Faramir

Tolkienchar
image_character =
image_caption =
character_name = Faramir
character_alias =
character_title = See "Names and titles"
character_race = Men
character_culture = Dúnedain, House of Húrin
character_birth = ME-date|TA|2983 Harvnb|Return of the King|1955|loc=Appendix B, pp. 368–373|Ref=Return of the King]
character_death = ME-date|FA|82 Harvnb|Return of the King|1955|loc=Appendix A: I (ii), pp. 317–8|Ref=Return of the King]
character_realm = Gondor
Book(s) = "The Two Towers"
"The Return of the King"
In J. R. R. Tolkien's Middle-earth legendarium, Faramir is a fictional character appearing in "The Lord of the Rings". He is introduced as the younger brother of Boromir of the Fellowship of the Ring and second son of Denethor II, the Steward of the realm of Gondor. The relationships between the three men are revealed over the course of the book and are elaborated in the appendices.

Faramir first enters the narrative in person in "The Two Towers", where, upon meeting Frodo Baggins, he is presented with a temptation to take possession of the Ruling Ring. In "The Return of the King", he led the forces of Gondor during the War of the Ring, coming near to death, and eventually succeeded his father as the Steward and won the love of Éowyn of Rohan. These events have been depicted in several adaptations of "The Lord of the Rings", most notably in Peter Jackson's film trilogy, which introduces significant changes in Faramir's character.

In "The History of The Lord of the Rings" series Christopher Tolkien described that his father had not foreseen the emergence of Faramir during the writing of the book, only inventing him at the actual point of his appearance in "The Two Towers". [Harvnb|War of the Ring|1990|loc=Chs. "Of Herbs and Stewed Rabbit" and "Faramir"|Ref=War of the Ring] J. R. R. Tolkien noted that the introduction of Faramir had led to postponement of the book's dénouement and to further development of the background for Gondor and Rohan.Harvnb|Carpenter|1981|loc=no. 66] Long after completing "The Lord of the Rings", Tolkien would write that of all characters Faramir resembles the author most, and that he had deliberately bestowed upon the character several traits of his own.Harvnb|Carpenter|1981|loc=no. 180]

Literature

Background

Early years of Faramir's life are described in the main narrative of "The Lord of the Rings" only passingly, with more detail revealed in the appendices. It is stated that Faramir was born in the year 2983 of the Third Age; his father, Denethor II, was a man of noble descent and the heir to the Stewardship of Gondor, ascending a year after Faramir's birth. Denethor had married Finduilas, daughter of Prince Adrahil of Dol Amroth;Harvnb|Return of the King|1955|loc=Appendix A: I (iv), pp. 335–6|Ref=Return of the King] however, she died untimely when Faramir was five, and is said to have remained to him "but a memory of loveliness in far days and of his first grief".Harvnb|Return of the King|1955|loc="The Steward and the King", pp. 240, 245–7|Ref=Return of the King]

After her death Denethor became sombre, cold, and detached from his family, but the relationship between Faramir and Boromir, who was five years elder, only grew closer. The brothers greatly loved and highly esteemed each other, and neither in childhood nor in later years was there any jealousy or rivalry between them, even though Denethor openly favoured his elder son. With a "bossy" brother and a stern father whose great force of character and status as a chief Númenórean daunted Faramir, Tolkien describes that Faramir was used to giving way and not airing his own opinions.Harvnb|Carpenter|1981|loc=no. 244] Among other things, Faramir displeased his father in that he welcomed the wizard Gandalf who occasionally visited Minas Tirith, the capital of Gondor. Being eager for knowledge, Faramir learned much from Gandalf about the history of the realm and about the death of Isildur.Harvnb|Return of the King|1955|loc="The Window on the West", pp. 278–280|Ref=Return of the King]

Gondor had long been threatened by the nearby realm of Mordor, and in 3018 the Dark Lord Sauron began the War of the Ring, attacking the ruined city of Osgiliath that guarded the passage to Minas Tirith. Faramir and Boromir commanded the defence, and were among those few who survived when the eastern half of Osgiliath was captured and the bridges across the River Anduin were destroyed.Harvnb|Fellowship|1955|loc="The Council of Elrond", pp. 253, 259|Ref=Fellowship of the Ring]

In "The Fellowship of the Ring" it is recounted that shortly before the battle Faramir had a prophetic dream, which later often recurred to him and once to Boromir. In this dream a voice spoke about a council that was to be held at Imladris far to the north, about the awakening of "Isildur's Bane", approaching of "Doom", and appearance of "the Halfling". Faramir decided to journey to Imladris and seek advice of Elrond the Half-elven, but Boromir claimed the errand for himself, fearing for his brother, and was approved by Denethor and a council of the elders; Faramir remained to defend Gondor.

