- Franz Kafka
name = Franz Kafka
caption = Photograph of Franz Kafka taken in 1906
birthdate = birth date|1883|7|3|df=y
deathdate = death date and age |1924|6|3|1883|7|3|df=y
deathplace = Kierling near
occupation = insurance officer, factory manager, novelist, short story writer
nationality = Jewish-
Bohemian ( Austria-Hungary)
novel, short story
modernism, existentialism, precursor to magical realism
The Trial, The Castle, The Metamorphosis
Knut Hamsun, Schopenhauer, Goethe, von Kleist, Kierkegaard, Dostoevsky, Dickens, Nietzsche, Walser, Weininger
influenced = Pinter, Nabokov, Roth, Beckett, Camus, Musil, Fellini, Arendt, Benjamin, Singer, Borges, García Márquez, Fuentes, Kundera, Jančar, Rushdie, Murakami, Grass, Park, Vasquez, Filipacchi, Salinger, Lynch, Bukowski
Franz Kafka (IPA2|ˈfʀanʦ ˈkafka) (3 July 1883 – 3 June 1924) was one of the major
fictionwriters of the 20th century. He was born to a middle-class Jewish familyin Prague, Austria-Hungary, presently the Czech Republic. His unique body of writing—much of which is incomplete and which was mainly published posthumously—is among the most influential in Western literature.es iconContijoch, Francesc Miralles (2000) "Franz Kafka". "Oceano Grupo Editorial, S.A. Barcelona." ISBN 84-494-1811-9.]
His stories, such as "
The Metamorphosis" (1915), and novels, including " The Trial" (1925) and "The Castle" (1926), concern troubled individuals in a nightmarishly impersonal and bureaucratic world.
Kafka was born into a middle-class
Jewishfamily in Prague, the capital of Bohemia. His father, Hermann Kafka (1852–1931), was described as a "huge, selfish, overbearing businessman" [Corngold 1973] and by Kafka himself as "a true Kafka in strength, health, appetite, loudness of voice, eloquence, self-satisfaction, worldly dominance, endurance, presence of mind, [and] knowledge of human nature". [ [http://www.kafka-franz.com/KAFKA-letter.htm Franz Kafka's Letter to his father] www.kafka-franz.com] Hermann was the fourth child of Jacob Kafka, a ritual slaughterer, and came to Prague from Osek, a Czech-speaking Jewish village near Písekin southern Bohemia. After working as a traveling sales representative, he established himself as an independent retailer of men's and women's fancy goods and accessories, employing up to 15 people and using a jackdaw("kavka" in Czech) as his business logo. Kafka's mother, Julie (1856—1934), was the daughter of Jakob Löwy, a prosperous brewer in Poděbrady, and was better educated than her husband. [Gilman, Sander L. (2005) "Franz Kafka". Reaktion Books Ltd. London, UK. p.20-21. ISBN 1-88187-264-5.]
Kafka was the eldest of six children. [Hamalian (  , 3).] He had two younger brothers, Georg and Heinrich, who died at the ages of fifteen months and six months, respectively, before Kafka was seven, and three younger sisters, Gabriele ("Elli") (1889–1941), Valerie ("Valli") (1890–1942), and Ottilie ("Ottla") (1891–1943). On business days, both parents were absent from the home. His mother helped to manage her husband's business and worked in it as much as 12 hours a day. The children were largely reared by a series of governesses and servants. Kafka's relationship with his father was severely troubled as explained in the "
Letter to His Father" which Kafka complained of being profoundly emotionally abused since childhood.
Kafka's sisters were sent with their families to the
Łódź Ghettoand died there or in concentration camps. Ottla was sent to the concentration camp at Theresienstadt and then on 7 October 1943 to the death campat Auschwitz, where 1267 children and 51 guardians, including Ottla, were gassed to death on their arrival. [Danuta Czech: Kalendarz wydarzeń w KL Auschwitz, Oświęcim 1992, p. 534. In the archives of the camp a list with the names of the guardians was preserved.]
