Fruitarianism

Fruitarianism is a form of veganism that is limited to eating the ripe fruits of plants and trees. Fruitarians (or fructarians) eat in principle only the fruit of plants. [cite web|url=http://www.bartleby.com/61/44/F0344400.html|title=fruitarian. The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition. 2000 ] Some people consider themselves fruitarians even if their diet is not 100% fruit. [cite web|url=http://www.living-foods.com/articles/typesofraw.html|title=Living and Raw Foods: Types of Raw Food Diets: A Brief Survey ] Usually fruitarians who include foods other than fruit follow a vegan diet. [cite web|url=http://www.vegetariantimes.com/document_display.cfm?document_id=117|title=Vegetarian Times — Great Food, Good Health, Smart Living ]

Definitions

Fruitarian definition of fruit

When discussing food, the term "fruit" usually refers to just those plant fruits that are sweet and fleshy (for example, plums, apples, and oranges). Botanically, though, some foods not typically considered fruits—including bell peppers, tomatoes, cucumbers, nuts and grains—are fruits. [cite web|url=http://www.cite-sciences.fr/lexique/definition1.php?idmot=412&rech_lettre=f&num_page=14&habillage=standard&lang=an&id_expo=25&id_habillage=36|title=definition of fruit ]

Fruitarians use differing definitions of what is considered a "fruit."

Definition of fruitarian

Some fruitarians will eat only what falls (or would fall) naturally from a plant, that is: foods that can be harvested without killing the plant. These foods consist primarily of culinary fruits, nuts, and seeds. [cite web|url=http://www.vegsoc.org/info/definitions.html|title=The Vegetarian Society UK — Information Sheet — Definitions ] Some do not eat grains, believing it is unnatural to do so, [cite web|url=http://www.rawfoodexplained.com/the-human-dietetic-character-part-i/are-we-grain-eaters.html|title=Human Dietetic Character, I — Are We Grain Eeaters? ] and some fruitarians feel that it is improper for humans to eat seeds. [cite web|url=http://www.beyondveg.com/billings-t/open-lett/open-letter-f-1a.shtml|title=To Those Considering A Fruitarian Diet ] Others believe they should eat only plants that spread seeds when the plant is eaten. [http://www.living-foods.com/news/alternative.html Living and Raw Foods: Alternative Eating Plans - USA TODAY ] ] Others eat seeds and some cooked foods. [http://www.acorn.net/fruitarian/what.html What is a Fruitarian? ] ]

Some fruitarians use the botanical definitions of fruits and consume pulses, such as many beans and peas, [cite web|url=http://www.fruitarian.com/ao/WhatIsFruitarianism.htm|title=Fruitarian — What is Fruitarianism? ] while others include green leafy vegetables [cite web|url=http://www.geocities.com/HotSprings/3893/Our_Mission.htm|title=Our Mission ] and/or root vegetables in their diet.

Motivation

Some fruitarians believe fruitarianism was the original diet of mankind in the form of Adam and Eve based on . They believe that a return to an Eden-like paradise will require simple living and a holistic approach to health and diet. [cite web|url=http://www.satyamag.com/june03/berry.html|title=Satya June/July 03: Raw History by Rynn Berry ] Some fruitarians wish to avoid killing in all its forms, including plants.

Some fruitarians say that eating some types of fruit does the parent plant a favor and that fleshy fruit has evolved to be eaten by animals, to achieve seed dispersal. Fruit seeds passed in feces may sprout in a pile of ready-made fertilizer, encouraging proliferation of the plant,Fact|date=September 2007

Criticisms

The Health Promotion Program at Columbia University reports that a fruitarian diet can cause deficiencies in calcium, protein, iron, zinc, vitamin D, most B vitamins (especially B-12), and essential fatty acids. Additionally, the Health Promotion Program at Columbia reports that food restrictions in general may lead to hunger, cravings, food obsessions, social disruptions and social isolation. [Alice!, Health Promotion Program at Columbia University, Health Services at Columbia, August 23, 2002." [http://www.goaskalice.com/2218.html Go Ask Alice!: Fruitarian teens] ". Accessed May 20, 2008.]

