Robert Lansing


Robert Lansing

: "For the actor, see Robert Lansing (actor)."

Infobox US Cabinet official
name=Robert Lansing


order=42nd
title=United States Secretary of State
term_start=June 24, 1915
term_end=February 13, 1920
predecessor=William Jennings Bryan
successor=Bainbridge Colby
birth_date=birth date|1864|10|17|mf=y
birth_place=Watertown, New York, U.S.
death_date=death date and age|1928|10|30|1864|10|17
death_place=New York City, New York, U.S.
party=Democratic
spouse=
profession=Lawyer, Politician

Robert Lansing (October 17, 1864 – October 30, 1928) served in the position of Legal Advisor to the State Department at the outbreak of World War I where he vigorously advocated against Britain's policy of blockade and in favor of the principles of freedom of the seas and the rights of neutral nations. He then served as United States Secretary of State under President Woodrow Wilson between 1915 and 1920. He was nominated to the office after William Jennings Bryan's resignation. He negotiated the LansingIshii Agreement with Japan in 1917 and was a member of the American Commission to Negotiate Peace at Paris in 1919.

Born in Watertown, New York, he graduated from Amherst College in 1886 and was admitted to the bar in 1889. From then until 1907 he was a member of the law firm of Lansing & Lansing at Watertown. An authority on international law, he served as associate counsel for the United States in the Bering Sea Arbitration in 1892-93, as counsel for the United States Bering Sea Claims Commission in 1896-97, as solicitor for the government before the Alaskan Boundary Tribunal in 1903, as counsel for the North Atlantic Fisheries in the Arbitration at The Hague in 1909-10, and as agent of the United States in the American and British Arbitration in 1912-14. In 1914 Lansing was appointed by President Wilson counselor to the State Department.

Lansing advocated benevolent neutrality in World War I, and eventually of American participation. According to the 1972 book "Lusitania" by Colin Simpson, a reporter with the London Sunday Times, Mr. Lansing actively participated in covering up the fact that the passenger liner Lusitania was carrying weapons for the British. The sinking of the Lusitania by the German U-boat U-20 was a major factor in the eventual entry of the United States into World War I. Mr. Lansing's activities in covering up the facts regarding the sinking led to an irreparable breach between him and Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan. As a result of this rift, Bryan resigned, and Lansing assumed his former superior's office. In 1916, using funds discretionary to himself, he hired a handful of men to become the State Department's first special agents in the new Bureau of Secret Intelligence. These agents were initially utilized to observe Central power activities in America, and later to watch over interned German diplomats. The small group of agents hired by Lansing would eventually become the Diplomatic Security Service (DSS) many years later.

In 1919, he became the nominal head of the U.S. commission to the Paris Peace Conference. Because he did not regard the League of Nations as essential to the peace treaty, Lansing began to fall out of favor with Wilson. During Wilson's stroke and illness, Lansing called the cabinet together for consultations on several occasions. In addition, Lansing was the first cabinet member to suggest that Vice President Thomas R. Marshall assume the powers of the presidency. Wilson was disturbed by Lansing's independence, and Lansing resigned in 1920 at Wilson's request. Afterward, he practiced law in New York City.

His nephews include John Foster Dulles, who also became a U.S. Secretary of State, and Allen Welsh Dulles, a Director of Central Intelligence.

Authorship

He became associate editor of the "American Journal of International Law", and with Gary M. Jones was author of "Government: Its Origin, Growth, and Form in the United States" (1902). He wrote: "The Big Four and Others at the Peace Conference" (1921) and "The Peace Negotiations" (1922).

External links

*
* [http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=21919 Robert Lansing's Gravesite]

*


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  • Robert Howell Brown — Robert Lansing (* 5. Juni 1928 in San Diego, Kalifornien, USA; † 23. Oktober 1994 in New York, USA), eigentlich Robert Howell Brown, war ein US amerikanischer Schauspieler, der an etlichen Filmen, Fernsehserien und Theaterstücken mitwirkte. Leben …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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