April 28


April 28

Events

*1192 - Assassination of Conrad of Montferrat (Conrad I), King of Jerusalem, in Tyre, two days after his title to the throne is confirmed by election. The killing is carried out by Hashshashin.
*1253 - Nichiren, a Japanese Buddhist monk, propounds "Nam Myoho Renge Kyo" for the first time and declares it to be the essence of Buddhism, in effect founding Nichiren Buddhism.
*1611 - Establishment of the Pontifical and Royal University of Santo Tomas, The Catholic University of the Philippines, the oldest existing university in Asia and the largest Catholic university in the world.
*1788 - Maryland becomes the seventh state to ratify the Constitution of the United States.
*1789 - Mutiny on the Bounty, Captain William Bligh and 18 sailors are set adrift and the rebel crew returns to Tahiti briefly and then sets sail for Pitcairn Island.
*1792 - France invades Austrian Netherlands (present day Belgium), beginning the French Revolutionary War.
*1796 - The Armistice of Cherasco is signed by Napoleon Bonaparte and Vittorio Amedeo III, the King of Sardinia, expanding French territory along the Mediterranean coast.
*1862 - American Civil War: Admiral David Farragut captures New Orleans, Louisiana.
*1902 - Using the ISO 8601 standard Year Zero definition for the Gregorian calendar preceded by the Julian calendar, the one billionth minute since the start of January 1, Year Zero occurs at 10:40 AM on this date.
*1920 - Azerbaijan is added to the Soviet Union.
*1930 - The first night game in organized baseball history takes place in Independence, Kansas.
*1932 - A vaccine for yellow fever is announced for use on humans.
*1945 - Benito Mussolini and his mistress Clara Petacci are executed by a firing squad consisting of members of the Italian resistance movement.
*1947 - Thor Heyerdahl and five crew mates set out from Peru on the "Kon-Tiki" to prove that Peruvian natives could have settled Polynesia.
*1949 - Former Philippine First Lady Aurora Quezon, 61, is assassinated while en route to dedicate a hospital in memory of her late husband; her daughter and 10 others are also killed.
*1950 - Bhumibol Adulyadej marries Queen Sirikit after their quiet engagement in Lausanne, Switzerland on July 19, 1949.
*1952 - Dwight D. Eisenhower resigns as Supreme Commander of NATO.
* 1952 - Occupied Japan: The United States occupation of Japan ends.
*1965 - United States troops land in the Dominican Republic to "forestall establishment of a Communist dictatorship" and to evacuate U.S. Army troops.
*1967 - Expo 67 opens to the public in Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
*1969 - Charles de Gaulle resigns as President of France.
* 1969 - Terence O'Neill announces his resignation as Prime Minister of Northern Ireland.
*1970 - Vietnam War: U.S. President Richard M. Nixon formally authorizes American combat troops to fight communist sanctuaries in Cambodia.
*1973 - Over 6000 Mk. 82 500 pound bombs detonate over the course of 18 hours in a railyard in northern California. 5500 structures are damaged, and the town of Antelope, California ceases to exist, with every building being reduced to the foundation. This accident leads to the passing of the Transportation Safety Act of 1974 which makes the NTSB an independent agency [http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/legsregs/directives/orders/75001b.htm] .
*1977 - The Red Army Faction trial ends, with Andreas Baader, Gudrun Ensslin and Jan-Carl Raspe found guilty of four counts of murder and more than 30 counts of attempted murder.
* 1977 - The Budapest Treaty on the International Recognition of the Deposit of Microorganisms for the Purposes of Patent Procedure is signed.
*1978 - President of Afghanistan, Mohammed Daoud Khan, is overthrown and assassinated in a coup led by pro-communist rebels.
*1981 - Galician current Statute of Autonomy.
*1986 - The United States Navy aircraft carrier USS "Enterprise" becomes the first nuclear-powered aircraft carrier to transit the Suez Canal, navigating from the Red Sea to the Mediterranean Sea to relieve the USS "Coral Sea", on station across the "Line of Death" in the Gulf of Sidra off the coast of Libya. The transit began at 0300 and lasted 12 hours.
*1987 - American engineer Ben Linder is killed in an ambush by U.S.-funded Contras in northern Nicaragua.
*1988 - Near Maui, Hawaii, flight attendant Clarabelle "C.B." Lansing is blown out of Aloha Flight 243, a Boeing 737, and falls to her death when part of the plane's fuselage rips open in mid-flight.
*1994 - Former C.I.A. official Aldrich Ames pleads guilty to giving U.S. secrets to the Soviet Union and later Russia.
*1996 - Whitewater controversy: Bill Clinton gives a 4½ hour videotaped testimony for the defense.
* 1996 - In Tasmania, Australia, Martin Bryant goes on a shooting spree, killing 35 people and seriously injuring 37 more.
*1997 - The 1993 Chemical Weapons Convention goes into effect, with Russia, Iraq and North Korea notable nations who have not ratified the treaty.
*2001 - Millionaire Dennis Tito becomes the world's first space tourist.
*2005 - The Patent Law Treaty goes into effect.

