Francium
radonfranciumradium
Cs

Fr

Uue
Element 1: Hydrogen (H), Other non-metal
Element 2: Helium (He), Noble gas
Element 3: Lithium (Li), Alkali metal
Element 4: Beryllium (Be), Alkaline earth metal
Element 5: Boron (B), Metalloid
Element 6: Carbon (C), Other non-metal
Element 7: Nitrogen (N), Other non-metal
Element 8: Oxygen (O), Other non-metal
Element 9: Fluorine (F), Halogen
Element 10: Neon (Ne), Noble gas
Element 11: Sodium (Na), Alkali metal
Element 12: Magnesium (Mg), Alkaline earth metal
Element 13: Aluminium (Al), Other metal
Element 14: Silicon (Si), Metalloid
Element 15: Phosphorus (P), Other non-metal
Element 16: Sulfur (S), Other non-metal
Element 17: Chlorine (Cl), Halogen
Element 18: Argon (Ar), Noble gas
Element 19: Potassium (K), Alkali metal
Element 20: Calcium (Ca), Alkaline earth metal
Element 21: Scandium (Sc), Transition metal
Element 22: Titanium (Ti), Transition metal
Element 23: Vanadium (V), Transition metal
Element 24: Chromium (Cr), Transition metal
Element 25: Manganese (Mn), Transition metal
Element 26: Iron (Fe), Transition metal
Element 27: Cobalt (Co), Transition metal
Element 28: Nickel (Ni), Transition metal
Element 29: Copper (Cu), Transition metal
Element 30: Zinc (Zn), Transition metal
Element 31: Gallium (Ga), Other metal
Element 32: Germanium (Ge), Metalloid
Element 33: Arsenic (As), Metalloid
Element 34: Selenium (Se), Other non-metal
Element 35: Bromine (Br), Halogen
Element 36: Krypton (Kr), Noble gas
Element 37: Rubidium (Rb), Alkali metal
Element 38: Strontium (Sr), Alkaline earth metal
Element 39: Yttrium (Y), Transition metal
Element 40: Zirconium (Zr), Transition metal
Element 41: Niobium (Nb), Transition metal
Element 42: Molybdenum (Mo), Transition metal
Element 43: Technetium (Tc), Transition metal
Element 44: Ruthenium (Ru), Transition metal
Element 45: Rhodium (Rh), Transition metal
Element 46: Palladium (Pd), Transition metal
Element 47: Silver (Ag), Transition metal
Element 48: Cadmium (Cd), Transition metal
Element 49: Indium (In), Other metal
Element 50: Tin (Sn), Other metal
Element 51: Antimony (Sb), Metalloid
Element 52: Tellurium (Te), Metalloid
Element 53: Iodine (I), Halogen
Element 54: Xenon (Xe), Noble gas
Element 55: Caesium (Cs), Alkali metal
Element 56: Barium (Ba), Alkaline earth metal
Element 57: Lanthanum (La), Lanthanoid
Element 58: Cerium (Ce), Lanthanoid
Element 59: Praseodymium (Pr), Lanthanoid
Element 60: Neodymium (Nd), Lanthanoid
Element 61: Promethium (Pm), Lanthanoid
Element 62: Samarium (Sm), Lanthanoid
Element 63: Europium (Eu), Lanthanoid
Element 64: Gadolinium (Gd), Lanthanoid
Element 65: Terbium (Tb), Lanthanoid
Element 66: Dysprosium (Dy), Lanthanoid
Element 67: Holmium (Ho), Lanthanoid
Element 68: Erbium (Er), Lanthanoid
Element 69: Thulium (Tm), Lanthanoid
Element 70: Ytterbium (Yb), Lanthanoid
Element 71: Lutetium (Lu), Lanthanoid
Element 72: Hafnium (Hf), Transition metal
Element 73: Tantalum (Ta), Transition metal
Element 74: Tungsten (W), Transition metal
Element 75: Rhenium (Re), Transition metal
Element 76: Osmium (Os), Transition metal
Element 77: Iridium (Ir), Transition metal
Element 78: Platinum (Pt), Transition metal
Element 79: Gold (Au), Transition metal