"The Two Towers"

and recognized them to be the Halflings mentioned in his dreams. Faramir questioned Frodo of his quest, and Frodo revealed that he, along with eight other companions, had set out from Rivendell. During the interrogation, Faramir asked often about Boromir.

One night, while on guard, Faramir waded down to the Anduin river after seeing a boat there. It contained the dead body of his brother, who had been killed by Orcs.

Faramir also asked about the One Ring, but Frodo tried to avoid the subject. Faramir determined that Frodo was carrying one of Sauron's great weapons. At this point, he showed the crucial difference between him and his proud brother:

In the Rangers’ secret refuge behind the waterfall, Henneth Annûn, Sam accidentally spoke of Boromir’s desire for the One Ring, thus revealing the item Frodo was carrying. Despite the Hobbits’ fears, Faramir was wise enough to realize that such a weapon was not to be used and if desired, should be resisted. With this knowledge, he also realized what his brother had to face, and wished that he had gone on the quest himself — knowing that Boromir would not have been able to resist the temptation to seize the Ring for himself. Giving them provisions, he sent them on their way to continue their quest, but warned Frodo that their guide, Gollum, was a treacherous creature, and that an unknown terror lived in Cirith Ungol.

"The Return of the King"

The following evening in Cair Andros, Faramir sent his company south to reinforce the garrison at Osgiliath, while he and three of his men rode to Minas Tirith. Along the way, they were pursued by Sauron's servants, the Nazgûl. Faramir rode back to help the fallen. Immediately, Gandalf rode out to their aid, temporarily banishing the Nazgûl.

Faramir arrived at Minas Tirith and reported to Denethor and Gandalf of his encounter with Frodo and Sam. Denethor became angry that Faramir had not brought the Ring to Gondor, wishing that he and his brother’s places had been reversed — since Denethor believed that Boromir would have brought Sauron's weapon to him. Denethor sent Faramir to hold Osgiliath against Sauron's armies, which greatly outnumbered their own. Although Faramir disagreed with his father’s strategy, he agreed to go.

Sauron's second-in-command, the Witch-king of Angmar, led a much larger force from Minas Morgul, and attacked Osgiliath. After Osgiliath was conquered, Faramir decided to stay with the rearguard in order to make sure that the retreat over Pelennor would not turn into a rout. He was gravely wounded by a Southron arrow and the Black Breath of the Nazgûl. Fortunately, all of the mounted soldiers in the city rode to his aid and brought him back to Denethor in Minas Tirith.

When Faramir returned unconscious, Denethor believed him to be fatally injured. That blow, coupled with a vision in the prophetic "palantír" of the forces arrayed against him, caused him to lose his mind. He ordered his servants to build a funeral pyre in the House of Stewards for him and his son. Denethor's temporary Hobbit servant, Peregrin Took, went to alert Gandalf and Beregond, one of the Tower Guards he had befriended. Gandalf and Beregond stopped the impending sacrifice just in time. Mad with grief, Denethor jumped onto the lit pyre, burning himself alive.

Two days later, the battle over, Aragorn came and revived Faramir with "athelas" in the Houses of Healing. During his subsequent recuperation there, Faramir met the Lady Éowyn of Rohan; moved by her sorrow, pride, and beauty, he eventually fell in love with her. At first, Éowyn refused his advances, only desiring to go to war to find honour in death. But soon Éowyn realized that she had come to love him in return.

Faramir briefly served as a Ruling Steward, and began preparing the city for the arrival of Aragorn, who was now King of Gondor. On the day of the King’s official coronation, Faramir surrendered his office. Aragorn, however, announced that as long as his line would last, Faramir and his descendants would be Stewards of Gondor.

In addition, Aragorn appointed Faramir as the Prince of Ithilien and Beregond to be the Captain of his guard, the White Company. As Prince of Ithilien, he and the Prince of Dol Amroth became King Elessar's chief commanders. In a draft to a reader of "The Lord of the Rings", J. R. R. Tolkien writes that as Prince of Ithilien, Faramir's duties also included acting as resident march-warden of Gondor's main eastward outpost, rehabilitating the lost territories, as well as clearing it of outlaws and Orcs and cleansing Minas Morgul of evil remnants. [Harvnb|Carpenter|1981|loc=no. 323] Faramir also fulfilled the traditional role as Steward, acting as the King’s chief counsellor and ruling Gondor in his absence.

