official_name = Algiers
native_name = الجزائر
nickname = Algiers the White
imagesize = 300px
image_caption = Downtown Algiers
imagesize = 250px
mapsize = 175px
map_caption = Location of Algiers within
subdivision_type = Country
subdivision_type1 = Wilaya
established_title = Re-founded
established_date = AD 944
area_magnitude = N/A
population_as_of = 2005
population_total = 2,159,051 (2008)(see World Gaetteer)
population_metro = 3,456,701 (2008)(see World Gazetteer)
population_urban = 2,029,936
timezone = CET
utc_offset = +1
postal_code_type = Postal codes
postal_code = 16000-16132
Algiers ( _ar. الجزائر,
Algerian Arabic: "Dzayer" (IPA| [dzæjer] (From kabyle pronunciationVerify source|date=April 2008), Kabyle: "Ledzayer" IPA| [ldzæjər] , _fr. Alger IPA| [ɑlʒe] ) is the capitaland largest city of Algeria, and the second largest city in the Maghreb(behind Casablanca). According to the 2005 census, the population of the city proper was 1,519,570; for the urban area was 2,135,630; for the metropolitan area 3,518,083.
Nicknamed "El-Bahdja" (البهجة) or "Alger la Blanche" ("Algiers the White") for the glistening white of its buildings as seen rising up from the sea, Algiers is situated on the west side of a bay of the
Mediterranean Sea. The city name is derived from the Arabic word "al-jazā’ir", which translates as "the islands", referring to the four islands which lay off the city's coast until becoming part of the mainland in 1525. "Al-jazā’ir" is itself a truncated form of the city's older name "jazā’ir banī mazghannā", "the islands of (the tribe) Bani Mazghanna", used by early medieval geographers such as al-Idrisiand Yaqut al-Hamawi. Algiers is the only Algerian city with an English name different from its French name.
The modern part of the city is built on the level ground by the seashore; the old part, the ancient city of the
deys, climbs the steep hill behind the modern town and is crowned by the casbahor citadel, convert|400|ft|0 above the sea. The casbah and the two quays form a triangle.
Phoenician commercial outpost called "Ikosim" which later developed into a small Roman town called "Icosium" existed on what is now the marine quarter of the city. The "rue de la Marine" follows the lines of what used to be a Roman street. Roman cemeteries existed near " Bab-el-Oued" and " Bab Azoun". The city was given Latinrights by Vespasian. The bishops of Icosium are mentioned as late as the 5th century.
The present-day city was founded in 944 by
Buluggin ibn Ziri, the founder of the Berber Zirid- Senhajadynasty, which was overthrown by Roger II of Sicilyin 1148, although the Zirids had already lost control of Algiers before the final fall of the dynasty. The city was occupied by the Almohadesin 1159, and in the 13th century came under the dominion of the Abd-el-Wadid sultans of Tlemcen. Nominally part of the sultanate of Tlemcen, Algiers had a large measure of independence under amirs of its own due to Oranbeing the chief seaport and center of power of the Abd-el-Wahid.
As early as 1302 the islet of Penon in front of Algiers harbour had been occupied by Spaniards. Thereafter, a considerable amount of trade began to flow between Algiers and
Spain. However, Algiers continued to be of comparatively little importance until after the expulsion of the Moorsfrom Spain, many of whom sought asylum in the city. In 1510, following their occupation of Oran and other towns on the coast of Africa, the Spaniards fortified the islet of Penon. In 1516, the amir of Algiers, Selim b. Teumi, invited the corsairbrothers Arujand Khair ad-Din Barbarossa to expel the Spaniards. Aruj came to Algiers, ordered the assassination of Selim, and seized the town. Khair ad-Din, succeeding Arouj after the latter was killed in battle against the Spaniards at Tlemcen, was the founder of the " pashaluk", which subsequently became the " beylik", of Algeria after formally inviting the Sultan to accept sovereignty over the territory and to annex Algiers to the Ottoman Empire.