Kafka learned German as his first language, but he was also fluent in Czech. Later, Kafka acquired some knowledge of
French languageand culture; one of his favorite authors was Flaubert. From 1889 to 1893, he attended the "Deutsche Knabenschule", the boys' elementary school at the "Masný trh/Fleischmarkt" (meat market), the street now known as Masná street. His Jewish education was limited to his "Bar Mitzvah" celebration at 13 and going to the synagoguefour times a year with his father, which he loathed. [ [http://www.kafka-franz.com/kafka-Biography.htm Franz Kafka Biography] www.kafka-franz.com] [Letter to his Father, pg. 150] After elementary school, he was admitted to the rigorous classics-oriented state "gymnasium", "Altstädter Deutsches Gymnasium", an academic secondary school with eight grade levels, where German was also the language of instruction, at Old Town Square, within the Kinsky Palace. He completed his Maturitaexams in 1901.
Admitted to the
Austrian-Hungarian Charles-Ferdinand Universityof Prague, Kafka first studied chemistry, but switched after two weeks to law. This offered a range of career possibilities, which pleased his father, and required a longer course of study that gave Kafka time to take classes in German studies and art history. At the university, he joined a student club, named "Lese- und Redehalle der Deutschen Studenten", which organized literary events, readings and other activities. In the end of his first year of studies, he met Max Brod, who would become a close friend of his throughout his life, together with the journalist Felix Weltsch, who also studied law. Kafka obtained the degree of Doctor of Law on 18 June 1906 and performed an obligatory year of unpaid service as law clerk for the civil and criminal courts.
On 1 November 1907, he was hired at the
Assicurazioni Generali, a large Italian insurance company, where he worked for nearly a year. His correspondence, during that period, witnesses that he was unhappy with his working time schedule—from 8 p.m. (20:00) until 6 a.m. (06:00)—as it made it extremely difficult for him to concentrate on his writing. On 15 July 1908, he resigned, and two weeks later found more congenial employment with the Worker's Accident Insurance Institute for the Kingdom of Bohemia. His father often referred to his son's job as insurance officer as a "Brotberuf", literally "bread job", a job done only to pay the bills. However, he did not show any signs of indifference towards his job, as the several promotions that he received during his career suggest that he was a hardworking employee. He was also given the task of compiling and composing the annual report and was reportedly quite proud of the results, sending copies to friends and family. In parallel, Kafka was also committed to his literary work. Together with his close friends Max Brodand Felix Weltsch, these three were called "Der enge Prager Kreis", the close Prague circle, which was part of a broader Prague Circle, "a loosely knit group of German-Jewish writers who contributed to the culturally fertile soil of Prague from the 1880s till after World War I.""The Metamorphosis and Other Stories, notes. Herberth Czermak. Lincoln, Nebraska: Cliffs Notes 1973, 1996.]
In 1911, Karl Hermann, spouse of his sister Elli, proposed Kafka collaborate in the operation of an
asbestosfactory known as Prager Asbestwerke Hermann and Co. Kafka showed a positive attitude at first, dedicating much of his free time to the business. During that period, he also found interest and entertainment in the performances of Yiddish theatre, despite the misgivings of even close friends such as Max Brod, who usually supported him in everything else. Those performances also served as a starting point for his growing relationship with Judaism.
In 1912, at Max Brod's home, Kafka met
Felice Bauer, who lived in Berlin and worked as a representative for a dictaphone company. Over the next five years they corresponded a great deal, met occasionally, and twice were engaged to be married. Their relationship finally ended in 1917.
In 1917, Kafka began to suffer from
tuberculosis, which would require frequent convalescence during which he was supported by his family, most notably his sister Ottla. Despite his fear of being perceived as both physically and mentally repulsive, he impressed others with his boyish, neat, and austere good looks, a quiet and cool demeanor, obvious intelligence and dry sense of humor. [ [http://www.amrep.org/articles/3_3c/disappearing.html Ryan McKittrick speaks with director Dominique Serrand and Gideon Lester about Amerika] www.amrep.org]
In 1921 he developed an intense relationship with Czech journalist and writer
Milena Jesenská. In July 1923, throughout a vacation to Graal-Müritzon the Baltic Sea, he met Dora Diamantand briefly moved to Berlinin the hope of distancing himself from his family's influence to concentrate on his writing. In Berlin, he lived with Dora Diamant, a 25-year-old kindergarten teacher from an orthodox Jewish family, who was independent enough to have escaped her past in the ghetto. Dora became his lover, and influenced Kafka's interest in the Talmud. [ [http://www.atlegerhardsen.com/pages/lothar_hempel/presse_eng_0802.htm Lothar Hempel] www.atlegerhardsen.com]
It is generally agreed that Kafka suffered from
clinical depressionand social anxietythroughout his entire life Fact|date=March 2007. He also suffered from migraines, insomnia, constipation, boils, and other ailments, all usually brought on by excessive stresses and strains. He attempted to counteract all of this by a regimen of naturopathic treatments, such as a vegetarian diet and the consumption of large quantities of unpasteurized milk. However, Kafka's tuberculosis worsened; he returned to Prague, then went to Dr. Hoffmann's sanatoriumin Kierling near Viennafor treatment, where he died on 3 June 1924, apparently from starvation. The condition of Kafka's throat made eating too painful for him, and since parenteral nutrition had not yet been developed, there was no way to feed him (a fate resembling that of Gregor in the "Metamorphosis" and the main character of "A Hunger Artist"). His body was ultimately brought back to Prague where he was interred on 11 June 1924, in the New Jewish Cemetery (sector 21, row 14, plot 33) in Prague-Žižkov.