With Éowyn, he settled in Emyn Arnen, where the two had a son named "Elboron". After Faramir’s death at the age of 120, his son succeeded him in all of his titles. "Barahir", Faramir's grandson, wrote "The Tale of Aragorn and Arwen", which was inserted (in an abbreviated form) in the "Thain's Book" by the writer Findegil, [Harvnb|Fellowship|1954a|loc=Prologue: "Note on the Shire records", p. 23|Ref=Fellowship] and appears in "The Lord of the Rings" as part of Appendix A. Barahir may have been the son of Elboron, but nothing directly indicates this conclusion.

Characteristics

Faramir's personality is prominently described in the appendices to "The Lord of the Rings":

Tolkien recorded that Faramir greatly resembled Boromir in appearance,Harvnb|Return of the King|1955|loc="The Siege of Gondor", p. 82|Ref=Return of the King] who in his turn is described as "a tall man with a fair and noble face, dark-haired and grey-eyed, proud and stern of glance". Members of the line of the Stewards were wont to be of a nobler appearance and bearing than most of the inhabitants of Gondor; in case of Faramir, it is stated that "by some chance the blood of Westernesse [ran] nearly true" in him, which was rare.Harvnb|Return of the King|1955|loc="Minas Tirith", pp. 31, 39|Ref=Return of the King] This trait was elaborated by Tolkien through the speech of Pippin:

Faramir’s leadership, skill-in-arms, and swift but hardy judgement proved invaluable in battle, and earned him Gondor's respect during the War of the Ring. He defended Gondor from Sauron on many fronts, but did not enjoy fighting for its own sake. Long after completing "The Lord of the Rings", Tolkien would write, "As far as any character is 'like me', it is Faramir". Faramir's relationship to war in Tolkien's story reflected that of the author himself, who was a soldier in World War I and fought in the Battle of the Somme. [ME-ref|Bio|"The breaking of the fellowship"]

Tolkien bestowed his dream of "darkness unescapable" upon Faramir's character, who relates it to Éowyn in the fifth chapter of "The Return of the King". Of this, Tolkien wrote, "For when Faramir speaks of his private vision of the Great Wave, he speaks for me. That vision and dream has been ever with me — and has been inherited (as I only discovered recently) by one of my children, Michael."

Names and titles

The meaning of the name "Faramir" was not explained by Tolkien; apparently he intended it to come from Sindarin, an Elven language constructed by him and stated to have been used by the Stewards of Gondor for naming. The first part of "Faramir" could have been derived from Sindarin stems meaning 'suffice' and 'hunt', [ME-ref|LROW|"The Etymologies", entries PHAR- and SPAR-] and the final syllable is likely to have been the same as in his brother's name. [ME-ref|RC|note for p. 657] "Boromir" was described by Tolkien as a name "of mixed form",Harvnb|Return of the King|1955|loc=Appendix F: "Of Men", note 1|Ref=Return of the King] and possibly combines Sindarin "bor(on)-" 'steadfast' with either Sindarin "mîr" or Quenya "míre" 'jewel'. [Harvnb|Etymologies|1987|loc=entries BOR- and MIR-|Ref=The Lost Road] However, it is also stated that the Stewards of Gondor often bore names "remembered in the songs and histories of the First Age", without paying a special attention to meaning. Thus one Boromir appears in "The Silmarillion", [ME-ref|Silm|"Of the Coming of Men", p. 148] and the appendices to "The Lord of the Rings" introduce Faramir, son of King Ondoher of Gondor,Harvnb|Return of the King|1955|loc=Appendix A: I (iv), p. 328|Ref=Return of the King] although in this case the name was supposedly in Quenya, as the Kings are stated to have born High-elven names, and similarly did Ondohir's elder son, Artamir.

Throughout "The Lord of the Rings", Faramir is given several titles and ranks, such as the Captain of GondorHarvnb|Two Towers|1954b|loc="Of Herbs and Stewed Rabbit", pp. 265–6|Ref=Two Towers] and Captain of the White Tower.Harvnb|Return of the King|1955|loc="The Pyre of Denethor", p. 131|Ref=Return of the King] (Boromir is given the latter title at an earlier point in the storyline, and in "The Two Towers" he is referred to as Captain-General of Gondor and High Warden of the White Tower.) After his father's death, Faramir became the Steward of Gondor, [Harvnb|Return of the King|1955|loc="The Houses of Healing", p. 138|Ref=Return of the King] but only briefly as he laid down his office at the crowning of Aragorn; Tolkien stated that it was Denethor who was the last of the "Ruling" Stewards. Later Aragorn renewed Faramir's hereditary appointment as Steward to the King, and granted him the titles of the Prince of Ithilien and Lord of Emyn Arnen.

