- Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn
After returning to Russia from exile in 1994.
Born Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsyn
11 December 1918
Kislovodsk, Russian SFSR
Died 3 August 2008(aged 89)
Occupation Novelist, soldier, teacher Ethnicity Russian, Ukrainian Citizenship USSR, Russian Federation Alma mater Rostov State University Notable work(s) One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich, The First Circle, The Cancer Ward, The Gulag Archipelago, The Red Wheel Notable award(s)
Spouse(s) Natalia Alekseyevna Reshetovskaya (1940–52; 1957–72)
Natalia Dmitrievna Svetlova (1973–2008)
Children Yermolai Solzhenitsyn (b. 1970), Ignat Solzhenitsyn (b. 1972), Stepan Solzhenitsyn (b. 1973) (all by Natalia Svetlova)
Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsyn (English pronunciation: /soʊlʒəˈniːtsɨn/ Russian: Алекса́ндр Иса́евич Солжени́цын, pronounced [ɐlʲɪˈksandr ɪˈsaɪvʲɪtɕ səlʐɨˈnʲitsɨn]; 11 December 1918 – 3 August 2008) was a Russian and Soviet novelist, dramatist, and historian. Through his often-suppressed writings, he helped to raise global awareness of the Gulag, the Soviet Union's forced labor camp system – particularly in The Gulag Archipelago and One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich, two of his best-known works. Solzhenitsyn was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1970. He was expelled from the Soviet Union in 1974, but returned to Russia in 1994 after the Soviet system had collapsed.
In the Soviet Union
Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn was born in Kislovodsk, RSFSR (now in Stavropol Krai, Russia). His mother, Taisiya Solzhenitsyna (née Shcherbak) was Ukrainian. Her father had apparently risen from humble beginnings, as something of a self-made man. Eventually, he acquired a large estate in the Kuban region in the northern foothills of the Caucasus. During World War I, Taisiya went to Moscow to study. While there she met and married Isaakiy Solzhenitsyn, a young officer in the Imperial Russian Army of Cossack origins and fellow native of the Caucasus region. The family background of his parents is vividly brought to life in the opening chapters of August 1914, and in the later Red Wheel novels.
In 1918, Taisia became pregnant with Aleksandr. Shortly after her pregnancy was confirmed, Isaakiy was killed in a hunting accident. Aleksandr was then raised by his widowed mother and aunt in lowly circumstances. His earliest years coincided with the Russian Civil War. By 1930 the family property had been turned into a collective farm. Later, Solzhenitsyn recalled that his mother had fought for survival and that they had to keep his father's background in the old Imperial Army a secret. His educated mother (who never remarried) encouraged his literary and scientific learnings and raised him in the Russian Orthodox faith; she died in 1944.
As early as 1936, Solzhenitsyn was developing the characters and concepts for a planned epic work on the First World War and the Russian Revolution. This eventually led to the novel August 1914 – some of the chapters he wrote then still survive. Solzhenitsyn studied mathematics at Rostov State University. At the same time he took correspondence courses from the Moscow Institute of Philosophy, Literature and History, at this time heavily ideological in scope. As he himself makes clear, he did not question the state ideology or the superiority of the Soviet Union until he spent time in the camps.
On 7 April 1940, while at the university, Solzhenitsyn married a chemistry student Natalia Alekseevna Reshetovskaya. They divorced in 1952 (a year before his release from the Gulag); he remarried her in 1957  and they divorced again in 1972. The following year (1973) he married his second wife, Natalia Dmitrievna Svetlova, a mathematician who had a son from a brief prior marriage. He and Svetlova (b. 1939) had three sons: Yermolai (1970), Ignat (1972), and Stepan (1973).
During World War II Solzhenitsyn served as the commander of a sound-ranging battery in the Red Army, was involved in major action at the front, and twice decorated. A series of writings published late in his life, including the early uncompleted novel Love the Revolution!, chronicle his World War II experience and his growing doubts about the moral foundations of the Soviet regime.
In February 1945, while serving in East Prussia, Solzhenitsyn was arrested for writing derogatory comments in letters to a friend, Nikolai Vitkevich, about the conduct of the war by Joseph Stalin, whom he called Khozyain" ("the master"), and "Balabos", (Yiddish rendering of Hebrew baal ha-bayiθ for "master of the house"). He was accused of anti-Soviet propaganda under Article 58 paragraph 10 of the Soviet criminal code, and of "founding a hostile organization" under paragraph 11. Solzhenitsyn was taken to the Lubyanka prison in Moscow, where he was beaten and interrogated. On 7 July 1945, he was sentenced in his absence by Special Council of the NKVD to an eight-year term in a labor camp. This was the normal sentence for most crimes under Article 58 at the time.
The first part of Solzhenitsyn's sentence was served in several different work camps; the "middle phase," as he later referred to it, was spent in a sharashka (i.e., a special scientific research facility run by Ministry of State Security), where he met Lev Kopelev, upon whom he based the character of Lev Rubin in his book The First Circle, published in a self-censored or "distorted" version in the West in 1968 (an English translation of the full version was eventually published by Harper Perennial in October 2009). In 1950, he was sent to a "Special Camp" for political prisoners. During his imprisonment at the camp in the town of Ekibastuz in Kazakhstan, he worked as a miner, bricklayer, and foundry foreman. His experiences at Ekibastuz formed the basis for the book One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich. One of his fellow political prisoners, Ion Moraru, remembers that Solzhenitsyn spent some of his time at Ekibastuz writing. While there he had a tumor removed, although his cancer was not diagnosed at the time.