Algiers from this time became the chief seat of the
Barbary pirates. In October 1541, the King of Spain and Holy Roman Emperor Charles V sought to capture the city, but a storm destroyed a great number of his ships, and his army of some 30,000, chiefly made up of Spaniards, was defeated by the Algerians under their Pasha, Hassan. Formally part of the Ottoman Empire but essentially free from Ottoman control, starting in the 17th century Algiers turned to piracy and ransoming. Due to its location on the periphery of both the Ottoman and European economic spheres, and depending for its existence on a Mediterranean that was increasingly controlled by European shipping, backed by European navies, piracy became the primary economic activity. Repeated attempts were made by various nations to subdue the pirates that disturbed shipping in the western Mediterranean and engaged in slave raids as far north as Cornwall. The United Statesfought two wars (the First and Second Barbary Wars) over Algiers' attacks on shipping. In 1817, the city was bombarded by a British squadron under Lord Exmouth (a descendant of Thomas Pellew, taken in an Algerian slave raid in 1715), assisted by Dutch men-of-war, destroying the corsair fleet harboured in Algiers.
The history of Algiers from 1815 to 1962 is bound to the larger history of
Algeriaand its relationship to France. On July 4, 1827, under the pretext of an affront to the French consul — whom the deyhad hit with a fly-whiskwhen the consul said the French government was not prepared to pay its large outstanding debts to two Algerian Jewish merchants — a French army under General de Bourmont attacked the city, which capitulated the following day. Algiers became a French colony.
In 1962, after a bloody independence struggle in which up to 1.5 million Algerians died at the hands of the
French Armyand the Algerian Front de Libération Nationale, Algeria finally gained its independence, with Algiers as its capital. Since then, despite losing its entire European or " pied-noir" population, the city has expanded massively. It now has about 3 million inhabitants, or 10 percent of Algeria's population — and its suburbs now cover most of the surrounding Metidjaplain.
Having hosted the
All-Africa Gamesin 1978, Algiers will again host the games in 2007. Algiers is also the "Capital of Arabic Culture" for 2007.
War of Algeria
Algiers also played a decisive part in the War of Algeria (1954-1962), particularly during the Battle of Algiers when the 10th Parachute Division of the French Army, starting on January 7, 1957 and on the orders of then French Minister of Justice
François Mitterrand(who authorized any means "to eliminate the insurrectionists"Fact|date=June 2008), led attacks against the Algerian fighters for independence. Algiers remains marked by this battle, which was characterized by merciless fighting between Algerian forces who, on the one hand, resorted to attacking the French colonists, and the French Army who, on the other, carried out a bloody repression including the quasi-systematic use of torture on protesters of the colonial order. Two such victims were the nationalist leader, Larbi Ben M'Hidi, and a young professor of mathematics, Maurice Audin, both of whom have since been honored by the municipality with principal arteries of the city named after them. The demonstrations of May 13 during the crisis of 1958 provoked the fall of the Fourth Republic in France, as well as the return of General de Gaulle to power.
Algeria achieved independence on July 5, 1962. Run by the military that had liberated it, Algiers became a member of
Non-Aligned Movementduring the Cold War. In October 1988, one year before the fall of the Berlin Wall, Algiers was the site of demonstrations demanding the end of the single party system and the creation of a "real" democracybaptized the “Spring of Algiers”. The demonstrators were repressed by the authorities (more than 300 dead), but the movement constituted a turning point in the political history of modern Algeria. In 1989, a new constitution was adopted that put an end to the reign of the single party and saw the creation of more than fifty political parties, as well as official freedom of the press.
Crisis of the 1990s
The city became the theatre of many political demonstrations of all descriptions until 1992. In 1991, a political entity dominated by religious conservatives called the
Islamic Salvation Frontengaged in a political test of wills with the authorities. In the 1992 elections for the Algerian National Assembly, the Islamists garnered a large amount of support in the first round, helped by a massive abstention from disillusioned Algerian voters by the of turn events. Fearing an eventual win by the Islamists, the army cancelled the election process, setting off a civil war between the State and armed religious conservatives which would last for a decade.