Concept and creation

The speed of the relationship of Faramir and Éowyn reflects a culture which Tolkien describes to be "less corrupt", and nobler in which the "petty fencing and approaches" of courtly love is disregarded. A factor in the development of their love came from Tolkien's personal belief that feelings grew quickly in periods of great stress and under the expectation of death. Originally, Tolkien employed the use of "thou" and "thee" in "The Lord of the Rings" to show a "deliberate change to a form of affection or endearment".ME-ref|PM|"The Appendix on Languages", pp. 67–68] His son has presented the original drafts for the chapter "The Steward and the King", in which such usage was employed to emphasize the relationship's development:

Portrayal in adaptations

Art

Faramir appears in several illustrations created by John Howe, Ted Nasmith and Anke Katrin Eißmann for "The Lord of the Rings" and related products. [See the illustrations by John Howe: [http://www.john-howe.com/portfolio/gallery/details.php?image_id=3557] , [http://www.john-howe.com/portfolio/gallery/details.php?image_id=3558] ] One of the scenes from the book that received many depictions is Faramir and Éowyn's meeting at the top of Minas Tirith. [ [http://www.anke.edoras-art.de/anke_tolkien_lotr6.html Anke Eißmann's gallery] for Book 6 of "The Lord of the Rings" and Ted Nasmith's [http://www.tednasmith.com/lotr3/TN-Eowyn_and_Faramir.html "Éowyn and Faramir"] and [http://www.tednasmith.com/lotr3/TN-The_Sun_Unveiled.html "The Sun Unveiled"] are prominent examples of art illustrating their meeting.] Eißmann apparently follows the book in presenting Faramir as dark-haired and beardless, also emphasising his recent recovery in the illustration for the dialogue with Éowyn; Nasmith depicts Faramir as bearded and brown-haired.

Radio

In the BBC's 1981 radio adaptation of "The Lord of the Rings", Faramir is voiced by Andrew Seear. The radio drama is known for adhering faithfully to the books, and Peter Jackson gives BBC's 1981 radio adaptation credit in the production of his film trilogy.cite web |url=http://www.sf-worlds.com/lord-of-the-rings/the-lord-of-the-rings-bbc-1981.html |title=Concerning The Lord of the Rings BBC 1981 |accessdate=2008-02-01 |work=The Lord of the Rings |publisher=Michael Martinez] cite web |url=http://www.istad.org/tolkien/sibley.html |title=A Masterpiece Worthy of the Masterpiece |accessdate=2008-02-01 |last=Brundige |first=Ellen |date= |work=Pointy ears and Gríma’s tears |publisher=Istad] The characterisation of Faramir follows that of the original closely; the character is able to resist the One Ring, in direct contrast to the portrayal in Peter Jackson's "The Lord of the Rings" film trilogy.

Film

In Rankin/Bass' 1980 adaptation of "The Return of the King", a dark-haired man is shown next to Eowyn in greeting Aragorn as he arrives to Minas Tirith.This character could be interpreted as Faramir. [ [http://www.cedmagic.com/featured/tolkien/rotk-2-4013-eowyn-faramir.html http://www.cedmagic.com/featured/tolkien/rotk-2-4013-eowyn-faramir.html] ] In the "Lord of the Rings" movie trilogy directed by Peter Jackson, Faramir is played by David Wenham. The actor jokes that he got the role because he and Sean Bean, who played Boromir, both had large noses. ["Cameras in Middle-earth: Filming The Two Towers", DVD Documentary] Faramir and his brother's appearances were slightly altered from the book: in the films, they have fair hair and are slightly bearded, whereas in the book they were dark-haired and, following a statement in "Unfinished Tales", [ME-ref|UT|"History of Galadriel and Celeborn": "Of Amroth and Nimrodel"] lacked beards.