Kafka was not formally involved in Jewish religious life, but he showed a great interest in Jewish culture and spirituality. He was deeply fascinated by the Jews of Eastern Europe who he regarded as having an intensity of spiritual life Western Jews did not have. Yet he was at times alienated from Judaism and Jewish life: "What have I in common with Jews? I have hardly anything in common with myself and should stand very quietly in a corner, content that I can breathe."
During the later years of his life, Kafka developed an interest in moving to Mandate Palestine. He dreamed of going with Dora Diamant to create a new kind of life in the Land of Israel. Here too he was perhaps influenced by his
Zionistfriends Hugo Bergmann and Max Brod. However, Kafka's tuberculosis was too advanced and he was unable to realize this dream of his final years.
Kafka's writing attracted little attention until after his death. During his lifetime, he published only a few short stories and never finished any of his novels (with the possible exception of "
The Metamorphosis", which some consider to be a short novel). Prior to his death, Kafka wrote to his friend and literary executor Max Brod: "Dearest Max, my last request: Everything I leave behind me … in the way of diaries, manuscripts, letters (my own and others'), sketches, and so on, [is] to be burned unread." [Quoted in Publisher's Note to "The Castle", Schocken Books.] Brod overrode Kafka's wishes, believing that Kafka had given these directions to him specifically because Kafka knew he would not honor them—Brod had told him as much. (His lover, Dora Diamant, also ignored his wishes, secretly keeping up to 20 notebooks and 35 letters until they were confiscated by the Gestapoin 1933. An ongoing international search is being conducted for these missing Kafka papers.) Brod, in fact, would oversee the publication of most of Kafka's work in his possession, which soon began to attract attention and high critical regard.
All of Kafka's published works, except several letters he wrote in Czech to Milena Jesenská, were written in German.
tyle of writing
Kafka often made extensive use of a trait special to the
German languageallowing for long sentences that sometimes can span an entire page. Kafka's sentences then deliver an unexpected impact just before the full stop—that being the finalizing meaning and focus. This is achieved due to the construction of certain sentences in German which require that the verb be positioned at the end of the sentence. Such constructions cannot be duplicated in English, so it is up to the translator to provide the reader with the same effect found in the original text. [Kafka (1996, xi).]
Another virtually insurmountable problem facing the translator is how to deal with the author's intentional use of ambiguous terms or of words that have several meanings. One such instance is found in the first sentence of "The Metamorphosis". Another example is Kafka's use of the German noun "" in the final sentence of "
The Judgment". Literally, "Verkehr" means intercourse and, as in English, can have either a sexual or non-sexual meaning; in addition, it is used to mean transport or traffic. The sentence can be translated as: "At that moment an unending stream of traffic crossed over the bridge." [Kafka (1996, 75).] What gives added weight to the obvious double meaning of 'Verkehr' is Kafka's confession to Max Brod that when he wrote that final line, he was thinking of "a violent ejaculation". In the English translation, of course, what can 'Verkehr' be but "traffic"? [Kafka (1996, xii).]
Critics have interpreted Kafka's works in the context of a variety of literary schools, such as
modernism, magical realism, and so on. [http://www.coskunfineart.com/details.asp?workID=40 Franz Kafka 1883 – 1924] www.coskunfineart.com] The apparent hopelessness and absurdity that seem to permeate his works are considered emblematic of existentialism. Others have tried to locate a Marxistinfluence in his satirization of bureaucracy in pieces such as " In the Penal Colony", " The Trial", and "The Castle", whereas others point to anarchismas an inspiration for Kafka's anti-bureaucratic viewpoint. Still others have interpreted his works through the lens of Judaism ( Borgesmade a few perceptive remarks in this regard), through Freudianism (because of his familial struggles), or as allegories of a metaphysical quest for God( Thomas Mannwas a proponent of this theoryFact|date=June 2008).