Element 80: Mercury (Hg), Transition metal
Element 81: Thallium (Tl), Other metal
Element 82: Lead (Pb), Other metal
Element 83: Bismuth (Bi), Other metal
Element 84: Polonium (Po), Metalloid
Element 85: Astatine (At), Halogen
Element 86: Radon (Rn), Noble gas
Element 87: Francium (Fr), Alkali metal
Element 88: Radium (Ra), Alkaline earth metal
Element 89: Actinium (Ac), Actinoid
Element 90: Thorium (Th), Actinoid
Element 91: Protactinium (Pa), Actinoid
Element 92: Uranium (U), Actinoid
Element 93: Neptunium (Np), Actinoid
Element 94: Plutonium (Pu), Actinoid
Element 95: Americium (Am), Actinoid
Element 96: Curium (Cm), Actinoid
Element 97: Berkelium (Bk), Actinoid
Element 98: Californium (Cf), Actinoid
Element 99: Einsteinium (Es), Actinoid
Element 100: Fermium (Fm), Actinoid
Element 101: Mendelevium (Md), Actinoid
Element 102: Nobelium (No), Actinoid
Element 103: Lawrencium (Lr), Actinoid
Element 104: Rutherfordium (Rf), Transition metal
Element 105: Dubnium (Db), Transition metal
Element 106: Seaborgium (Sg), Transition metal
Element 107: Bohrium (Bh), Transition metal
Element 108: Hassium (Hs), Transition metal
Element 109: Meitnerium (Mt)
Element 110: Darmstadtium (Ds)
Element 111: Roentgenium (Rg)
Element 112: Copernicium (Cn), Transition metal
Element 113: Ununtrium (Uut)
Element 114: Ununquadium (Uuq)
Element 115: Ununpentium (Uup)
Element 116: Ununhexium (Uuh)
Element 117: Ununseptium (Uus)
Element 118: Ununoctium (Uuo)
87Fr
Appearance
metallic
General properties
Name, symbol, number francium, Fr, 87
Pronunciation /ˈfrænsiəm/
fran-see-əm
Element category alkali metal
Group, period, block 1, 7, s
Standard atomic weight (223)
Electron configuration [Rn] 7s1
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 8, 1 (Image)
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) 1.87 g·cm−3
Melting point  ? 300 K, ? 27 °C, ? 80 °F
Boiling point  ? 950 K, ? 677 °C, ? 1250 °F
Heat of fusion ca. 2 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization ca. 65 kJ·mol−1
Vapor pressure (extrapolated)
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 404 454 519 608 738 946
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 1 (strongly basic oxide)
Electronegativity 0.7 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies 1st: 380 kJ·mol−1
Covalent radius 260 pm
Van der Waals radius 348 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure cubic body-centered
Magnetic ordering Paramagnetic
Electrical resistivity 3 µΩ·m
Thermal conductivity 15 W·m−1·K−1
CAS registry number 7440-73-5
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of francium
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
221Fr syn 4.8 min α 6.457 217At
222Fr syn 14.2 min β 2.033 222Ra
223Fr trace 21.8 min β 1.149 223Ra
α 5.430 219At
v · /ˈfrænsiəm/ fran-see-əm) is a chemical element with symbol Fr and atomic number 87. It was formerly known as eka-caesium and actinium K.[note 1] It has the lowest electronegativity of all known elements, and is the second rarest naturally occurring element (after astatine). Francium is a highly radioactive metal that decays into astatine, radium, and radon. As an alkali metal, it has one valence electron.

