Fontainebleau

French commune
name = Fontainebleau


caption = Château de Fontainebleau in the town centre
region = Île-de-France
department = Seine-et-Marne ("sous-préfecture")
arrondissement = Fontainebleau
canton = Fontainebleau
(chief town)
intercomm = Communauté de communes de Fontainebleau-Avon
mayor = Frédéric Valletoux
mandat = 2008-2014
longitude = 2.7025
latitude = 48.409722
time zone = CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
alt moy = 69 m
alt mini = 42 m
alt maxi = 150 m
km² = 172.05
population = 15,942
date-population = 1999
dens = 93
date-dens = 1999
insee = 77186
cp = 77300

Fontainebleau is a commune in the metropolitan area of Paris, France. It is located convert|55.5|km|abbr=on south-southeast of the centre of Paris. Fontainebleau is a "sous-préfecture" of the Seine-et-Marne "département", being the seat of the Arrondissement of Fontainebleau. The commune has the largest land area in the Île-de-France region, and is the only one larger than Paris itself.

Fontainebleau, together with the neighboring commune of Avon and three other smaller communes, form an urban area of 36,713 inhabitants (1999 census). This urban area is a satellite city of Paris.

Fontainebleau is renowned for its large and scenic Forest of Fontainebleau, a favorite weekend getaway for Parisians, as well as for the historical Château de Fontainebleau of the kings of France; INSEAD, one of the world's most elite business schools; and "École Supérieure d'Ingénieurs en Informatique et GÉnie des TELécommunications" (ESIGETEL) a French Engineering "Grande École".

Inhabitants of Fontainebleau are called "Bellifontains".

History

The preliminary of Fontainebleau, before the Treaty of Paris of 1763 ended the Seven Years' War.

The Edict of Fontainebleau was signed here in October 1685, revoking the Edict of Nantes.

During the French Revolution, Fontainebleau was temporarily renamed Fontaine-la-Montagne, meaning "Fountain by the Mountain" (the mountain referred to is the series of rocky formations located in the Forest of Fontainebleau).

Several treaties were signed in Fontainebleau, including the 1814 Treaty of Fontainebleau which stripped Napoleon Bonaparte of his powers (but not his title as Emperor of the French) and sent him into exile on Elba.

During the 1950s and early 1960s, Fontainebleau was home to the NATO's HQ Allied Forces Central Europe (AFCENT); HQ Allied Air Forces Central Europe (AAFCE) (AIRCENT) was located nearby at Camp Guynemer. After France established its own nuclear arsenal under its direct control, French President Charles de Gaulle decided that he no longer needed NATO-controlled atomic weapons on French soil. In 1966, de Gaulle asked for the departure of all non-French NATO troops from French soil. The United States returned those bases to French control, and NATO moved AFCENT to Brunssum in the Netherlands and AIRCENT to Ramstein AFB, in West Germany.

Tourism

Fontainebleau is a popular tourist destination; each year, 300,000 people visit the palace and about 11 million people visit the forestFact|date=July 2007.

Fontainebleau forest

The forest of Fontainebleau surrounds the city and dozens of villages. It is protected by France's "Office National des Forêts" and is recognised as a national park that is managed partly to conserve its wild plants and trees (such as the Service Tree of Fontainebleau) and its valuable population of birds, mammals and butterflies. It is a former royal hunting park often visited by walkers and horse riders. The forest is also well regarded for bouldering and is particularly popular among climbers.

Royal Château de Fontainebleau

The Royal Château de Fontainebleau is a large castle where the Renaissance was introduced to France from 1528 onwards.

Other notable places

* The European (and historical) campus of INSEAD business school and research laboratories from the "École des Mines de Paris" are located in Fontainebleau.
* The graves of G. I. Gurdjieff and Katherine Mansfield can be found in the cemetery at Avon.

Transport

Fontainebleau is served by two stations on the Transilien Paris – Lyon suburban rail line: Fontainebleau – Avon and Thomery. Fontainebleau – Avon station, the closest station to the town center of Fontainebleau, is located at the border between the commune of Fontainebleau and the commune of Avon, on the Avon side of the border.

Famous Residents

*Philippe IV King of France, born and died in Fontainebleau
*François II King of France, born in Fontainebleau
*Henri III King of France, born in Fontainebleau
*Louis XIII King of France, born in Fontainebleau
*Christina Queen of Sweden; her lover Monaldeschi was murdered in Fontainebleau
*Alphonse XIII King of Spain, after his abdication
*Aga Khan IV
*Anna Elizabeth Klumpke - 19th/20th century artist
*The Prince and The Princess of Hanover
*Rosa Bonheur - 19th century artist
*Alex Grechishkin

Image Gallery

ee also

*Château de Fontainebleau
*Edict of Fontainebleau (October 1685)
*List of climbing areas
*Milly-la-Forêt
*Treaty of Fontainebleau (1762)
*Fontainebleau High School

External links

* [http://www.fontainebleau.fr/ Fontainebleau official website]
* [http://www.uk.fontainebleau-tourisme.com/ Fontainebleau Tourism Office's official website]

* [http://en.chateaudefontainebleau.net/ Castle of Fontainebleau (in English)]
* [http://www.iaurif.org/en/gis/fichescom/mos99/ficmos/mos77186.html 1999 Land Use, from IAURIF (Institute for Urban Planning and Development of the Paris-Île-de-France région)] en
* [http://www.culture.gouv.fr/public/mistral/merimee_fr?ACTION=CHERCHER&FIELD_98=INSEE&VALUE_98=77186 French Ministry of Culture list for Fontainebleau] fr icon
* [http://www.viamichelin.co.uk/viamichelin/gbr/dyn/controller/mapPerformPage?strAddress=&strCP=77300&strLocation=Fontainebleau&strCountry=1424&image2.x=28&image2.y=7 Map of Fontainebleau on Michelin] en
* [http://parisbytrain.com/paris-to-fontainebleau-by-train/ Reaching Fontainebleau by Train]


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