Themes of alienation and persecution are repeatedly emphasized, and the emphasis on this quality, notably in the work of Marthe Robert, partly inspired the counter-criticism of
Gilles Deleuzeand Felix Guattari, who argued that there was much more to Kafka than the stereotype of a lonely figure writing out of anguish, and that his work was more deliberate, subversive, and more "joyful" than it appears to be.
Furthermore, an isolated reading of Kafka's work — focusing on the futility of his characters' struggling without the influence of any studies on Kafka's life — reveals the humor of Kafka. Kafka's work, in this sense, is not a written reflection of any of his own struggles, but a reflection of how people invent struggles.
Biographers have said that it was common for Kafka to read chapters of the books he was working on to his closest friends, and that those readings usually concentrated on the humorous side of his prose.
Milan Kunderarefers to the essentially surrealist humour of Kafka as a main predecessor of later artists such as Federico Fellini, Gabriel García Márquez, Carlos Fuentesand Salman Rushdie. For García Márquez, it was as he said the reading of Kafka's " The Metamorphosis" that showed him "that it was possible to write in a different way".
Publications and dates
Much of Kafka's work was unfinished, or prepared for publication posthumously by Max Brod. The novels "The Castle" (which stopped mid-sentence and had ambiguity on content), "
The Trial" (chapters were unnumbered and some were incomplete) and "Amerika" (Kafka's original title was "The Man who Disappeared") were all prepared for publication by Brod. It appears Brod took a few liberties with the manuscript (moving chapters, changing the German and cleaning up the punctuation), and thus the original German text was altered prior to publication. The editions by Brod are generally referred to as the Definitive Editions.
According to the publisher's note [ [http://www.jhom.com/bookshelf/kafka/intro.html A Kafka For The 21st century by Arthur Samuelson, publisher, Schocken Books] www.jhom.com] for "The Castle", [
Schocken Books, 1998] Malcolm Pasleywas able to get most of Kafka's original handwritten work into the Oxford Bodleian Libraryin 1961. The text for " The Trial" was later acquired through auction and is stored at the German literary archives [de icon [http://www.dla-marbach.de/ Herzlich Willkommen] www.dla-marbach.de ] at Marbach, Germany. [(publisher's note, "The Trial", Schocken Books, 1998]
Subsequently, Pasley headed a team (including
Gerhard Neumann, Jost Schillemeit, and Jürgen Born) in reconstructing the German novels and S. Fischer Verlagrepublished them."Stepping into Kafka’s head", Jeremy Adler, Times Literary Supplement, 13 October 1995 (http://www.textkritik.de/rezensionen/kafka/einl_04.htm)] Pasley was the editor for "Das Schloß (The Castle)", published in 1982, and "Der Proceß (The Trial)", published in 1990. Jost Schillemeit was the editor of "Der Verschollene" ("Amerika") published in 1983. These are all called the 'Critical Editions' or the 'Fischer Editions'. The German critical text of these, and Kafka's other works, may be found online at "The Kafka Project". [ [http://www.kafka.org/index.php?project The Kafka Project - Kafka's Works in German According to the Manuscript] www.kafka.org]
There is another Kafka Project based at San Diego State University, which began in 1998 as the official international search for Kafka's last writings. Consisting of 20 notebooks and 35 letters to Kafka's last companion, Dora Diamant (later, Dymant-Lask), this missing literary treasure was confiscated from her by the Gestapo in Berlin 1933. The Kafka Project's four-month search of government archives in Berlin in 1998 uncovered the confiscation order and other significant documents. In 2003, the Kafka Project discovered three original Kafka letters, written in 1923. Building on the search conducted by Max Brod and Klaus Wagenbach in the mid-1950s, the Kafka Project at SDSU has an advisory committee of international scholars and researchers, and is calling for volunteers who want to help solve a literary mystery. [Sources: Kafka, by Nicolas Murray, pages 367, 374; Kafka's Last Love, by Kathi Diamant; "Summary of the Results of the Kafka Project Berlin Research 1 June-September 1998" published in December 1998 Kafka Katern, quarterly of the Kafka Circle of the Netherlands. More information is available at http://www.kafkaproject.com]
In 2008, academic and Kafka expert James Hawes accused scholars of suppressing details of the pornography hidden in Kafka's journals to preserve the writer's image. [ [http://entertainment.timesonline.co.uk/tol/arts_and_entertainment/books/article4446131.ece Franz Kafka’s porn brought out of the closet - Times Online ] at entertainment.timesonline.co.uk]
There are two primary sources for the translations based on the two German editions. The earliest English translations were by Edwin and Willa Muir and published by
Alfred A. Knopf. These editions were widely published and spurred the late-1940's surge in Kafka's popularity in the United States. Later editions (notably the 1954 editions) had the addition of the deleted text translated by Eithne Wilkinsand Ernst Kaiser. These are known 'Definitive Editions'. They translated both "The Trial, Definitive" and "The Castle, Definitive" among other writings. Definitive Editions are generally accepted to have a number of biases and to be dated in interpretation.
