Solid-state physics


Solid-state physics

Solid-state physics, the largest branch of condensed matter physics, is the study of rigid matter, or solids. The bulk of solid-state physics theory and research is focused on crystals, largely because the periodicity of atoms in a crystal — its defining characteristic —facilitates mathematical modeling, and also because crystalline materials often have electrical, magnetic, optical, or mechanical properties that can be exploited for engineering purposes.

The framework of most solid-state physics theory is the Schrödinger (wave) formulation of non-relativistic quantum mechanics. Bloch's theorem, which characterizes the wavefunctions of electrons in a periodic potential, is an important starting point for much analysis. Since Bloch's theorem applies only to periodic potentials, and since unceasing random movements of atoms in a crystal disrupt periodicity, this use of Bloch's theorem is only an approximation, but it has proven to be a tremendously valuable approximation, without which most solid-state physics analysis would be intractable. Deviations from periodicity are treated by quantum mechanical perturbation theory.

Topics

*Amorphous solid
*Crystal structure
**defects
**quasicrystal
**Free electron model
**reciprocal lattice
**X-ray crystallography
**neutron diffraction
**dynamical theory of diffraction
**Crystal momentum
*Dielectric properties
**ferroelectricity
**Refractive index
**Double refraction
**polaron
*Electronic structure
**band gap
**Bloch waves (electron waves in a lattice)
**conduction band
**effective mass
**electron hole
**Fermi gas
***Fermi energy
**Fermi liquid
**exciton
**plasmon
**valence band
*Electronic transport
**Bloch oscillations
**Drude model
**electrical conduction
**Hall effect
**magnetoresistance
**superconductivity
*Magnetic properties
**magnetism
*Mechanical properties
**crystal acoustics
**Debye model of specific heat
**Einstein model of specific heat
**elasticity
**hardness
**hyper sound
**Mössbauer effect
**nanomechanics (nanoscale structures)
**phonons (lattice vibrations)
**plastic deformation
**ultrasonic
*Optical properties
**Brillouin scattering
**crystal optics
**infrared absorption
**optical phonon
**Raman scattering

ee also

*Alloys
*Insulator
*Metal
*Semiconductor
*Semi-metal
*Spin glass
*Surface science

External links and references

* Online textbook: " [http://folk.uio.no/yurig/fys448/Fys448.html Introduction to Modern Solid State Physics] " by Yuri M. Galperin.


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