.
  68. ^ Crews, Ed. "The Truth About Betsy Ross". http://www.history.org/Foundation/journal/Summer08/betsy.cfm. Retrieved 2009-06-27. 
  69. ^ Embassy of the United States of America [1]. Retrieved April 11, 2008.
  70. ^ "Journals of the Continental Congress – Friday, October 27, 1780". Library of Congress. http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?ammem/hlaw:@field(DOCID+@lit(jc01845)). Retrieved 3 September 2010. 
  71. ^ United States Government (1861) (PDF). Our Flag. Washington DC: United States Government Printing Office. S. Doc 105-013. http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=105_cong_documents&docid=f:sd013.105.pdf. 
  72. ^ "United States Flag History". United States Embassy. Archived from the original on 2008-02-25. http://web.archive.org/web/20080225142325/http://stockholm.usembassy.gov/usflag/flaghist.html. Retrieved 2009-02-03. 
  73. ^ a b Preble, George Henry (1880, 1894). History of the flag of the United States of America. Houghton, Mifflin and Co.. http://www.archive.org/stream/historyofflagofu00preb/historyofflagofu00preb_djvu.txt. 
  74. ^ a b c Tappan, Eva March (1917). The Little Book of the Flag. Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin Company. pp. 91–92. http://www.archive.org/stream/littlebookofflags00tapp/littlebookofflags00tapp_djvu.txt. 
  75. ^ See Chinese English Dictionary
    Citibank, which founded a branch in China in 1902, is known as "Flower Flag Bank" (花旗銀行).
    Olsen, Kay Melchisedech, Chinese Immigrants: 1850–1900 (2001), p. 7.
    "Philadelphia's Chinatown: An Overview", The Historical Society of Pennsylvania.
    Leonard, Dr. George, "The Beginnings of Chinese Literature in America: the Angel Island Poems".
  76. ^ "American Flag Raised Over Buddhist Temple in Japan on July 4, 1872"
  77. ^ (For alternate versions of the flag of the United States, see the Stars of the U.S. Flag page at the Flags of the World website.)
  78. ^ Leepson, Marc. (2005). Flag: An American Biography. New York: St. Martin's Press.

Bibliography

  • Allentown Art Museum. The American Flag in the Art of Our Country. Allentown Art Museum, 1976.
  • Herbert Ridgeway Collins. Threads of History: Americana Recorded on Cloth 1775 to the Present. Smithsonian Institution Press, 1979.
  • Grace Rogers Cooper. Thirteen-star Flags: Keys to Identification. Smithsonian Institution Press, 1973.
  • David D. Crouthers. Flags of American History. Hammond, 1978.
  • Louise Lawrence Devine. The Story of Our Flag. Rand McNally, 1960.
  • William Rea Furlong, Byron McCandless, and Harold D. Langley. So Proudly We Hail: The History of the United States Flag. Smithsonian Institution Press, 1981.
  • Scot M. Guenter, The American Flag, 1777–1924: Cultural Shifts from Creation to Codification. Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. 1990. online
  • Kevin Keim & Peter Keim. A Grand Old Flag: A History of the United States through its Flags. DK Publishing. 2007. ISBN 978-0-7566-2847-5.
  • Marc Leepson, Flag: An American Biography. Thomas Dunne Books/St. Martin's Press, 2005.
  • David Roger Manwaring. Render Unto Caesar: The Flag-Salute Controversy. University of Chicago Press, 1962.
  • Boleslaw Mastai and Marie-Louise D'Otrange Mastai. The Stars and the Stripes: The American Flag as Art and as History from the Birth of the Republic to the Present. Knopf, 1973.
  • Milo Milton Quaife. The Flag of the United States. 1942.
  • Milo Milton Quaife, Melvin J. Weig, and Roy Applebaum. The History of the United States Flag, from the Revolution to the Present, Including a Guide to Its Use and Display. Harper, 1961.
  • Albert M. Rosenblatt. "Flag Desecration Statutes: History and Analysis," Washington University Law Quarterly 1972: 193–237.
  • Leonard A. Stevens. Salute! The Case of The Bible vs. The Flag. Coward, McCann & Geoghegan, 1973.
  • Arnaldo Testi. Capture the Flag: The Stars and Stripes in American History (New York University Press; 2010) 192 pages. A European perspective on the symbolism and political, social, and cultural significance of the flag.

External links



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