Algiers in the 21st century
Recently Algiers has sought to once again become an important African and Mediterranean capital, envisioning having a comparable level of infrastructure development to what it had in 1962 relative to other countries. The current infrastructure has not been able to keep up with Algiers' rapid growth.
Algiers is currently ranked lowest out of 132 capitals in the Economist Intelligence Unit's quality of life survey. The survey takes into consideration 40 different criteria divided into 5 categories: stability, health services, culture and environment, education, and the availability of basic services. Algiers was ranked lower than such cities as Karachi (Pakistan), Tripoli (Libya), Abidjan (Côte-d'Ivoire), and even Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. In 2005 the same survey ranked Algiers 125th out of 129 cities.
2007 has brought mixed results for Algiers. On the positive side the city has been named the capital of "Arab culture" for 2007. On the negative side, a double bombing attack occurred on April 11 with one bomb targeting the government building housing the Prime Minister and the Minister of the Interior; and another bomb targeting the police station in Bab-Ezzouar. The attacks were claimed by an organization calling themselves the Maghreb branch of Al-Qaida.
On December 11, 2007, two car bombs exploded in the city of Algiers. One bomb targeted two United Nations buildings and the other targeted a government building housing the Supreme Court. The death toll is at least 62, with over two hundred injured in the attacks. [cite web|title=Les autorités accusent al-Qaïda|publisher=RFI|url=http://www.rfi.fr/actufr/articles/096/article_60149.asp|accessdate=2007-12-11] However, only 26 remained hospitalized the following day. [cite web|title=Toll in Algiers bombings rises to 31|publisher=AP|url=http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20071212/ap_on_re_af/algeria_explosion|accessdate=2007-12-12] As of now, it is speculated that the attack was carried out by the Al Qaida cell within the city. [cite web|title=Al Qaeda blamed for Algeria bombs|publisher=CNN|url=http://edition.cnn.com/2007/WORLD/africa/12/11/algeria.blast/index.html|accessdate=2007-12-11]
Indigenous terrorist groups have been actively operating in Algeria since around 2002. For accurate information on these groups, who could very well have been responsible, please follow this link to an article on the Islamic insurgency in Algeria.
Districts of Algiers
Infobox World Heritage Site
Name = Kasbah of Algiers
State_Party = ALG
Type = Cultural
Criteria = ii, v
ID = 565
Region = Arab States
Year = 1992
Session = 16th
Casbah(of " Al Qasbah ", “the Citadel”), Ier District of Algiers: called " Al-Djazaïr Al Mahroussa " (“Well Kept Algiers”), it is founded on the ruins of old Icosium. It is a small city which, built on a hill, goes down towards the sea, divided in two: the High city and the Low city. One finds there masonries and mosques of the 17th century; Ketchaoua mosque (built in 1794 by the Dey Baba Hassan) flanked by two minarets, mosque el Djedid (built in 1660, at the time of Turkish regency) with its large finished ovoid cupola points some and its four coupolettes, mosque El Kébir (oldest of the mosques, it was built by almoravide Youssef Ibn Tachfinand rebuilt later in 1794), mosque Ali Betchnin (Raïs, 1623), Dar Aziza, palate of Jénina. In the Kasbah, there are also labyrinths of lanes and houses that are very picturesque; and if one gets lost there, it is enough to go down again towards the sea to reposition oneself.
Bab El Oued: popular district which extends from the Casbah beyond "the gate of the river". It is the district more " chouchouté " and more liked of all the districts of the capital. Famous for its place “the three clocks” and for its “market Triplet”, it is also a district of workshops and manufactures.
* Edge of sea : from 1840, the architects Pierre-August Guiauchain and Frederic Chassériau designed new buildings apart from the Kasbah, town hall, law courts, buildings, theatre, palace of the Governor, casino... to form an elegant walk bordered by arcades which is the boulevard today
Che Guevara(ex-boulevard of Republic).
