F

F is the sixth letter in the Latin alphabet. Its name in English is spelled ef or eff ["The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language". 1976.] (pronEng|ɛf).

History

The origin of F is the Semitic letter "vâv" that represented the sound /v/, and originally probably represented either a "hook" or a "club". It may have been based on a comparable Egyptian hieroglyph, such as that for "mace": T3

The Phoenician form of the letter was adopted into Greek as a vowel, "upsilon" (which resembled its descendant, Y, but was also ancestor to Roman letters U, V, and W); and with another form, as a consonant, "digamma", which resembled our letter F, but was pronounced /w/, as in Phoenician. (Later on, this /w/ phoneme disappeared from Greek, resulting in "digamma" being used as a numeral only.)

In Etruscan, F also stood for /w/; however, they came up with the innovation of using the digraph FH to represent the sound /f/, and the letter acquired this sound on its own when the Romans picked it up (since they had already borrowed U independently from Greek "upsilon" to stand for /w/). The letter phi (Φ φ) came to approximate the sound of /f/ in Greek.

The lower case "f" is not to be confused with "IPA|ſ", the archaic "long s" (or "medial s"). For example, "sinfulness" is rendered as "IPA|ſinfulneſs" using the "long s". The use of the "long s" died out by the end of the 19th century, largely to prevent confusion with "f".

Codes for computing

Letter
NATO=Foxtrot
Morse=··–·
Character=F6
Braille=⠋
In Unicode the capital F codepoint is U+0046, the lowercase f codepoint U+0066.

The ASCII code for capital F is 70 and for lowercase f is 102; or in binary 01000110 and 01100110, correspondingly.

The EBCDIC code for capital F is 198 and for lowercase f is 134.

The numeric character references in HTML and XML are "F" and "f" for upper and lower case respectively.

Ligatures

In formal typography, particularly for serifed fonts, minuscule f is one of the most commonly ligated letters.Unicode provides the following ligatures of f, l and i: , , , and (U+FB00 through U+FB04).

Variants of F

*The F with hook or script F (Unicode U+0191 and U+0192, Ƒ and ƒ) is used in the transcription of Kabye and other West African languages for the voiceless bilabial fricative. Lowercase "ƒ" is the currency sign for the Dutch gulden (which no longer exists as of the introduction of the euro)
*F with dot above (Unicode U+1E1E and U+1E1F, Ḟ and ḟ) is used in the old orthography of Irish
*The French Franc can be indicated by FF or ₣ (Unicode U+20A3)
*In mathematics, the script capital F (Unicode U+2131, ℱ) often represents the Fourier transform
*There also exist:
**The turned F (Unicode U+2132 and U+214E, Ⅎ and ⅎ), a letter that the Roman Emperor Claudius attempted to add to the Latin alphabet
**The parenthesized small F (Unicode U+24A1, ⒡)
**The circled F (Unicode U+24BB and U+24D5, Ⓕ and ⓕ)

See also

*Ф, ф - Ef (Cyrillic)
*Φ, φ or Unicode|ϕ - Phi (Greek)

References

af:F
als:F
ar:F
arc:F
ast:F
az:F
bs:F
ca:F
cs:F
co:F
cy:F
da:F
de:F
dv:F
el:F
es:F
eo:F
eu:F
fa:F
fur:F
gan:F
gd:F
gl:F
ko:F
hr:F
ilo:F
is:F
it:F
he:F
ka:F
kw:F
sw:F
ht:F
la:F
lv:F
lt:F
hu:F
mzn:F
ms:F
nah:F
ja:F
no:F
nn:F
nrm:F
pl:F
pt:F
crh:F
ro:F
qu:F
se:F
scn:F
simple:F
sk:F
sl:F
sh:F
fi:F
sv:F
tl:F
th:F
vi:F
tr:F
vo:F
yo:F
zh-yue:F
bat-smg:F
zh:F


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