After Pasley and Schillemeit completed their recompilation of the German text, the new translations were completed and published -- "The Castle, Critical" by Mark Harman (
Schocken Books, 1998), "The Trial, Critical" by Breon Mitchell( Schocken Books, 1998) and "Amerika: The Man Who Disappeared" by Michael Hoffman ( New Directions Publishing, 2004). These editions are often noted as being based on the restored text.
Description of a Struggle" ("Beschreibung eines Kampfes", 1904-1905)
Wedding Preparations in the Country" ("Hochzeitsvorbereitungen auf dem Lande", 1907-1908)
* "Contemplation" (Betrachtung, 1904-1912)
The Judgment" ("Das Urteil" - 22-23 September 1912)
In the Penal Colony" ("In der Strafkolonie", October 1914)
The Village Schoolmaster (The Giant Mole)" ("Der Dorfschullehrer" or "Der Riesenmaulwurf", 1914-1915)
Blumfeld, an Elderly Bachelor" ("Blumfeld, ein älterer Junggeselle", 1915)
The Warden of the Tomb" ("Der Gruftwächter", 1916-1917), the only play Kafka wrote
The Hunter Gracchus" ("Der Jäger Gracchus", 1917)
* "The Great Wall of China" ("Beim Bau der Chinesischen Mauer", 1917)
A Report to an Academy" ("Ein Bericht für eine Akademie", 1917)
Jackals and Arabs" ("Schakale und Araber", 1917)
* "A Country Doctor" ("Ein Landarzt", 1919)
A Message from the Emperor" ("Eine kaiserliche Botschaft", 1919)
An Old Leaf" ("Ein altes Blatt", 1919)
The Refusal" ("Die Abweisung", 1920)
A Hunger Artist" ("Ein Hungerkünstler", 1924)
Investigations of a Dog" ("Forschungen eines Hundes", 1922)
A Little Woman" ("Eine kleine Frau", 1923)
First Sorrow" ("Erstes Leid", 1921-1922)
* "The Burrow" ("Der Bau", 1923-1924)
* "Josephine the Singer, or The Mouse Folk" ("Josephine, die Sängerin, oder Das Volk der Mäuse", 1924)Many collections of the stories have been published, and they include:
* "". New York: Schocken Books, 1948.
* "The Complete Stories", (ed. Nahum N. Glatzer). New York: Schocken Books, 1971.
* "The Basic Kafka". New York: Pocket Books, 1979.
The Sons". New York: Schocken Books, 1989.
* "The Metamorphosis, In the Penal Colony, and Other Stories". New York: Schocken Books, 1995.
* "Contemplation". Twisted Spoon Press, 1998.