Kouba( will dairaof Hussein-dey): Kouba is an old village which was absorbed by the expansion of the town of Algiers. Of village, Kouba quickly developed under the French colonial era then continued growing due to formidable demographic expansion that Algiers knew after the independence of Algeria in 1962. It is today a district of Algiers which is largely made up of houses, villas and buildings not exceeding five stories.
El Harrach, according to the name of the river which crosses this district. The mouth of this river played a very important part in the catch of Algiers and the Dogvane, this rock opposite Algiers occupied by the Spaniards. Indeed, at the beginning of the 16th century, with the call of the one of the dignitaries of Algiers autochthones who saw the progressive loss of the authority of the city in front of the occupation of the Dogvane by the Spaniards, one of the Barberousse brothers hid his fleet there before taking Algiers by surprised by the south-eastern side. This district of Algiers will be named Square-House by the French, who will make of it the industrial park of the city. Thus, during colonization, as well El-Harrach as Hussein-Dey will be satellite towns of Algiers where Algerian autochthones more or less will cohabit with French, but in clearly separate zones. This city will be a residential district for an easy layer of French, but a true ghetto for the Algerians, especially those pushed by the rural migration. . After independence, El-Harrach will become gradually a district of Algiers, and later on chief town of Daira with a new cutting in districts, like Mohammadia, Belfort, Bellevue, the Park, Wadi-Smar, Five-Houses, the dunes, the Maritime ones, Beaulieu, etc.
* The communes of Hydra,
Ben Aknoun, El-Biarand Bouzareahform what the inhabitants of Algiers call the heights of Algiers. These communes, sometimes famous knacks, shelter the majority of the foreign embassies of Algiers, of many ministries and university centers, which makes it one of the administrative and policy centers of the country.
* The street Didouche Mourade Ex Rue Michelet is located in the 3rd district Of Algiers. It extends from the Grande Post office to the Heights of Algiers. It crosses in particular the place Audin , the Faculty of Algiers , The Crowned Heart and the park of Galland . It is bordered by smart stores and restaurants along most of its length. It is regarded as the heart of the capital.
There are many public buildings of interest, including the whole
Kasbahquarter, Martyrs Square ("Sahat ech-Chouhada" ساحة الشهداء), the government offices (formerly the British consulate), the "Grand", "New", and Ketchaoua Mosques, the Roman Catholiccathedral of Notre Dame d'Afrique, the Bardo Museum(a former Turkish mansion), the old "Bibliotheque Nationale d'Alger" — a Turkish palace built in 1799–1800 — and the new National Library, built in a style reminiscent of the British Library.
The main building in the Kasbah was begun in 1516 on the site of an older building, and served as the palace of the deys until the French conquest. A road has been cut through the centre of the building, the mosque turned into
barracks, and the hall of audience allowed to fall into ruin. There still remain a minaretand some marble arches and columns. Traces exist of the vaults in which were stored the treasures of the dey.
The Great Mosque ("Jamaa-el-Kebir" الجامع الكبير) is the oldest mosque in Algiers. It was first built by
Yusuf ibn Tashfin, but reconstructed many times. The pulpit (" minbar" منبر) bears an inscription showing that the building existed in 1097. The minaret was built by the sultan of Tlemcen, in 1324. The interior of the mosque is square and is divided into aisles by columns joined by Moorish arches.
The New Mosque ("Jamaa-el-Jedid" الجامع الجديد), dating from the 17th century, is in the form of a
Greek cross, surmounted by a large white cupola, with four small cupolas at the corners. The minaret is convert|90|ft|0 high. The interior resembles that of the Grand Mosque.
The church of the Holy Trinity (built in 1870) stands at the southern end of the "rue d'Isly" near the site of the demolished Fort Bab Azoun باب عزون. The interior is richly decorated with various coloured marbles. Many of these marbles contain memorial inscriptions relating to the English residents (voluntary and involuntary) of Algiers from the time of John Tipton, British consul in 1580. One tablet records that in 1631 two Algerine pirate crews landed in
Ireland, sacked Baltimore.
