Alfonso III of Aragon

Alfonso III (1265 – 18 June 1291), called the Liberal ("el Liberal") or the Free (also "the Frank," from "el Franc"), was the King of Aragon and Count of Barcelona (as Alfons II) from 1285. He conquered the Kingdom of Majorca between his succession and 1287.

He was a son of Peter III of Aragon and his Queen consort Constantia of Sicily, daughter and heiress of Manfred of Sicily. His maternal grandmother Beatrice of Savoy was a daughter of Amadeus IV of Savoy and Anne of Burgundy.

Soon after assuming the throne, he conducted a campaign to reincorporate the Balearic Islands into the Kingdom of Aragon - which had been lost due to the division of the kingdom by his grandfather, James I of Aragon. Thus in 1285 he declared war on his uncle, James II of Majorca, and conquered both Majorca (1285) and Ibiza (1286), effectively reassuming suzerainty over the Kingdom of Majorca. He followed this with the conquest of Minorca - until then, an autonomous Muslim state (Manûrqa) under the Kingdom of Majorca - on 17 January 1287, the anniversary of which now serves as Minorca's national holiday.

He initially sought to maintain the Aragonese control over Sicily early in his reign by supporting the claims to island of his brother, James II of Aragon. However, he later pressed his brother to retract the claims and instead supported claim from the Papal States.

His reign was marred by a constitutional struggle with the Aragonese nobles, which eventually culminated in the articles of the Union of Aragon - the so called "Magna Carta of Aragon", which devolved several key royal powers into the hands of lesser nobles. His inability to resist the demands of his nobles was to leave a heritage of disunity in Aragon and further dissent amongst the nobility, who increasingly saw little reason to respect the throne, and brought the Kingdom of Aragon close to anarchy.

He died at the age of 27 in 1291, and buried in Barcelona. He bore no children, despite being married on August 15, 1290 to Princess Eleanor of England, daughter of Edward I of England and Princess Eleanor of Castile.

Dante Alighieri, in the Divine Comedy, recounts that he saw Alfonso's spirit seated outside the gates of Purgatory with the other monarchs whom Dante blamed for the chaotic political state of Europe during the 13th century.


* Alighieri, Dante, "Purgatorio", Canto VII, l. 115ff.
* Nelson, Lynn. "The Chronicle of San Juan De LA Pena: A Fourteenth-Century Official History of the Crown of Aragon" (University of Pennsylvania Press, 1991) ISBN 0-8122-1352-1
* O'Callaghan, Joseph. "A History of Medieval Spain" (Cornell University Press, 1983) ISBN 0-8014-9264-5

s-ttl|title=King of Aragon and Valencia, Count of Barcelona

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Alfonso V of Aragon — Infobox Spanish Royalty|monarch name =Alphonse V title =King of Aragon, Majorca, Naples, Sicily and Valencia; Count of Barcelona caption =Portrait of Alfonso V of Aragon, by Vicente Juan Masip spouse =Maria of Castile succession =King of Aragon,… …   Wikipedia

  • Alfonso IV of Aragon — Alfonso IV, called the Kind (also the Gentle or the Nice , Catalan: Alfons el Benigne ) (1299 ndash; 24 January 1336) was the King of Aragon [He held the Crown of Aragon, which included not just Aragon, but also the kingdoms of Valencia, Sardinia …   Wikipedia

  • Peter III of Aragon — Peter the Great (Catalan: Pere el Gran , Spanish: Pedro el Grande ; 1239 ndash; 2 November 1285) was the King of Aragon (as Peter III) of Valencia and of Majorca (as Peter I), and Sovereign Count of Barcelona (as Peter II) from 1276 to his death …   Wikipedia

  • Alfonso Federico de Aragón — o Alfonso Federico de Sicilia fue hijo bastardo de Federico II de Sicilia. Se crio en la corte de Jaime II de Aragón, en 1317 fue nombrado vicario del ducado de Atenas y en el mismo año 1317 se casó con Marulla de Verona, hija de Bonifacio de… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Alfonso V de Aragón — Para otros usos de este término, véase Alfonso de Aragón. Alfonso V de Aragón Rey de Aragón Retrato de Alfonso V de Aragón, por Juan de Juanes, (Siglo XVI. Óleo sobre lienzo, 88 x 27 cm Museo de Zaragoza ( …   Wikipedia Español

  • Alfonso II de Aragón — Para otros usos de este término, véase Alfonso II. Para otros usos de este término, véase Alfonso II el Casto. Para otros usos de este término, véase Alfonso de Aragón. Alfonso II de Aragón Rey de Aragón Conde de Barcelona …   Wikipedia Español

  • Alfonso I de Aragón — Para otros usos de este término, véase Alfonso de Aragón. Alfonso I de Aragón el Batallador Rey de Aragón y Pamplona Retrato de Alfonso I, por …   Wikipedia Español

  • Alfonso III — may refer to:*Alfonso III of Leon (866 914) surnamed the Great *Afonso III of Portugal (1210 1279) *Alfonso III of Aragon (1285 1291) *Alfonso III d Este, Duke of Modena and Reggio (1628 44) *Alfonso III of Kongo (1666 1667) …   Wikipedia

  • Alfonso X of Castile — Alfonso X (November 23, 1221, Toledo, Spain ndash; April 4, 1284, Seville, Spain) was a Spanish monarch who ruled as the King of Castile, León and Galicia from 1252 until his death. He also was elected German King (formally King of the Romans) in …   Wikipedia

  • Alfonso VI of Castile — Alfonso VI (before June 1040 ndash; June 29/July 1, 1109), nicknamed the Brave, was King of León from 1065 to 1109 and King of Castile from 1072 following his brother s death. As he was the first Alfonso to be King of Castile, he is sometimes… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”