- Free software movement
The free software movement (also known as open source movement, free and open source software movement and abbreviated FSM, OSM or FOSSM) is a relatively new
social movementwhich aims to promote user's rights to access and modify software. Although drawing on traditions and philosophies among members of the 1970s hacker culture, Richard Stallmanis widely credited with launching the movement in 1983 by founding the GNU Project. [cite web
title=Announcement of the GNU project
The free software philosophy at the core of the movement drew on core and incidental elements of what was called hacker culture by many computer users in the 1970s, among other sources.
Stallman founded the
Free Software Foundationin 1985 to support the movement. The philosophy of the movement is to give freedom to computer users by replacing proprietary software under restrictive licensing terms with free software, [cite web
title=Use Free Software
url=http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/use-free-software.html|] with the ultimate goal of liberating everyone "in cyberspace" [cite web
title=Stallman interviewed by Sean Daly
date=2006-06-23|] – that is, every computer user.
Members of the free software movement believe that all users of software should have the freedoms listed in the
free software definition. Many hold that it is immoral to prohibit or prevent people from exercising these freedoms and that these freedoms are required to create a decent society where software users can help each other, and to have control over their computers. [cite web
title=Why free software?
Some adherents to the free software movement do not believe that
proprietary softwareis strictly immoral. [cite web
title=Copyleft: Pragmatic Idealism
url=http://www.fsf.org/licensing/essays/pragmatic.html|] They argue freedom is valuable (both socially and pragmatically) as a property of software in its own right, separate from technical quality in a narrow sense.
The Free Software Foundation also believes all software needs free
documentation(in particular because conscientious programmers should be able to update manuals to reflect modification that they made to the software), but deems the freedom to modify less important for other types of written works. [cite web
title=Free Software and Free Manuals
publisher=gnu.org|] Within the free software movement, the
Floss manualsfoundation specializes on the goal of providing such documentation. Members of the free software movement advocate that works which serve a practical purpose should also be free.Fact|date=September 2008
Writing and spreading free software
The initial work of the free software movement focused on software development.
The free software movement also rejects proprietary software, refusing to install software that does not give them the freedoms of free software. According to Stallman, "The only thing in the software field that is worse than an unauthorised copy of a proprietary program, is an authorised copy of the proprietary program because this does the same harm to its whole community of users, and in addition, usually the developer, the perpetrator of this evil, profits from it." [cite web
title=Transcript of Stallman on Free Software
Some supporters of the free software movement take up
public speaking, or host a stall at software-related conferences to raise awareness of software freedom. This is seen as important since people who receive free software, but who are not aware that it is free software, will later accept a non-free replacement or will add software which is not free software. [cite web
title=Transcript of Stallman speaking at WSIS
A lot of lobbying work has been done against
software patents and expansions of copyright law.
Venezuelan government implemented a free software law in January 2006. Decree No. 3,390 mandated all government agencies to migrate to free software over a two-year period. [cite web
title=Free software liberates Venezuela
Free Software Magazinen°10
Edgar David Villanuevaand Jacques Rodrich Ackerman have been instrumental in introducing in Republic of Peru bill 1609 on "Free Software in Public Administration". [cite web
title=An English translation of the Free Software bill proposed in Peru|] The incident immediately invited the attention of Microsoft Inc, Peru, whose General Manager wrote a letter to Dr Edgar David Villanueva. Dr Edgar's response received worldwide attention and is still seen as a classical piece of argumentation favouring use of Free Software in Governments. [cite web|url=http://www.gnu.org.pe/resmseng.html|archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20070829215908/http://www.gnu.org.pe/resmseng.html|archivedate=2007-08-29|title=Peruvian Congressman Edgar Villanueva writing to Microsoft about free software.|]
In the USA, there have been efforts to pass legislation at the state level encouraging use of free software by state government agencies. [cite web
title=Open source's new weapon: The law?]
Like many social movements, the free software movement has ongoing internal conflict between personalities and between supporters of compromise versus strict adherence to values.
In 1998, some companies met to create a marketing campaign for free software which would focus on technology rather than ethicsFact|date=February 2008. After this
Eric Raymondand Bruce Perens, founded Open Source InitiativeOSI, which promotes the term " open-source software" as an alternative term for free software. OSI does not agree with the free software movement's position that non-free software is a social problem or that it is unethical. [ [http://www.urbanophile.com/arenn/hacking/fsvos.html "Free", "Open Source", and Philosophies of Software Ownership ] ]
OSI advocates free software (under the name "open-source software") on the basis that it is a superior model for software development rather than it being a social or ethical issue. [cite web
title=Open Source misses the point|]
tallman and Torvalds
The two most prominent people attached to the movement,
Richard Stallmanand Linus Torvalds, have deep philosophical differences. This has fueled many dramatic news articles, but has not prevented Stallman from using Torvalds' kernel or Torvalds from using Stallman's GNU General Public License.
Measures of progress
Ohloh, a web servicefounded in 2004 and launched in 2006, monitors the development activity in the free software community, providing detailed metrics and quantitative analyses on the growth and popularity of projects and programming languages.
Criticism and controversy
Is something impeding progress?
Some, such as
Eric Raymond, criticise the speed at which the free software movement is progressing, suggesting that temporary compromises should be made for long-term gains. Raymond argues that this could raise awareness of the software and thus increase the free software movement's influence on relevant standards and legislation. [cite web
title=ESR's "World Domination 201", on the need for more compromise by the free software movement|]
Others, such as Richard Stallman, see the current level of compromise to be the bigger worry. [cite web
title=RMS on the progress of the movement and his worry about compromise|] [cite web
title=Richard Stallman on "World Domination 201"
quote=I cannot agree to that compromise, and my experience teaches me thatit won't be temporary. ... What our community needs most is more spine in rejection of non-freesoftware. It has far too much willingness to compromise. ... To "argue" in favor of adding non-free software in GNU/Linux distrosis almost superfluous, since that's what nearly all of them havealready done.]
Free Culture Movement
Free software community
Free Software Foundation
Open Source Initiative
Defective by Design
* [http://www.onlamp.com/pub/a/onlamp/2005/09/29/what-is-free-software.html What is Free Software?] - Essay by Karl Fogel.
* [http://fsfeurope.org/documents/rms-fs-2006-03-09.en.html The Free Software Movement and the Future of Freedom] , a 2006 lecture by Richard Stallman
* [http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/free-software-intro.html Free Software Movement intro by FSF]
* [http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/ The GNU Project Philosophy Directory] , containing many defining documents of the free software movement
* [http://www.zmag.org/znet/viewArticle/4795 An interview with Stallman, "Free Software as a social movement"]
*Christian Imhorst, [http://www.imhorst.net/translations/anarchy-and-source-code/ "Anarchy and Source Code - What does the Free Software Movement have to do with Anarchism?] ", (licence:
* [http://www.zeuux.org/law/billxu-rms-drm.html An anti-DRM campaign] - by Bill Xu and Richard Stallman
* [http://www.apdip.net/news/fossdoc The Codebreakers - a freely redistributable movie]
* Johan Soderberg, "Hacking Capitalism: The Free and Open Source Software Movement", Routledge, 2007, ISBN 0415955432
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