The Ketchaoua mosque ("Djamaa Ketchaoua" جامع كتشاوة), at the foot of the Casbah, was before independence in 1962 the cathedral of St Philippe, itself made in 1845 from a mosque dating from 1612. The principal entrance, reached by a flight of 23 steps, is ornamented with a
porticosupported by four black-veined marble columns. The roof of the nave is of Moorish plasterwork. It rests on a series of arcades supported by white marble columns. Several of these columns belonged to the original mosque. In one of the chapels was a tomb containing the bones of San Geronimo. The building seems a curious blend of Moorish and Byzantine styles.
Algiers possesses a college with schools of law, medicine, science and letters. The college buildings are large and handsome. The
Bardomuseum holds some of the ancient sculptures and mosaics discovered in Algeria, together with medals and Algerian money.The port of Algiers is sheltered from all winds. There are two harbours, both artificial — the old or northern harbour and the southern or Agha harbour. The northern harbour covers an area of 235 acres (95 ha). An opening in the south jettyaffords an entrance into Agha harbour, constructed in Agha Bay. Agha harbour has also an independent entrance on its southern side. The inner harbour was begun in 1518 by Khair-ad-Din Barbarossa (see History, below), who, to accommodated his pirate vessels, caused the island on which was Fort Penon to be connected with the mainland by a mole. The lighthouse which occupies the site of Fort Penonwas built in 1544.
Algiers was a walled city from the time of the deys until the close of the 19th century. The French, after their occupation of the city (1830), built a rampart,
parapetand ditch, with two terminal forts, Bab Azounباب عزون to the south and Bab-el-Ouedباب الواد to the north. The forts and part of the ramparts were demolished at the beginning of the 20th century, when a line of forts occupying the heights of Bouzareahبوزريعة (at an elevation of convert|1300|ft|0 above the sea) took their place. Notre-Dame d'Afrique, a church built (1858–1872) in a mixture of the Roman and Byzantine styles, is conspicuously situated, overlooking the sea, on the shoulder of the Bouzareahhills, nowrap|2 miles (nowrap|3.2 km) to the north of the city. Above the altar is a statue of the Virgin depicted as a black woman. The church also contains a solid silver statue of the archangel Michael, belonging to the confraternity of Neapolitan fishermen. Villa Abd-el-Tif, former residence of the dey, was used during the French period, to accommodate French artists, chiefly painters, and winners of the Abd-el-Tif prize, among whom Maurice Boitel, for a while of two years. Nowadays, Algerian artists are back in the villa's studios.
Notre Dame d'Afrique, accessible by one cable car, is one of its most outstanding monuments: located in the district of Z' will ghara, the basilica was built around 1858.
Monument des Martyrs(" Maquam E' chahid "): an iconic concrete monument commemorating the Algerian war for independence. The monument was opened in 1982 on the 20th anniversary of Algeria's independence. It is fashioned in the shape of three standing palm leaves which shelter the "Eternal Flame" beneath. At the edge of each palm leaf stands a statue of a soldier, each representing a stage of Algeria's struggle.
* The El Jedid mosque at the Places des Martyrs near the port.
* Place of the Emir Abdelkader (ex-place Bugeaud): in memory of the famous emir
Abd El-Kader, resistant during conquête of Algeria.
* Grand Post Office (1910, by
Voinotand Tondoire): construction of the néo-Moorish type which is in full centre town of Algiers.
* Garden of Test (" El-Hamma "): located has Is of Algiers, it extends on a surface from convert|80|ha|acre|0|lk=on. It was created in 1832 by A. Hardy. Exotic plants and gardens there are found.
* Villa Abd-el-Hair , with the top of the Garden of test, one of the old residences of the dey, where until 1962, were placed the artists prizes winner of
Price Abd-el-Hair, and in particular Maurice Boiteland Andre Hamburg.
* Citadel .
* Riadh El-Feth (shopping centre and art gallery).
Ketchoua Mosque(This mosque became the Saint-Philippe cathedral during colonization before becoming again a mosque).
