- Assyro-Babylonian religion
The pre-Christian religions of
Babyloniaand Assyriaare the earliest attestation of Ancient Semitic religion, in particular Mesopotamian mythology. As with other ancient cultures in Mesopotamia and elsewhere, the predominant religious model in the area was polytheism, a belief in many gods. Evolving out of earlier religions of the Ancient Near East, the religion of this area was centered on the cult of regional patron deities, such as Mardukat Babylon, Ishtarat Agade, or Sin at Urand Harran.
The following is a list of some Assyrian deities:
Anshar, patron of Assur
Ishtar, the goddess of love and war, patroness of Nineveh
As Shalla, the Assyrian goddess of grain
Anasas, god of medicine
Nisroch, god of agriculture
The religion of the
Neo-Assyrian Empire(sometimes called Ashurism by Modern Assyrians) centered around the god Assur, patron deity of the city of Assur, besides Ishtarpatroness of Nineveh.The Assyrians adopted Christianityduring the course of the 1st to the 3rd centuries AD, [cite web | url=http://www.meforum.org/article/558 | title=Iraqi Assyrians: Barometer of Pluralism | publisher=Middle East Quarterly | accessdate=Summer 2003 | quote=Modern Assyrians trace their heritage to the ancient Mesopotamians who converted from paganism to Christianity in the three centuries after Christ. ] the last recorded worship of Ashur dating to AD 256. [cite web | url = http://www.aina.org/aol/peter/brief.htm#Religion | title=Brief History of Assyrians | publisher= AINA Assyrian International News Agency | accessdate =] [cite web |first=Simo |last=Parpola |authorlink= |author= |coauthors= |title=Assyrians after Assyria |url=http://www.nineveh.com/Assyrians%20after%20Assyria.html |format=HTML |work=Assyriologist |publisher=Journal of Assyrian Academic Studies, Vol. XIII No. 2, |id= |pages= |page= |date=1999 |accessdate= |language=English |quote= The gods Ashur, Sherua, Istar, Nanaya, Bel, Nabu and Nergal continued to be worshiped in Assur at least until the early third century AD; the local cultic calendar was that of the imperial period; the temple of Ashur was restored in the second century AD; and the stelae of the local rulers resemble those of Assyrian kings in the imperial period. ] However, the Assyrian religion did exist in some form until the 10th century in Harran, [cite web
title=State Archives of Assyria, Vol.9: Assyrian Prophecies
University of Helsinki
quote=In Harran, the cults of Sin, Nikkal, Bel, Nabu, Tammuz and other Assyrian gods persisted until the 10th century AD and are still referred to in Islamic sources. Typically Assyrian priests with their distinctive long conical hats and tunics are depicted on several Graeco-Roman monuments from Northern Syria and East Anatolia. ] and into the 18th century in
title=Assyrian Identity in Ancient Times and Today
Journal of Assyrian Academic Studies
quote=From the third century AD on, the Assyrians embraced Christianity in increasing numbers, even though the Assyrian religion persisted in places like Harran at least until the tenth, in Mardin even until the 18th century AD. ]
Assyrian religion was an evolution of the ancient polytheistic Sumero-Akkadian religion into
henotheism, a religion based on the worship of one supreme god, but recognising the existence of others. This was represented through the gradual takeover by Ashur of the roles of other gods, and this process runs parallel with the expansionist policies of the Assyrian Empirecite book|last=Bertman|first=Stephen|title=Handbook to Life in Ancient Mesopotamia|location=New York|publisher=Oxford UP|year=2005|pages=p. 117] . As the Assyrians extended their domain over other lands, they considered it important that the local peoples acknowledge the Assyrian king as the king of their lands as well. However, kingship at the time was linked very closely with the idea of divine mandatecite book|last=Bertman|first=Stephen|title=Handbook to Life in Ancient Mesopotamia|location=New York|publisher=Oxford UP|year=2005|pages=p. 66] . The Assyrian king, whilst not being a god himsef, was acknowledged as the chief servant of the chief god, Ashur. In this manner, the king's authority was seen as absolute so long as the high priest reassured the peoples that the gods, or in the case of the henotheistic Assyrians, "the God", was pleased with the current ruler. For the Assyrians who lived in Assur and the surrounding lands, this system was the norm. For the conquered peoples, however, it was novel, particularly to the people of smaller city-states. In time, Assur was promoted from being the local deity of Assur to the overlord of the vast Assyrian domain, with worship being conducted in his name throughout the lands of the Assyrians. With the worship of Assur across much of the Fertile Crescent, the Assyrian king could command the loyalty of his fellow servants of Assur.
Ashur, the patron deity of the city of Assur from the Late Bronze Age, was in constant rivalry with the patron deity of
Babylon, Marduk. In Assyria, Ashur eventually superseded Marduk even in his role as the husband of Ishtar.
The ancient Assyrians believed Ashur to be the "Sky Axle" or "he who makes the world turn", based on the ancient Sumerian deity referred to as Anshar of the same likeness. Gradually, his status was elevated to the leader of the gods by his worshippers. Some believe that the belief gradually formed the basis of monotheism and ultimately of the Abrahamic religions.Fact|date=August 2007 (see also
Influence on Abrahamic religions
Many of the stories of the
Tanakh, [cite web |first= |last= |authorlink= |author= |coauthors= |title=Assyria |url=http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=2046&letter=A&search=Assyria |format=HTML |work= |publisher=Jewish Encyclopedia |id= |pages= |page= |date= |accessdate= |language=English |quote=The official and to some extent the popular religion of Judah was greatly affected by Assyrian influence, especially under Ahaz and Manasseh. ] and the Qur'anare believed to have been based on, influenced by, or inspired by the legendary mythological past of the Near East. The Enuma Elishin particular has been compared to the Genesis creation story. The story of Estherin particular is traced to Babylonian roots.
Religions of the Ancient Near East
Ancient Semitic religion
Middle Eastern mythology
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