Lack of protein in fleshy fruit can make the lifestyle difficult to sustain, and can lead to the condition of hypoproteinemia or kwashiorkor. Nut (fruit)
Nuts
(if included) are a good source of protein. Due to the lower digestibility of plant proteins, however, the American Dietetic Association (ADA) states "protein needs might be higher than the RDA (when) dietary protein sources are mainly those that are less well digested, such as some cereals and legumes." [ [http://www.adajournal.org/article/PIIS0002822303002943/fulltext “Position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada: Vegetarian diets”] . "Journal of the American Dietetic Association", 2003, 06. Accessed 22 January 2008.]

Vitamin B12, a bacterial product, is not found in any fruits. According to the U.S. National Institutes of Health "natural food sources of vitamin B12 are limited to foods that come from animals." [cite web|url=http://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/vitaminb12.asp#h6|title=Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Vitamin B12 ] Like vegans that do not consume B12-fortified foods (certain plant milks and breakfast cereals, for example), fruitarians need to include a B12 supplement in their diet. This may pose a health risk for strict fruitarians, as the B12 in fortified foods and supplements is derived from bacteria, not fruits. It is also contrary to the philosophy that humans are perfectly evolved to live off of fruit.

Claims made by fruitarian advocates have led some to classify the diet as a form of outright quackery. [cite journal |author=Jarvis WT |title=Food faddism, cultism, and quackery |journal=Annu. Rev. Nutr. |volume=3 |pages=35–52 |year=1983 |pmid=6315036 |doi=10.1146/annurev.nu.03.070183.000343] Many notable advocates of fruitarianism in the past, including Morris Krok, [cite web|url=http://fredraw.typepad.com/personal/2005/10/morris_krok_is_.html|title=Peaches and a Guitar: Morris Krok Passed Away ] Johnny Lovewisdom, Walter Siegmeister/Raymond BernardFact|date=May 2008, and Viktoras KulvinskasFact|date=May 2008 did not adhere to a strict fruitarian diet. Some, like Johnny Lovewisdom, switched to other unorthodox lifestyles (including breatharianism and liquitarianism, juices only), while others, like Morris Krok, recommended against the diet once they stopped. [cite web|url=http://www.beyondveg.com/billings-t/bio/billings-t-bio-1b.shtml|title=Tom Billings: dietary bio, Part B ]

Famous fruitarians

* Mahatma Gandhi political and spiritual leader, briefly followed a diet similar to fruitarianism. He and his followers repeatedly discontinued these diets as in the long term they proved unsustainable. [cite web|url=http://www.drbass.com/mice.html|title=Dr. Stanley S. Bass: In search of the ultimate vegetarian diet ] http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3719/is_200607/ai_n16855770/pg_13 Overview of U.S. White Supremacist Groups] ",Journal of Political and Military Sociology, Summer 2006.]
* The nuns in the Anglican Order of St Elizabeth of Hungary followed a fruitarian diet.

Fictional

*Some interpret ("Behold I have given you every herb-yielding seed. To you it shall be for meat") to mean that Adam and Eve were fruitarians in the Garden of Eden. [cite web|url=http://www.shemayisrael.co.il/publicat/hazon/tzedaka/lighter.htm|title=On the Lighter Side: Suggested Topics for Our Series ] Others interpret this to mean they were raw vegans. [cite web|url=http://www.rawchristians.org/home.aspx|title=RawChristians.Org :: Home Page ]
*Ayesha ("She-who-must-be-obeyed") of H. Rider Haggard's "She" and its sequels
*The Eloi from HG Wells's "The Time Machine"
*The K-PAXian "prot" in the "K-PAX" books and film
*The evil Medusa Johnson in "Leonard Part 6"
*Keziah in Notting Hill (film)

ee also

*Christian vegetarianism
*Deep ecology
*Inedia
*Juice fasting
*Mutualism
*Naturalistic fallacy
*Raw foodism
*Raw veganism
*Veganism

References

External links


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