* National Library , is in the district of El HAMMA. Elle has an architecture modèrne and marries the decoration perfectly.
Great Mosque of Algiersat the Rue de la Marine. It is the oldest mosque of Algiers and was built during the reign of the Almoravidsultan Yusuf ibn Tashfin.
Algiers has a population of 2,072,993 (2007 estimates). [ [http://www.world-gazetteer.com/wg.php?x=&men=gadm&lng=en&dat=32&geo=-66&srt=npan&col=aohdq Algiers in the World Gazetteer] ]
The ethnic distribution is 59% from Arabic-speaking background, 38% from berber speaking background and 3% foreign-born, mostly from
China, Vietnam, and Mali.
Algiers is an important economic, commercial and financial center, with in particular a stock exchange with a capitalisation of 60 billion euros. The port of Algiers is also the most important of North Africa. The city has the highest cost of living of any city in
North Africa, as well as the 50th highest worldwide, as of March 2007, having gained one position compared to the previous year. [ [http://www.mercerhr.com/costofliving MERCER Human Resources Consulting - Moscow tops Mercer's cost of living list; London is close behind] ]
Hewlett Packardoffice for French-speaking countries in Africa is in Algiers. [http://welcome.hp.com/gms/emea_africa/en/contact/office_locs.html]
Some convert|20|km|mi|0|abbr=on to the west of Algiers are such seaside resorts as Sidi Fredj (ex-Sidi Ferruch), Palm Beach,
Douaouda, Zéralda, and the " Club of the Pines " (residence of State); there are tourist complexes, Algerian and other restaurants, souvenir shops, supervised beaches, and other amenities. The city is also equipped with important hotel complexes such as the hotel Hilton, El-Aurassi or El Djazair. Algiers also has the first water parkin the country. Located ten minutes from the city to the East, [http://www.kiffanclub.com Kiffan Club] extends over a surface of convert|2|ha|acre|0|. With a large adult pool, several child pools, as well as large toboggans, the site includes several points of restoration. With dimensions is the Karting Escape, which opened its doors in 2005, with a long track convert|700|m|ft|-1|spell=us and three different categories of karts. Aquafortlandhttp://www.aquafortland.com supplements this decoration with a ludic swimming pool spread out over convert|1.5|ha|acre|0|, and with all the conveniences necessary for the wellbeing of the customer. The tourismof Algiers is in ascendance but is not as developed as that of a larger city of Moroccoor of Tunisia.
ETUSA(urban and suburban bus transportation for Algiers) operates bus service in Algiers and the surrounding suburbs. 54 lines are currently operating, with service from 5:30 a.m. to 12:45 a.m.
SNTF(national railroad company) operates commuter-rail lines connecting the capital to the surrounding suburbs.
Algiers Metroopen in 2008.
Houari Boumedienne Airportis located convert|20|km|mi|0|abbr=on from the city. The airport serves many European cities, West Africa, the Middle Eastand North America (Montreal). On July 5, 2006 a new international air terminal was opened for service. The terminal is managed by Aéroports de Paris.
Several ongoing projects aim to solve Algiers deficit and transportation problems. A
tramconnecting the downtown area to Dergana is planned for completion in 2009. Subway lines connecting Tafourah-Large Harrach Post office-El are expected in 2008, in addition to three Regional Express Network (RER) lines: Algiers-Aga-Thenia, Algiers-Aga-Elafroun, Algiers-Aga-Zeralda. Three new cable cars, reconstruction of roads and restoration of the city station—which will accommodate the High-speed railline connecting Annaba, Algiers and Oran—are also ongoing. Congestion control measures including new roundabouts and motorways are also being added to the city.
Emaar Propertiesinvested $20 billion for the development of several projects for Algeria. It covers the construction of a new town called Sidi Abdellah, a tourist resort and a health resort on the western outskirts of Algiers. The redevelopment of Algiers waterfront is being considered as part of the development contract, which is planned to include a shopping mall, Marriott hotel, a business district with shopping centre and the largest mosque in Algiers.