Francium was discovered by Marguerite Perey in France (from which the element takes its name) in 1939. It was the last element discovered in nature, rather than by synthesis.[note 2] Outside the laboratory, francium is extremely rare, with trace amounts found in uranium and thorium ores, where the isotope francium-223 continually forms and decays. As little as 20–30 g (one ounce) exists at any given time throughout the Earth's crust; the other isotopes are entirely synthetic. The largest amount produced in the laboratory was a cluster of more than 300,000 atoms.[1]

Contents

Characteristics

Francium is the most unstable of the naturally occurring elements: its most stable isotope, francium-223, has a maximum half-life of only 22 minutes. In contrast, astatine, the second-least stable naturally occurring element, has a maximum half-life of 8.5 hours.[2] All isotopes of francium decay into either astatine, radium, or radon.[2] Francium is also less stable than all synthetic elements up to element 105.[3]

Francium is an alkali metal whose chemical properties mostly resemble those of caesium.[3] A very heavy element with a single valence electron,[4] it has the highest equivalent weight of any element.[3] Liquid francium—if such a substance were to be created—should have a surface tension of 0.05092 N/m at its melting point.[5] Francium’s melting point was claimed to have been calculated to be around 27 °C (80 °F, 300 K).[6] However, the melting point is uncertain because of the element’s extreme rarity and radioactivity. Thus, the estimated boiling point value of 677 °C (1250 °F, 950 K) is also uncertain. Because radioactive elements give off heat, francium would almost certainly be a liquid if enough were to be produced.

Linus Pauling estimated the electronegativity of francium at 0.7 on the Pauling scale, the same as caesium;[7] the value for caesium has since been refined to 0.79, although there are no experimental data to allow a refinement of the value for francium.[8] Francium has a slightly higher ionization energy than caesium,[9] 392.811(4) kJ/mol as opposed to 375.7041(2) kJ/mol for caesium, as would be expected from relativistic effects, and this would imply that caesium is the less electronegative of the two.

Francium coprecipitates with several caesium salts, such as caesium perchlorate, which results in small amounts of francium perchlorate. This coprecipitation can be used to isolate francium, by adapting the radiocaesium coprecipitation method of Glendenin and Nelson. It will additionally coprecipitate with many other caesium salts, including the iodate, the picrate, the tartrate (also rubidium tartrate), the chloroplatinate, and the silicotungstate. It also coprecipitates with silicotungstic acid, and with perchloric acid, without another alkali metal as a carrier, which provides other methods of separation.[10][11] Nearly all francium salts are water-soluble.[12]

Applications

Due to its instability and rarity, there are no commercial applications for francium.[13][14][15][16][17] It has been used for research purposes in the fields of biology[18] and of atomic structure. Its use as a potential diagnostic aid for various cancers has also been explored,[2] but this application has been deemed impractical.[15]

Francium's ability to be synthesized, trapped, and cooled, along with its relatively simple atomic structure have made it the subject of specialized spectroscopy experiments. These experiments have led to more specific information regarding energy levels and the coupling constants between subatomic particles.[19] Studies on the light emitted by laser-trapped francium-210 ions have provided accurate data on transitions between atomic energy levels which are fairly similar to those predicted by quantum theory.[20]

History

As early as 1870, chemists thought that there should be an alkali metal beyond caesium, with an atomic number of 87.[2] It was then referred to by the provisional name eka-caesium.[21] Research teams attempted to locate and isolate this missing element, and at least four false claims were made that the element had been found before an authentic discovery was made.

Erroneous and incomplete discoveries

Soviet chemist D. K. Dobroserdov was the first scientist to claim to have found eka-caesium, or francium. In 1925, he observed weak radioactivity in a sample of potassium, another alkali metal, and incorrectly concluded that eka-caesium was contaminating the sample (the radioactivity from the sample was actually the naturally occurring potassium radioisotope, potassium-40).[22] He then published a thesis on his predictions of the properties of eka-caesium, in which he named the element russium after his home country.[23] Shortly thereafter, Dobroserdov began to focus on his teaching career at the Polytechnic Institute of Odessa, and he did not pursue the element further.[22]

The following year, English chemists Gerald J. F. Druce and Frederick H. Loring analyzed X-ray photographs of manganese(II) sulfate.[23] They observed spectral lines which they presumed to be of eka-caesium. They announced their discovery of element 87 and proposed the name alkalinium, as it would be the heaviest alkali metal.[22]

In 1930, Fred Allison of the Alabama Polytechnic Institute claimed to have discovered element 87 when analyzing pollucite and lepidolite using his magneto-optical machine. Allison requested that it be named virginium after his home state of Virginia, along with the symbols Vi and Vm.[23][24] In 1934, however, H.G. MacPherson of UC Berkeley disproved the effectiveness of Allison's device and the validity of this false discovery.[25]