* "Metamorphosis and Other Stories". Penguin Classics, 2007
The Metamorphosis" ("Die Verwandlung" - November-December 1915)
The Trial" ("Der Prozeß" - 1925) (includes short story Before the Law)
* "The Castle" ("Das Schloß" - 1926)
* "Amerika" ("Amerika" or "Der Verschollene" - 1927)
Diaries and notebooks
The Blue Octavo Notebooks"
Letter to His Father"
Letters to Felice"
Letters to Ottla"
Letters to Milena"
*"Letters to Family, Friends, and Editors"
Works about Kafka
*Brod, Max. "Franz Kafka: A Biography." New York: Da Capo Press, 1995. ISBN 0-306-80670-3
*Brod, Max. "The Biography of Franz Kafka", tr. from the German by G. Humphreys Roberts. London:
Secker & Warburg, 1947. OCLC|2771397
*Calasso, Roberto. "K." Knopf, 2005. ISBN 1-4000-4189-9
*Citati, Pietro, "Kafka", 1987. ISBN 0-7859-2173-7
*Coots, Steve. "Franz Kafka (Beginner's Guide)". Headway, 2002, ISBN 0-340-84648-8
*Deleuze, Gilles &
Félix Guattari. "Kafka: Toward a Minor Literature (Theory and History of Literature, Vol 30)." Minneapolis, University of Minnesota, 1986. ISBN 0-8166-1515-2
*Glatzer, Nahum N., "The Loves of Franz Kafka". New York: Schocken Books, 1986. ISBN 0-8052-4001-2
*Greenberg, Martin, "The Terror of Art: Kafka and Modern Literature". New York, Basic Books, 1968. ISBN 0-465-08415-X
*Gordimer, Nadine (1984). "Letter from His Father" in "Something Out There", London, Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-007711-1
*Hayman, Ronald. "K, a Biography of Kafka". London: Phoenix Press, 2001.ISBN 1-84212-415-3
*Janouch, Gustav. "Conversations with Kafka". New York: New Directions Books, second edition 1971. (Translated by Goronwy Rees.)ISBN 0-8112-0071-X
Kwinter, Sanford. "Architectures of Time: Toward a Theory of the Event in Modernist Culture." Cambridge, MIT Press, 2002. ISBN 0-262-11260-4
*Murray, Nicholas. "Kafka." New Haven: Yale, 2004.
*Pawel, Ernst. "The Nightmare of Reason: A Life of Franz Kafka." New York: Vintage Books, 1985. ISBN 0-374-52335-5
*Thiher, Allen (ed.). "Franz Kafka: A Study of the Short Fiction" (Twayne's Studies in Short Fiction, No. 12). ISBN 0-8057-8323-7
Franz Kafka has a museum dedicated to his work in
Prague, Czech Republic. The term " Kafkaesque" is widely used to describe concepts, situations, and ideas which are reminiscent of Kafka's works, particularly "The Trial" and "The Metamorphosis".
Mexico, the phrase "Si Franz Kafka fuera mexicano, sería costumbrista" (If Franz Kafka were Mexican, he would be a Costumbristawriter) is commonly used in newspapers, blogs, and online forums to tell how hopeless and absurd the situation in the country is. [cite web
title =México kafkiano y costumbrista
work =Daquella manera:Paseo personal por inquietudes culturales, sociales y lo que tengamos a bien obrar.
accessdate = 2007-02-16 ]
Treatments of Kafka and his works
Nobel Prizewinner Isaac Bashevis Singerwrote a short story called "A Friend of Kafka," which was about a Yiddishactor called Jacques Kohn who said he knew Franz Kafka. In this story, according to Jacques Kohn, Kafka believed in the Golem, a legendary creature from Jewish folklore. [cite book
last =Bashevis Singer
title =A Friend of Kafka, and Other Stories
publisher =Farrar, Straus and Giroux
id = ISBN 0-37415-880-0 ]
Kafka Americana" by Jonathan Lethemand Carter Scholz is a collection of stories based on Kafka's life and works.
Kafka on the Shore" by Haruki Murakami
Kafka was the Rage, a Greenwich Village Memoir" by Anatole Broyard
*"Kafka's Curse" by
The Kafka Effekt" by American bizarro author D. Harlan Wilson, who relates his take on the irrealismgenre of literature to that of Franz Kafka, and to that of William S. Burroughs.
Criminal (comics)" by Ed Brubakerand Sean Phillipscontains, within a re-occuring comic strip seen in characters newspapers, the adventures of 'Franz Kafka PI'. The 4th story arc of the book also involves the creator of the strip. There is talk of a spin off series written by Matt Fraction.
"For a full list of films [http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0434525/ The IMDb filmography] "
* "Kafka" (1990)
Jeremy Ironsstars as the eponymousauthor. Written by Lem Dobbsand directed by Steven Soderbergh, the movie mixes his life and fiction providing a semi-biographical presentation of Kafka's life and works. The story concerns Kafka investigating the disappearance of one of his work colleagues. The plot takes Kafka through many of the writer's own works, most notably "The Castle" and " The Trial".