Births

*1442 - King Edward IV of England (d. 1483)
*1545 - Yi Sun-sin, Korean admiral (d. 1598)
*1630 - Charles Cotton, English poet (d. 1687)
*1686 - Michael Brokoff, Czech sculptor (d. 1721)
*1715 - Franz Sparry, composer (d. 1767)
*1758 - James Monroe, 5th President of the United States (d. 1831)
*1765 - Sylvestre François Lacroix, French mathematician (b. 1834)
*1819 - Ezra Abbot, American Bible scholar (d. 1884)
*1838 - Tobias Michael Carel Asser, Dutch jurist, Nobel laureate (d. 1913)
*1868 - Lucy Booth, the fifth daughter of William and Catherine Booth (d. 1953)
* 1868 - Georgy Voronoy, Russian mathematician (d. 1908)
*1874 - Karl Kraus, Austrian journalist and author (d. 1936)
*1878 - Lionel Barrymore, American actor (d. 1954)
*1889 - António de Oliveira Salazar, dictator of Portugal (d. 1970)
*1897 - Ye Jianying, Chinese general and politician (d. 1986)
*1900 - Heinrich Müller, head of the Gestapo (disappeared in 1945)
* 1900 - Jan Oort, Dutch astronomer (d. 1992)
*1902 - Johan Borgen, Norwegian author (d. 1979)
*1906 - Kurt Gödel, Austrian mathematician (d. 1978)
* 1906 - Paul Sacher, Swiss conductor (d. 1999)
*1908 - Oskar Schindler, Austrian businessman (d. 1974)
*1910 - Sam Merwin, Jr., American mystery fiction writer (d. 1996)
*1911 - Lee Falk, American comic strip writer (d. 1999)
*1912 - Odette Sansom, French resistance worker (d. 1995)
*1914 - Philip E. High, Science fiction author (d. 2006)
*1916 - Ferruccio Lamborghini, Italian automobile manufacturer (d. 1993)
*1921 - Rowland Evans, American journalist (d. 2001)
*1922 - William Guarnere, WWII Veteran
* 1922 - Alistair MacLean, Scottish novelist (d. 1987)
*1924 - Donatas Banionis, Lithuanian actor
* 1924 - Kenneth Kaunda, President of Zambia
*1925 - T. John Lesinski, Lieutenant Governor of Michigan
*1926 - Blossom Dearie, American jazz singer
* 1926 - Harper Lee, American author
*1928 - Yves Klein, French painter (d. 1962)
* 1928 - Eugene M. Shoemaker, American planetary scientist (d. 1997)
*1930 - James Baker, American politician
* 1930 - Carolyn Jones, American actress (d. 1983)
*1934 - Lois Duncan, American novelist
*1937 - Saddam Hussein, President of Iraq (d. 2006)
*1938 - Madge Sinclair, Jamaican actress (d. 1995)
*1941 - Ann-Margret, Swedish-born actress
* 1941 - K. Barry Sharpless, American chemist, Nobel laureate
* 1941 - Lucien Aimar, French cyclist
* 1941 - Iryna Zhylenko, Ukrainian poet
*1942 - Mike Brearley, English cricketer
*1943 - Jacques Dutronc, French singer and actor
*1944 - Elizabeth LeCompte, American theater director