In 1936, Romanian physicist Horia Hulubei and his French colleague Yvette Cauchois also analyzed pollucite, this time using their high-resolution X-ray apparatus.[22] They observed several weak emission lines, which they presumed to be those of element 87. Hulubei and Cauchois reported their discovery and proposed the name moldavium, along with the symbol Ml, after Moldavia, the Romanian province where Hulubei was born.[23] In 1937, Hulubei's work was criticized by American physicist F. H. Hirsh Jr., who rejected Hulubei's research methods. Hirsh was certain that eka-caesium would not be found in nature, and that Hulubei had instead observed mercury or bismuth X-ray lines. Hulubei, however, insisted that his X-ray apparatus and methods were too accurate to make such a mistake. Because of this, Jean Baptiste Perrin, Nobel Prize winner and Hulubei's mentor, endorsed moldavium as the true eka-caesium over Marguerite Perey's recently discovered francium. Perey, however, continuously criticized Hulubei's work until she was credited as the sole discoverer of element 87.[22]

Perey's analysis

Eka-caesium was discovered in 1939 by Marguerite Perey of the Curie Institute in Paris, France when she purified a sample of actinium-227 which had been reported to have a decay energy of 220 keV. However, Perey noticed decay particles with an energy level below 80 keV. Perey thought this decay activity might have been caused by a previously unidentified decay product, one which was separated during purification, but emerged again out of the pure actinium-227. Various tests eliminated the possibility of the unknown element being thorium, radium, lead, bismuth, or thallium. The new product exhibited chemical properties of an alkali metal (such as coprecipitating with caesium salts), which led Perey to believe that it was element 87, caused by the alpha decay of actinium-227.[21] Perey then attempted to determine the proportion of beta decay to alpha decay in actinium-227. Her first test put the alpha branching at 0.6%, a figure which she later revised to 1%.[26]

Perey named the new isotope actinium-K (now referred to as francium-223)[21] and in 1946, she proposed the name catium for her newly discovered element, as she believed it to be the most electropositive cation of the elements. Irène Joliot-Curie, one of Perey's supervisors, opposed the name due to its connotation of cat rather than cation.[21] Perey then suggested francium, after France. This name was officially adopted by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry in 1949,[2] becoming the second element after gallium to be named after France. It was assigned the symbol Fa, but this abbreviation was revised to the current Fr shortly thereafter.[27] Francium was the last element discovered in nature, rather than synthesized, following rhenium in 1925.[21] Further research into francium's structure was carried out by, among others, Sylvain Lieberman and his team at CERN in the 1970s and 1980s.[28]

Occurrence

A shiny gray 5-centimeter piece of matter with a rough surface.
This sample of uraninite contains about 100,000 atoms (3.3×10−20 g) of francium-223 at any given time.[15]

Natural

Francium-223 is the result of the alpha decay of actinium-227 and can be found in trace amounts in uranium and thorium minerals.[3] In a given sample of uranium, there is estimated to be only one francium atom for every 1×1018 uranium atoms.[15] It is also calculated that there is at most 30 g of francium in the earth's crust at any time.[29] This makes it the second rarest element in the crust after astatine.[2][15]

Synthesized

A complex experimental setup featuring a horizontal glass tube placed between two copper coils.
Neutral francium atoms can be trapped in the MOT using a magnetic field and laser beams.[30]

Francium can be synthesized in the nuclear reaction:

197Au + 18O → 210Fr + 5 n
Heat image of 300,000 francium atoms trapped using the above-mentioned process.