New residential developments aim to solve Algiers current housing shortage.
Algiers is the largest sporting pole of
Algeria. Cash clubs in the whole of the disciplines, and which conquered many national and international titles, it also counts an enormous sporting complex (Complex of OCO- Mohamed Boudiaf), which gathers the Olympic stage of July 5 (of a capacity of formatnum: 80000 places), a stage annexes for athletics, an Olympic swimming pool, a room multisports (the Cupola), a golf 18 holes, and several courts of tennis.
Algiers already accommodated the following sporting events (not-exhaustive list):
All-Africa Games1978, 2007.
African Cup of Nations1990.
African Handball Nations Championship1989, 2001.
Pan Arab Games2004.
FIBA Africa Championship2005.
* Men's U19 World Championship 2005.
Principal clubs of
association footballof the city (having already evolved/moved in Division 1):
NA Hussein Dey
USM El Harrach
OMR El Annasser
DNC Algiers(now defunct)
1936 Algiers invitational football tournament
In 1936 the local journalists association organised a four team invitational tournament in
Algiers. With Algeriathen under French colonial rule the official programme [Back cover, 'Through the lens glimpses of Old Queen of the South', published by Dumfries and Galloway Libraries, Information and Archives with Queen of the South Museum, 1998] listed the venue as "Stade-Velodrome Municipal d'Alger" and the participants as:-
Le Queen of the South - La Belle Equipe Ecossaise de Première Division
Racing-Club de Santander - Favori des Championnats d'Espagne
Floriana F. C. de Malte - Champion Officiel et Vainqueur de la Coupe
R.U.A. - Champion de l'Afrique du Nord 1935
The match days were Thursday May 21 and Sunday May 24.
Home side Racing Universitaire d'Alger (R.U.A. for whom
Nobel Prizewinning author/philosopher Albert Camushad played in goals for their junior team) had already won both the North African Champions Cupand the North African Cupin the 30s (R.U.A. would win each twice by the decade's end). Goals by Willie Thomson and Joe Tulipsaw Queens book a place in the invitational tournament final with a 2 - 1 victory against them.
In the final Queens faced a Racing de Santander side who had just finished 4th in Spain's
La Liganotching home and away double victories agains both Real Madrid and F.C. Barcelona. Racing had seen off Floriana in their semi final. Norrie Haywood's goal and a 1 - 0 scoreline saw victory for La Belle Equipe Ecossaise. The trophy can still be seen in Queens' club museum today. [ [http://www.qosfc.com/qanda] ]
Algiers has sister relationships with a number of cities worldwide:"In addition, many of the wards and cities within Algiers maintain sister-city relationships with other foreign cities."
Films about Algiers
* "The Battle of Algiers", 1966, directed by
Tahya ya Didou, Alger Insolite", 1970, Mohammed Zinet;
Bab El-Oued City", 1994, directed by Merzak Allouache;
Viva aldjery", 2003, directed by Nadir Moknèche, with Biyounaand Lubna Azabal;
Bab el Web", 2004, directed by Merzak Allouache, with Samy Naceri, Julie Gayet", Faudel;
It was once in the wadi", 2005, directed by Djamel Bensalah;
Beur, White, Red", 2005, directed by Mahmoud Zemmouri.
Delice Paloma", 2007, directed by Nadir Moknèche, with Biyounaand Nadia Kaci.
Nacéra Benseddik, "Chronique d’une cité antique", "dans Alger. Lumières sur la ville", Actes du colloque de l’EPAU 4-6 mai 200l, Alger 2004, p. 29-34.
*"This article is based on a translation of the
French Wikipedia's article of the same name.
List of Pasha and Dey of Algiers
* [http://www.samasafia.dz/carte%20d'alger.gifMap of Algiers]
* [http://www.algermag.com/ Algermag: Algiers is cool]
* [http://algeria.cities-guide.net/algiers Algiers news]
* [http://www.dzair.com Algerians abroad]
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