Alyattes II


Alyattes II

Alyattes , king of Lydia (619-560 BC), the real founder of the Lydian empire, was the son of Sadyattes, of the house of the Mermnadae.

For several years he continued the war against Miletus begun by his father, but was obliged to turn his attention to the Medes and Babylonians. On May 28, 585 BC, during the Battle of Halys fought against Cyaxares, king of Media, a solar eclipse took place (see also Thales); hostilities were suspended, peace concluded, and the Halys fixed as the boundary between the two kingdoms.

Alyattes drove the Cimmerii (see Scythia) from Asia, subdued the Carians, and took several Ionian cities (Smyrna, Colophon). (Smyrna was sacked and destroyed c.600 BC, the inhabitants forced to move to the country.)

He standardised the weight of coins (1 Stater = 168 grains of wheat). The coins were produced using an anvil die technique and stamped with the Lion's head, the symbol of the Mermnadae.

He was succeeded by his son Croesus. His daughter Aryenis of Lydia was Queen consort of Astyages, King of Media.

His tomb still exists on the plateau between Lake Gygaea and the river Hermus to the north of Sardis -- a large mound of earth with a substructure of huge stones. It was excavated by Spiegelthal in 1854, who found that it covered a large vault of finely-cut marble blocks approached by a flat-roofed passage of the same stone from the south. The sarcophagus and its contents had been removed by early plunderers of the tomb, all that was left being some broken alabaster vases, pottery and charcoal. On the summit of the mound were large phalli of stone.

Naming disagreement

Note that the name "Alyattes II" is likely incorrect. Its usage here is based on the online [http://lexicorient.com/e.o Encyclopaedia of the Orient] . Though this online work provides no references, its usage of "Alyattes II" is likely based John Lemprière's 1788 "Classical Dictionary" ("Biblioteca Classica"), its full name being "Classical Dictionary of Proper Names Mentioned in Ancient Authors Writ Large, With Chronological Table". This work, however, also doesn't cite its source, but this source was likely ancient epigraphs or earlier works whose usage was based on ancient epigraphs, which are lists of kings on clay tablets and other media.

Epigraphic lists, however, are known by historians today to be generally unreliable as historical documents. For one thing, they sometimes combine kings from different regions. [http://www.metrum.org/gyges Livio C. Stecchini] contended, for instance, that Gyges was the first Lydian king and those before him, including the earlier Alyattes, were kings of nearby Maionia, a Phrygia dependency. What's more, epigraphic lists are often legendary rather than annalistic, including, for instance, the mythic hero Herakles as a city's founder or people's progenitor, as they do for the Lydians, so another possibility is that "Alyattes I" was a legendary rather than a historical figure.

The ancient historians Herodotos and Strabo both refer to Kroisos' father as Alyattes and make no mention of an earlier King Alyattes of Lydia in their writings on Lydia. The same is true of modern historians, archeologists, and numismatists who have focused on Lydia, including George M.A. Hanfmann, John Griffiths Pedley, Robert W. Wallace, Koray Konuk, and Andrew Ramage. Likewise, other newer references such as "Oxford Classical Dictionary" and "Encyclopaedia Britannica" don't use "Alyattes II" and make no mention of an earlier Lydian king named Alyattes.

References

*1911
* "Nos ancêtres de l'Antiquité", 1991, Christian Settipani, p. 152

External links

* [http://www.livius.org Livius] , [http://www.livius.org/men-mh/mermnads/alyattes.html Alyattes of Lydia] by Jona Lendering


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  • Alyattes II. — Alyattes II. (regierte 605–561 v. Chr.) war ein König von Lydien aus der Mermnaden Dynastie. Er ist der Vater und Vorgänger des berühmteren Krösus. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Geschichte 2 Münzprägung 3 Bauwerke …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Alyattes — may refer to:* Alyattes I, king of Lydia (ca. 740 BC) * Alyattes II, king of Lydia, (619 560 BC) …   Wikipedia

  • Alyattes — ist der Name zweier Könige von Lydien, Alyattes I. aus der Herakleiden Dynastie und Alyattes II. aus der Mermnaden Dynastie. Diese Seite ist eine Begriffsklärung zur Unterscheidung m …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Alyattes I — was the twenty third king of Lydia, and twentieth king of the Heraclid dynasty; see List of Kings of Lydia. He was succeeded by his son, Meles. (Herodotus)He is believed to have reigned between 759 and 745 BC …   Wikipedia

  • Alyattes — Alyattes, Vater des Krösos, König von Lydien, s.d. (Gesch.). Das Grabmaldes A., in der Nähe des Sees des Gyges, ein Erdhügel auf einer Grundlage von großen Steinen, hatte 1400 Fuß im Umfange u. war so hoch, daß es von allen Theilen Lydiens… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Alyattes — (Halyattes), König von Lydien 617–563 v. Chr., Sohn des Mermnaden Sadyattes, kämpfte gegen die Milesier, vertrieb die Kimmerier und lieferte dem Meder Kyaxares am Halys 28. Mai 585 eine Schlacht, die durch eine vom Milesier Thales vorausgesagte… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Alyattes — Alyattes, König von Lydien, Vater des Krösus; sein Grabmal am See Gyges, eine Erdpyramyde auf einer gewaltigen Steingrundlage ist in neuester Zeit Gegenstand der antiq. Forschung geworden …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

  • ALYATTES I — ALYATTES I. Lydorum, ex Heraclidis, seu Dynastiae II. Rex XX. successit Ardyso, regnavit ann. 14. Eum excepit Meles. Eusebius in Chron. num 1239. Vide Ardysus, it. Meles …   Hofmann J. Lexicon universale

  • ALYATTES — Lydorum Rex Mermnadarum, quae tertia Dynastia, III. post Sadiatten, Croesi pater, Cimmerios Asiâ pepulit, cum Medis bella gessit, obiit, in bello contra Milesios, A. M. 3496. regni 35. Usus fertur in exercitu Musicis instrumentis. Herodot. l. 1.… …   Hofmann J. Lexicon universale

  • Alyattes — /al ee at eez/, n. king of Lydia c617 560 B.C. * * * ▪ king of Lydia died c. 560 BC       king of Lydia, in west central Anatolia (reigned c. 610–c. 560 BC), whose conquest created the powerful but short lived Lydian empire.       Soon after… …   Universalium


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