This process, developed by Stony Brook Physics, yields francium isotopes with masses of 209, 210, and 211,[31] which are then isolated by the magneto-optical trap (MOT).[30] The production rate of a particular isotope depends on the energy of the oxygen beam. An 18O beam from the Stony Brook LINAC creates 210Fr in the gold target with the nuclear reaction 197Au + 18O = 210Fr + 5n. The production required some time to develop and understand. It was critical to operate the gold target very close to its melting point and to make sure that its surface was very clean. The nuclear reaction imbeds the francium atoms deep in the gold target, and they must be removed efficiently. The atoms diffuse fast to the surface of the gold target and are released as ions, however this does not happen everytime. The francium ions are guided by electrostatic lenses until they land into a surface of hot yttrium and become neutral again. The francium is then injected into a glass bulb. A magnetic field and laser beams cool and confine the atoms. Although the atoms remain in the trap for only about 20 seconds before escaping (or decaying), a steady stream of fresh atoms replaces those lost, keeping the number of trapped atoms roughly constant for minutes or longer. Initially, about 1000 francium atoms were trapped in the experiment. This was gradually improved and the setup is capable of trapping over 300,000 neutral atoms of francium a time.[1] Although these are neutral "metallic" atoms ("francium metal"), they are in a gaseous unconsolidated state. Enough francium is trapped that a video camera can capture the light given off by the atoms as they fluoresce. The atoms appear as a glowing sphere about 1 millimeter in diameter. This was the very first time that anyone had ever seen francium. The researchers can now make extremely sensitive measurements of the light emitted and absorbed by the trapped atoms, providing the first experimental results on various transitions between atomic energy levels in francium. Initial measurements show very good agreement between experimental values and calculations based on quantum theory. Other synthesis methods include bombarding radium with neutrons, and bombarding thorium with protons, deuterons, or helium ions.[26] Francium has not yet, as of 2009, been synthesized in amounts large enough to weigh.[2][3][6][15]

Isotopes

There are 34 known isotopes of francium ranging in atomic mass from 199 to 232.[3] Francium has seven metastable nuclear isomers.[3] Francium-223 and francium-221 are the only isotopes that occur in nature, though the former is far more common.[32]

Francium-223 is the most stable isotope with a half-life of 21.8 minutes,[3] and it is highly unlikely that an isotope of francium with a longer half-life will ever be discovered or synthesized.[26] Francium-223 is the fifth product of the actinium decay series as the daughter isotope of actinium-227.[17] Francium-223 then decays into radium-223 by beta decay (1149 keV decay energy), with a minor (0.006%) alpha decay path to astatine-219 (5.4 MeV decay energy).[33]

Francium-221 has a half-life of 4.8 minutes.[3] It is the ninth product of the neptunium decay series as a daughter isotope of actinium-225.[17] Francium-221 then decays into astatine-217 by alpha decay (6.457 MeV decay energy).[3]

The least stable ground state isotope is francium-215, with a half-life of 0.12 μs. (9.54 MeV alpha decay to astatine-211):[3] Its metastable isomer, francium-215m, is less stable still, with a half-life of only 3.5 ns.[34]

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ Actually the least unstable isotope, francium-223
  2. ^ Some synthetic elements, like technetium, have later been found in nature.