* : an animated film by
* "The Trial" (1962)
Orson Welleswrote and directed this adaptation of the novel starring Anthony Perkins. In a 1962 BBC Interview with Huw Wheldon, Orson Welles noted, "Say what you like, but "The Trial" is the best film I have ever made".
Klassenverhältnisse" "Class Relations" (1984) Directed by the experimental filmmaking duo of Jean-Marie Strauband Danièle Huilletbased on Kafka's novel "Amerika".
* "The Trial" (1993) Starring
Kyle MacLachlanas Joseph K. with Anthony Hopkinsin a cameo role as the priest as a strictly faithful adaptation with a screenplay by playwright Harold Pinter.
* by Michael Haneke
* : an animated short by
* "Franz Kafka's 'It's a Wonderful Life' " (1993) is an Oscar-winning short film written and directed by
Peter Capaldiand starring Richard E. Grantas Kafka. The film blends "Metamorphosis" with Frank Capra's " It's a Wonderful Life".
* " [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wOrhpRtEXH8 The Metamorphosis of Franz Kafka (1993)] " by
Carlos Atanes, at YouTube.
* Zoetrope : an experimental avant-garde short film by
Charlie Deaux, imdb title|id=0343217 |title=Zoetrope (1999). Adaptation of "In the Penal Colony".
* : an animated feature by
* [de icon [http://www.menschenkoerper.de Menschenkörper movie website] www.menschenkoerper.de] Adaptation of "A Country Doctor". Short film by Tobias Frühmorgen
* Adaptation of "A Country Doctor". Short film by Koji Yamamura
Alan Bennett, " Kafka's Dick", 1986, a play in which the ghosts of Kafka, his father Hermann, and Max Brod arrive at the home of an English insurance clerk (and Kafka aficionado) and his wife.
Milan Richter, " Kafka's Hell-Paradise", 2006, a play with 5 characters, using Kafka's aphorisms, dreams and re-telling his relations to his father and to the women. Translated from the Slovak by Ewald Osers.
Milan Richter, " Kafka's Second Life", 2007, a play with 17 characters, starting in Kierling where Kafka is dying and ending in Prague in 1961. Translated from the Slovak by Ewald Osers.
Tadeusz Różewicz, "Pułapka" ("The Trap"), 1982, a play loosely based on Kafka's diaries and letters
Asteroid 3412 Kafka, named after the author.
Franz Kafka Prize
*Adorno, Theodor. "Prisms." Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1967.
*Corngold, Stanley. "Introduction to The Metamorphosis". Bantam Classics, 1972. ISBN 0-553-21369-5.
* Hamalian, Leo, ed. "Franz Kafka: A Collection of Criticism". New York: McGraw-Hill, 1974. ISBN 0-07-025702-7.
* Heller, Paul. "Franz Kafka: Wissenschaft und Wissenschaftskritik". Tuebingen: Stauffenburg, 1989. ISBN 3-923-72140-4.
* Kafka, Franz. "The Metamorphosis and Other Stories". Trans. Donna Freed. New York: Barnes & Noble, 1996. ISBN 1-56619-969-7.
* Kafka, Franz. "Kafka's Selected Stories". Norton Critical Edition. Trans. Stanley Corngold. New York: Norton, 2005. ISBN 9780393924794.
*gutenberg author| id=Franz+Kafka | name=Franz Kafka
* [http://kafka-metamorphosis.wikispaces.com/ kafka-metamorphosis] public wiki dedicated to Kafka and his work
* [http://www.kafka.org/ The Kafka Project] project to publish online all Kafka texts in German
* [http://books.guardian.co.uk/news/articles/0,,2289734,00.html End of Kafkaesque nightmare: writer's papers finally come to light]
* [http://www.gerard-bertrand.net/albumprem.htm Franz Kafka's Album] Album of "recomposed photographs".
* [http://www.kafkasocietyofamerica.org/ Kafka Society of America]
* [http://www.kafka-gesellschaft.de/ Deutsche Kafka-Gesellschaft] Persondata
SHORT DESCRIPTION=German Czech novelist
DATE OF BIRTH=birth date|1883|7|3|mf=y
PLACE OF BIRTH=
DATE OF DEATH=death date|1924|6|3|mf=y
PLACE OF DEATH=
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