* 1944 - Jean-Claude Van Cauwenberghe, Belgian politician
* 1944 - Alice Waters, American chef
*1946 - Ginette Reno, French Canadian singer, songwriter and actress
*1948 - Terry Pratchett, English author
* 1948 - Marcia Strassman, American actress
* 1948 - Dorothée Berryman, French Canadian actress and singer
*1949 - Indian Larry, American stuntsman (d. 2004)
* 1949 - Bruno Kirby, American actor (d. 2006)
*1950 - Jay Leno, American comedian and television host
* 1950 - Willie Colón , Puerto Rican salsa legend
*1952 - Mary McDonnell, American actress
*1953 - Kim Gordon, American musician (Sonic Youth)
* 1953 - Roberto Bolano, Latin American author and poet
* 1954 - Ron Zook, American Football Coach
*1955 - Paul Guilfoyle, American actor
* 1955 - Nicky Gumbel, British author and priest
*1956 - Jimmy Barnes, Scottish-born singer
*1957 - Wilma Landkroon, Dutch singer
*1958 - Hal Sutton, American golfer
*1960 - John Cerutti, American baseball player and announcer (d. 2004)
* 1960 - Ian Rankin, Scottish novelist
* 1960 - Joel H. Rosenthal American political scientist
* 1960 - Jón Páll Sigmarsson, Icelandic strength athlete (d. 1993)
* 1960 - Walter Zenga, Italian footballer
*1961 - Futoshi Matsunaga, Japanese serial killer
*1963 - Lloyd Eisler, Canadian figure skater
*1964 - Barry Larkin, American baseball player
* 1964 - Noriyuki Iwadare, Japanese composer
*1965 - Steven Blum, American voice actor
*1966 - John Daly, American golfer
* 1966 - Too Short, American rapper
*1967 - Kari Wührer, American actress
*1968 - Daisy Berkowitz, American musician (Marilyn Manson)
*1968 - Howard Donald, British musician
* 1968 - Andy Flower, Zimbabwean cricketer
*1970 - Nicklas Lidström, Swedish ice hockey player
* 1970 - Diego Simeone, Argentine footballer
*1971 - Bridget Moynahan, American actress
*1972 - Joseph Bruce, American musician
*1973 - Elisabeth Röhm, American actress
* 1973 - Jorge Garcia, American actor
* 1973 - Francisco Palencia, Mexican footballer
*1974 - Penélope Cruz, Spanish actress
* 1974 - Richel Hersisia, Dutch boxer
* 1974 - Vernon Kay, British TV/radio presenter
*1977 - Derrick Wayne Frazier, American convicted murderer (d. 2006)
*1978 - Lauren Laverne, Disc jockey, television presenter and former singer
*1979 - Bahram Radan, Iranian actor
*1980 - Josh Howard, American basketball player (Dallas Mavericks)
*1981 - Jessica Alba, American actress
*1982 - Nikki Grahame, Big Brother 7 Star
*1983 - Roger Johnson, English footballer
*1986 - George Nozuka, Canadian Singer/Songwriter

