- Four Freedoms
The Four Freedoms are goals famously articulated by United States President
Franklin D. Rooseveltin the State of the Union Addresshe delivered to the United States Congress. In an address also known as the Four Freedoms speech, FDR proposed four points as fundamental freedoms humans "everywhere in the world" ought to enjoy:
Freedom of speechand expression
# Freedom of religion
# Freedom from want
# Freedom from fear
His inclusion of the latter two freedoms went beyond the traditional American Constitutional values protected by the First Amendment, and endorsed a
rightto economic security and an internationalistview of foreign policy that have come to be central tenets of modern American liberalism. They also anticipated what would become known decades later as the " human security" paradigm in social scienceand economic development.
The speech delivered by President Roosevelt incorporated the following section:
cquote2|In the future days, which we seek to make secure, we look forward to a world founded upon four essential human freedoms.
The first is freedom of speech and expression--everywhere in the world.
The second is freedom of every person to worship God in his own way--everywhere in the world.
The third is freedom from want--which, translated into universal terms, means economic understandings which will secure to every nation a healthy peacetime life for its inhabitants-everywhere in the world.
The fourth is freedom from fear--which, translated into world terms, means a world-wide reduction of armaments to such a point and in such a thorough fashion that no nation will be in a position to commit an act of physical aggression against any neighbor--anywhere in the world.
That is no vision of a distant millennium. It is a definite basis for a kind of world attainable in our own time and generation. That kind of world is the very antithesis of the so-called new order of tyranny which the dictators seek to create with the crash of a bomb. |Franklin D. Roosevelt|excerpted from the Annual Message to the Congress, January 6, 1941
The concept of the Four Freedoms became part of the personal mission undertaken by
First Lady of the United Statesregarding her inspiration behind the United Nations Declaration of Human Rights, General Assembly Resolution 217A (1948). Indeed, these Four Freedoms were explicitly incorporated into the preamble to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights which reads, "Whereas" disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts which have outraged the conscience of mankind, and the advent of a world in which human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear and want has been proclaimed the highest aspiration of the common people,...."
FDR called for "a world-wide reduction of armaments" as a goal for "the future days, which we seek to make secure" but one that was "attainable in our own time and generation." More immediately, though, he called for a massive build-up of U.S. arms production: "Every realist knows that the democratic way of life is at this moment being' directly assailed in every part of the world… The need of the moment is that our actions and our policy should be devoted primarily—almost exclusively—to meeting this foreign peril. … [T] he immediate need is a swift and driving increase in our armament production. … I also ask this Congress for authority and for funds sufficient to manufacture additional munitions and war supplies of many kinds, to be turned over to those nations which are now in actual war with aggressor nations. … Let us say to the democracies: '…We shall send you, in ever-increasing numbers, ships, planes, tanks, guns. …'" - Franklin D. Roosevelt
Norman Rockwell's paintings
President Roosevelt's Four Freedoms speech inspired a set of four "Four Freedoms" paintings by
Norman Rockwell. The four paintings were published in " The Saturday Evening Post" on February 20, February 27, March 6and March 13in 1943. The paintings were accompanied in the magazine by matching essays on the Four Freedoms. (See also, Freedom from Fear (painting)).
United States Department of the Treasurytoured Rockwell's Four Freedoms paintings around the country after their publication in 1943. The Four Freedoms Tour raised over $130,000,000 in war bondsales.
Rockwell's Four Freedoms paintings were also reproduced as
postage stamps by the United States Post Office.
The New Jersey muralist Michael Lenson (1903-1972) likewise responded to Roosevelt’s speech in a pictorial way, painting a mural titled “The Four Freedoms” for the Fourteenth Street School in Newark, New Jersey.
FDR commissioned sculptor
Walter Russellto design a monument to be dedicated to the first hero of the war. The Four Freedoms Monumentwas created in 1941, and was dedicated at Madison Square Gardenin New York in 1943.
The Franklin D. Roosevelt Institute [http://www.feri.org/] honors outstanding individuals who have demonstrated a lifelong commitment to these ideals. The
Four Freedoms Awardmedals are awarded at ceremonies at Hyde Park, New Yorkand Middelburg, Netherlandsduring alternate years. Among the laureates have been:
Harry S. Truman
John F. Kennedy
Coretta Scott King
Princess Julianaof the Netherlands
*The Dalai Lama
Juan Carlosof Spain
Use in popular culture
* In the game series
Splinter Cellthere are numerous references to the Four Freedoms, with the commanding officer of protagonist Sam Fisher, stating at one point, "this is four freedoms territory", indicating that the situation (in the game plot) has gotten so grave that one or more of the Four Freedoms are threatened. In the opening sequence of the first game, the Four Freedoms are displayed in text version as a splash screenat the opening of the game, with a fifth freedom added: The freedom to protect the other four—by any means necessary. It is this "fifth freedom" that the game's protagonist operates under.
Marvel Comicssuperhero team the Fantastic Fouris based in the Four Freedoms Plazabuilding.
Liberalism in the United States
Four Freedoms (European Union)
The Free Software Definition, often called "the four freedoms" within the free software community
Freedom from Fear (painting)
* [http://www.fdrlibrary.marist.edu/od4freed.html Full text and audio of the Four Freedoms speech] . An excerpt of the Four Freedoms section is also available.
* [http://www.feri.org/common/news/details.cfm?QID=2089&clientid=11005 Full text of the Four Freedoms speech.]
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