The plot of the second film, "", introduces a significant deviation from the book: Faramir does not at first let Frodo, Sam, and Gollum go, but decides to bring them and the Ring to Gondor. He takes them to Osgiliath and not until the Nazgûl attack the city and Frodo comes under the threat of capture does he release them. This change received some criticism, and the character in the film was jokingly dubbed "Filmamir" or "Farfromthebookamir", among other names. [cite web | title=The Reading Room | work=Caption Contest 33!!!!!!!!!!!! - Filmamir! er... Farfromthebookamir! No wait... it's Faramir! | url=http://www.theonering.com/articles/9839,1.html | accessdate=2006-10-01]

Jackson's explanation is that he needed another adventure to delay Frodo and Sam, because the episode at Cirith Ungol was moved to the third movie, and so a new climax was needed.cite web | title=The Next Reel | work=GreenCine | url=http://www.greencine.com/article?1=1&action=view&articleID=62&pageID=104 | accessdate=2006-08-16] In fact, according to the timeline given by Tolkien, Frodo and Sam had only reached the Black Gate at the time of the fall of Isengard. Jackson also argues that it was necessary for Faramir to be tempted by the Ring because in his films everyone else was tempted, and letting Faramir be immune would be inconsistent in the eyes of a film audience. Co-screenwriter Philippa Boyens and actor David Wenham defended the changes to Faramir's character in order to increase dramatic tension: Faramir's "sea-green incorruptible" nature in the book would not have " [translated] well filmically". [cite web | title=Understanding | work=There He Came | publisher = Shandy | url=http://minas-anor.net/faramir/tttpositive.htm | accessdate=2007-06-20] Wenham also found Tolkien's original "dramatically dead", despite having not read the book. [cite video| title = The Lord of the Rings film trilogy - From Book to Script: Finding the Story | medium = DVD | publisher = New Line Cinema, 2003]

Several fans remain unimpressed and unconvinced by the cast and crew's justifications, [cite web | last =Eskew | first =Phil | title=The Two Towers | work=The Nit Picker's Guide to the Lord of the Rings | date =2004-12-28 | url=http://jackflannel.org/lotr/#ttt | accessdate=2007-06-20] and other note that Faramir was rendered too much like Boromir and thus the contrast between the two was severely weakened. [cite web | title=Bitterness | work=There He Came | publisher = Shandy | url=http://minas-anor.net/faramir/tttnegative.htm | accessdate=2007-06-20] A scene that received additional criticism is the Rangers' treatment of Gollum, who is beaten up, and Faramir's implicit compliance. [cite web | title=The Nature of Faramir: A Response | work=Old Special Reports | publisher = TheOneRing.net | date =2002-12-24 | url=http://www.theonering.net/torwp/2002/12/24/25942-a-response-to-nz-strider/ | accessdate=2008-02-01] [cite web | title=The Faramir Changes: Arguments Against | work=Old Special Reports | publisher = TheOneRing.net | date =2003-02-12 | url=http://www.theonering.net/torwp/2003/02/12/25820-the-faramir-changes-arguments-against-2/ | accessdate=2008-02-01] In the book, Faramir called the creature "Sméagol" instead of "Gollum", and told his men to "treat him gently, but watch him". [Harvnb|Two Towers|1954b|loc="The Forbidden Pool", p. 300|Ref=Two Towers]

In the extended edition of "The Two Towers", Jackson included an invented flashback scene showing that Denethor had neglected him in favour of Boromir when sending him to Rivendell, so that Faramir wanted to please his father by bringing him the Ring. (The relationship is similarly strained in the book, but his father's favouritism does not seem to affect his decisions in Ithilien.) Reviewers have opined that the extended edition presents Faramir in a more favourable light. [cite web |url=http://dvd.ign.com/articles/440/440963p4.html |title=The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers (Special Extended Edition) |pages=pp. 4 |accessdate=2008-02-01 |last=Conrad |first=Jeremy |date=2003-11-23 |work=Reviews |publisher=IGN] [cite web |url=http://www.theonering.com/articles1-13821/ReviewTheTwoTowersExtendedEditionBetterworseorjustplainsilly |title=Review: The Two Towers Extended Edition - Better, worse, or just plain silly? |accessdate=2008-02-01 |author=Jonathon |date=2003-11-03 |work=News |publisher=The One Ring]

Video games

Faramir is a bonus playable character in the video game "". In a bonus video track within this game, Wenham says that "Faramir and Boromir were brothers, and it isn't beyond possibility that Faramir would have gone to Rivendell instead. And if that happened, Faramir would have survived and returned to Gondor." [cite video|title= He serves in place of his brother as the ninth character.|medium=CD|publisher=EA Games, 2003]

Notes and references

;General references
*
*
*
*
*

ee also

* Stewards of Gondor
* Rangers of Ithilien

External links

* [http://www.tuckborough.net/faramir.html Faramir] at The Thain's Book


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