Deaths

*1192 - Conrad of Montferrat (Conrad I), King of Jerusalem (b. mid 1140s)
*1498 - Henry Percy, 4th Earl of Northumberland, English politician
*1533 - Nicholas West, English bishop and diplomat (b. 1461)
*1695 - Henry Vaughan, Welsh poet (b. 1621)
*1710 - Thomas Betterton, English actor
*1716 - Louis de Montfort, French catholic priest (b. 1673)
*1726 - Thomas Pitt, British Governor of Madras (b. 1653)
*1741 - Magnus Julius De la Gardie, Swedish General and statesman (b. 1668)
*1772 - Johann Friedrich Struensee, physician of Christian VII of Denmark (b. 1737)
*1781 - Cornelius Harnett, American delegate to the Continental Congress (b. 1723)
*1813 - Mikhail Illarionovich Kutuzov, Russian field marshal (b. 1745)
*1816 - Johann Heinrich Abicht, German philosopher (b. 1862)
*1841 - Peter Chanel, French saint (b. 1803)
*1853 - Ludwig Tieck, German writer (b. 1773)
*1858 - Johannes Peter Müller, German physiologist (b. 1801)
*1865 - Samuel Cunard, Canadian-born British shipping magnate (b. 1787)
*1905 - Fitzhugh Lee, American Confederate general (b. 1835)
*1926 - Zip the Pinhead, American freak show performer (b. 1857)
*1936 - King Fuad I of Egypt (b. 1868)
*1944 - Frank Knox, U.S. Vice-Presidential candidate (b. 1874)
*1945 - Benito Mussolini, Italian fascist dictator (b. 1882)
* 1945 - Clara Petacci, Italian mistress of Benito Mussolini (shot) (b. 1912)
* 1945 - Roberto Farinacci, Italian fascist (b. 1892)
*1946 - Louis Bachelier, French mathematician (b. 1870)
*1949 - Aurora Quezon, First Lady of the Philippines (shot) (b. 1888)
*1954 - Léon Jouhaux, French labor leader, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (b. 1879)
*1957 - Heinz "Pritzl" Bär, German fighter pilot (b. 1913)
*1964 - Rolf de Maré, Swedish art collector (b. 1888)
*1970 - Ed Begley, American actor (b. 1901)
*1973 - Clas Thunberg, Finnish speed skater (b. 1893)
*1975 - Tom Donahue, American FM radio DJ (pioneer, freeform radio) (b. 1928)
*1978 - Sardar Mohammed Daoud, President of Afghanistan (b. 1909)
*1988 - B. W. Stevenson, American country singer (b. 1949)
*1991 - Steve Broidy, American motion picture executive (b. 1905)
*1992 - Francis Bacon, Anglo-Irish painter (b. 1909)
* 1992 - Iceberg Slim, American writer (b. 1918)
*1993 - Jim Valvano, American basketball coach (b. 1946)
*1998 - Ramakant Desai, Indian cricketer (b. 1939)
*1999 - Rory Calhoun, American actor (b. 1922)
* 1999 - Arthur Leonard Schawlow, American physicist, Nobel laureate (b. 1921)
* 1999 - Alf Ramsey, English football manager (b. 1920)
*2000 - Penelope Fitzgerald, English writer (b. 1916)
* 2000 - Jerzy Einhorn, Polish-Swedish doctor, researcher and politician (b. 1925)
*2002 - Alexander Lebed, Russian general (b. 1950)
* 2002 - Lou Thesz, American wrestler (b. 1916)
*2005 - Chris Candido, American wrestler (b. 1972)
* 2005 - Percy Heath, American jazz bassist (Modern Jazz Quartet) (b. 1923)
* 2005 - Taraki Sivaram, Tamil journalist of Sri Lanka (b. 1959)
*2007 - Dabbs Greer, American actor (b. 1917)
* 2007 - Tommy Newsom, American bandleader (b. 1929)
* 2007 - Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker, German physicist and philosopher (b. 1912)

Holidays and observances

*Roman Empire - first day of the Floralia in honor of Flora.
*Bahá'í Faith - Feast of Jamál (Beauty) - First day of the third month of the Bahá'í calendar.
*National Day of Mourning in Canada to commemorate workers killed, injured, or suffering illness from occupational hazards and accidents.
*National Heroes Day - Barbados.
*Workers Memorial Day - International Workers Memorial Day
*Feast day, in the Roman Catholic calendar of saints, of
**Saint Peter Chanel and of
**Saint Louis-Marie Grignion de Montfort
*but, in the General Roman Calendar as in 1954, of
**Saint Paul of the Cross

External links

* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/april/28 BBC: On This Day]
*
* [http://www1.sympatico.ca/cgi-bin/on_this_day?mth=Apr&day=28 On This Day in Canada] ----


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