References

  1. ^ a b Luis A. Orozco (2003). "Francium". Chemical and Engineering News. http://pubs.acs.org/cen/80th/francium.html. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Price, Andy (2004-12-20). "Francium". http://www.andyscouse.com/pages/francium.htm. Retrieved 2007-03-25. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. 4. CRC. 2006. p. 12. ISBN 0-8493-0474-1. 
  4. ^ Winter, Mark. "Electron Configuration". Francium. The University of Sheffield. http://www.webelements.com/webelements/elements/text/Fr/eneg.html. Retrieved 2007-04-18. 
  5. ^ Kozhitov, L. V.; Kol'tsov, V. B.; Kol'tsov, A. V. (2003). "Evaluation of the Surface Tension of Liquid Francium". Inorganic Materials 39 (11): 1138–1141. doi:10.1023/A:1027389223381. 
  6. ^ a b "Francium". Los Alamos National Laboratory. 2003-12-15. http://periodic.lanl.gov/elements/87.html. Retrieved 2007-03-29. 
  7. ^ Pauling, Linus (1960). The Nature of the Chemical Bond (3rd Edn.). Cornell University Press. pp. 93. 
  8. ^ Allred, A. L. (1961). "Electronegativity values from thermochemical data". J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 17 (3–4): 215–221. doi:10.1016/0022-1902(61)80142-5. 
  9. ^ Andreev, S.V.; Letokhov, V.S.; Mishin, V.I., (1987). "Laser resonance photoionization spectroscopy of Rydberg levels in Fr". Physical Review Letters 59 (12): 1274–76. Bibcode 1987PhRvL..59.1274A. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.59.1274. PMID 10035190. 
  10. ^ Hyde, E. K. (1952). "Radiochemical Methods for the Isolation of Element 87 (Francium)". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 74 (16): 4181–4184. doi:10.1021/ja01136a066. 
  11. ^ E. N K. Hyde Radiochemistry of Francium,Subcommittee on Radiochemistry, National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council; available from the Office of Technical Services, Dept. of Commerce, 1960.
  12. ^ Maddock, A. G. (1951). "Radioactivity of the heavy elements". Q. Rev., Chem. Soc. 3 (3): 270–314. doi:10.1039/QR9510500270. 
  13. ^ Winter, Mark. "Uses". Francium. The University of Sheffield. http://www.webelements.com/webelements/elements/text/Fr/uses.html. Retrieved 2007-03-25. 
  14. ^ Bentor, Yinon. "Chemical Element.com - Francium". http://www.chemicalelements.com/elements/fr.html. Retrieved 2007-03-25. 
  15. ^ a b c d e f Emsley, John (2001). Nature's Building Blocks. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 151–153. ISBN 0-19-850341-5. http://books.google.com/books?id=Yhi5X7OwuGkC&pg=PA151. 
  16. ^ Gagnon, Steve. "Francium". Jefferson Science Associates, LLC. http://education.jlab.org/itselemental/ele087.html. Retrieved 2007-04-01. 
  17. ^ a b c Considine, Glenn D., ed (2005). Chemical Elements, in Van Nostrand's Encyclopedia of Chemistry. New York: Wiley-Interscience. p. 332. ISBN 0-471-61525-0. 
  18. ^ Haverlock, TJ; Mirzadeh, S; Moyer, BA (2003). "Selectivity of calix[4]arene-bis(benzocrown-6) in the complexation and transport of francium ion". J Am Chem Soc 125 (5): 1126–7. doi:10.1021/ja0255251. PMID 12553788. 
  19. ^ Gomez, E; Orozco, L A, and Sprouse, G D (2005-11-07). "Spectroscopy with trapped francium: advances and perspectives for weak interaction studies". Rep. Prog. Phys. 69 (1): 79–118. Bibcode 2006RPPh...69...79G. doi:10.1088/0034-4885/69/1/R02. 
  20. ^ Peterson, I (1996-05-11). "Creating, cooling, trapping francium atoms". Science News 149 (19): 294. http://www.sciencenews.org/pages/pdfs/data/1996/149-19/14919-06.pdf. Retrieved 2009-09-11. 
  21. ^ a b c d e Adloff, Jean-Pierre; Kaufman, George B. (2005-09-25). Francium (Atomic Number 87), the Last Discovered Natural Element. The Chemical Educator 10 (5). Retrieved on 2007-03-26.
  22. ^ a b c d e Fontani, Marco (2005-09-10). "The Twilight of the Naturally-Occurring Elements: Moldavium (Ml), Sequanium (Sq) and Dor (Do)". International Conference on the History of Chemistry. Lisbon. pp. 1–8. Archived from the original on 2006-02-24. http://web.archive.org/web/20060224090117/http://5ichc-portugal.ulusofona.pt/uploads/PaperLong-MarcoFontani.doc. Retrieved 2007-04-08. 
  23. ^ a b c d Van der Krogt, Peter (2006-01-10). "Francium". Elementymology & Elements Multidict. http://elements.vanderkrogt.net/element.php?sym=Fr. Retrieved 2007-04-08. 
  24. ^ "Alabamine & Virginium". TIME. 1932-02-15. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,743159,00.html. Retrieved 2007-04-01. 
  25. ^ MacPherson, H. G. (1934). "An Investigation of the Magneto-Optic Method of Chemical Analysis". Physical Review (American Physical Society) 47 (4): 310–315. Bibcode 1935PhRv...47..310M. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.47.310. 
  26. ^ a b c "Francium". McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science & Technology. 7. McGraw-Hill Professional. 2002. pp. 493–494. ISBN 0-07-913665-6. 
  27. ^ Grant, Julius (1969). "Francium". Hackh's Chemical Dictionary. McGraw-Hill. pp. 279–280. ISBN 0-07-024067-1. 
  28. ^ "History". Francium. State University of New York at Stony Brook. 2007-02-20. http://fr.physics.sunysb.edu/francium_news/history.HTM. Retrieved 2007-03-26. 
  29. ^ Winter, Mark. "Geological information". Francium. The University of Sheffield. http://www.webelements.com/webelements/elements/text/Fr/geol.html. Retrieved 2007-03-26. 
  30. ^ a b "Cooling and Trapping". Francium. State University of New York at Stony Brook. 2007-02-20. http://fr.physics.sunysb.edu/francium_news/trapping.HTM. Retrieved 2007-05-01. 
  31. ^ "Production of Francium". Francium. State University of New York at Stony Brook. 2007-02-20. http://fr.physics.sunysb.edu/francium_news/production.HTM. Retrieved 2007-03-26. 
  32. ^ Considine, Glenn D., ed (2005). Francium, in Van Nostrand's Encyclopedia of Chemistry. New York: Wiley-Interscience. p. 679. ISBN 0-471-61525-0. 
  33. ^ National Nuclear Data Center (1990). "Table of Isotopes decay data". Brookhaven National Laboratory. http://ie.lbl.gov/toi/nuclide.asp?iZA=870223. Retrieved 2007-04-04. 
  34. ^ National Nuclear Data Center (2003). "Fr Isotopes". Brookhaven National Laboratory. http://ie.lbl.gov/education/parent/Fr_iso.htm. Retrieved 2007-04-04. 

External links


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Francium — Radon ← Francium → Radium Cs …   Wikipédia en Français

  • FRANCIUM — De France Symbole chimique: Fr Numéro atomique: 87. Dernier représentant des métaux alcalins dont la case dans le tableau périodique resta vacante jusqu’à 1939, quand Marguerite Perrey (Institut Curie à Paris) en découvrit un isotope radioactif… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • francium — FRÁNCIUM s.n. v. franciu. Trimis de LauraGellner, 13.09.2007. Sursa: DN …   Dicționar Român

  • francium — Symbol: Fr Atomic number: 87 Atomic weight: (223) Radioactive element, belongs to group 1 of the periodic table. Found in uranium and thorium ores. The 22 known isotopes are all radioactive, with the most stable being Fr 223. Its existence was… …   Elements of periodic system

  • francium — [fran′sē əm] n. [ModL < FRANCE2 + IUM] a radioactive chemical element, an alkali metal, existing in minute amounts in nature as a decay product of actinium: symbol, Fr; at. no., 87: see the periodic table of elements in the Reference… …   English World dictionary

  • Francium — Eigenschaften …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • francium — /fran see euhm/, n. Chem. a radioactive element of the alkali metal group. Symbol: Fr; at. no.: 87. [1945 50; after FRANCE where first identified; see IUM] * * * ▪ chemical element  heaviest chemical element of Group 1 (Ia) in the periodic table …   Universalium

  • Francium — Frạn|ci|um 〈n.; s; unz.; chem. 〉 radioaktives Alkalimetall, Ordnungszahl 87; oV Franzium [<nlat. Francia „Frankreich“ + lat. Endung ...ium] * * * Frạn|ci|um [frz. France =Frankreich; ↑ ium (1)], das; s; Symbol: Fr: äußerst seltenes,… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Francium — francis statusas T sritis fizika atitikmenys: angl. francium; virginium vok. Francium, n rus. франций, m pranc. francium, m …   Fizikos terminų žodynas

  • francium — francis statusas T sritis fizika atitikmenys: angl. francium; virginium vok. Francium, n rus. франций, m pranc. francium, m …   Fizikos terminų žodynas

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