In March 1953 after the expiry of Solzhenitsyn's sentence, he was sent to internal exile for life at Kok-Terek in the northeastern region of Kazakhstan, very close to the current border with Russia, as was common for political prisoners. His undiagnosed cancer spread until, by the end of the year, he was close to death. However, in 1954, he was permitted to be treated in a hospital in Tashkent, where his tumor went into remission. His experiences there became the basis of his novel Cancer Ward and also found an echo in the short story "The right hand." It was during this decade of imprisonment and exile that Solzhenitsyn abandoned Marxism and developed the philosophical and religious positions of his later life; this turn has some interesting parallels to Fyodor Dostoyevsky's time in Siberia and his quest for faith a hundred years earlier. Solzhenitsyn gradually turned into a philosophically-minded Christian as a result of his experience in prison and the camps. He repented for some of his actions as a Red Army captain, and in prison compared himself to the perpetrators of the Gulag: "I remember myself in my captain's shoulder boards and the forward march of my battery through East Prussia, enshrouded in fire, and I say: 'So were we any better?'" His transformation is described at some length in the fourth part of The Gulag Archipelago ("The Soul and Barbed Wire"). The narrative poem The Trail (written without benefit of pen or paper in prison and camps between 1947 and 1952) and the 28 poems composed in prison, forced-labor camp, and exile also provide crucial material for understanding Solzhenitsyn's intellectual and spiritual odyssey during this period. These "early" works, largely unknown in the West, were published for the first time in Russian in 1999 and excerpted in English in 2006.
After Khrushchev's Secret Speech in 1956 Solzhenitsyn was freed from exile and exonerated. After his return to European Russia, Solzhenitsyn was, while teaching at a secondary school during the day, spending his nights secretly engaged in writing. In his Nobel Prize acceptance speech he wrote, "during all the years until 1961, not only was I convinced I should never see a single line of mine in print in my lifetime, but, also, I scarcely dared allow any of my close acquaintances to read anything I had written because I feared this would become known."
In the 1960s while he was publicly known to be writing Cancer Ward, he was simultaneously writing The Gulag Archipelago. The KGB found out about this. Finally, aged 42, he approached Aleksandr Tvardovsky, a poet and the chief editor of the Noviy Mir magazine, with the manuscript of One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich. It was published in edited form in 1962, with the explicit approval of Nikita Khrushchev, who defended it at the presidium of the Politburo hearing on whether to allow its publishing, and added: "There's a Stalinist in each of you; there's even a Stalinist in me. We must root out this evil." The book became an instant hit and sold-out everywhere. During Khrushchev's tenure, One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich was studied in schools in the Soviet Union as were three more short works of Solzhenitsyn's, including his acclaimed short story Matryona's Home, were published in 1963. These would be the last of his works published in the Soviet Union until 1990.
One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich brought the Soviet system of prison labor to the attention of the West. It caused as much of a sensation in the Soviet Union as it did in the West—not only by its striking realism and candour, but also because it was the first major piece of Soviet literature since the twenties on a politically charged theme, written by a non-party member, indeed a man who had been to Siberia for "libelous speech" about the leaders, and yet its publication had been officially permitted. In this sense, the publication of Solzhenitsyn's story was an almost unheard of instance of free, unrestrained discussion of politics through literature. Most Soviet readers realized this, but after Khrushchev had been ousted from power in 1964, the time for such raw exposing works came quietly, but perceptibly, to a close.
Solzhenitsyn made an unsuccessful attempt, with the help of Tvardovsky, to get his novel, The Cancer Ward, legally published in the Soviet Union. This had to get the approval of the Union of Writers. Though some there appreciated it, the work ultimately was denied publication unless it was to be revised and cleaned of suspect statements and anti-Soviet insinuations (this episode is recounted and documented in The Oak and the Calf).
The publishing of his work quickly stopped; as a writer, he became a non-person, and, by 1965, the KGB had seized some of his papers, including the manuscript of The First Circle. Meanwhile Solzhenitsyn continued to secretly and feverishly work upon the most subversive of all his writings, the monumental The Gulag Archipelago. The seizing of his novel manuscript first made him desperate and frightened, but gradually he realized that it had set him free from the pretenses and trappings of being an "officially acclaimed" writer, something which had come close to second nature, but which was becoming increasingly irrelevant.
After the KGB had confiscated Solzhenitsyn's materials in Moscow, during 1965–1967 the preparatory drafts of The Gulag Archipelago were turned into finished typescript in hiding at his friends' homes in Estonia. Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn had befriended Arnold Susi, a lawyer and former Estonian Minister of Education in a Lubyanka Prison cell. After completion, Solzhenitsyn's original handwritten script was kept hidden from the KGB in Estonia by Arnold Susi's daughter Heli Susi until the collapse of the Soviet Union.
In 1969 Solzhenitsyn was expelled from the Union of Writers. In 1970, Solzhenitsyn was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature. He could not receive the prize personally in Stockholm at that time, since he was afraid he would not be let back into the Soviet Union. Instead, it was suggested he should receive the prize in a special ceremony at the Swedish embassy in Moscow. The Swedish government refused to accept this solution, however, since such a ceremony and the ensuing media coverage might upset the Soviet Union and damage Sweden's relations with the superpower. Instead, Solzhenitsyn received his prize at the 1974 ceremony after he had been deported from the Soviet Union.
The Gulag Archipelago was composed during 1958–1967. This work was a three-volume, seven part work on the Soviet prison camp system (Solzhenitsyn never had all seven parts of the work in front of him at any one time). The Gulag Archipelago has sold over thirty million copies in thirty-five languages. It was based upon Solzhenitsyn's own experience as well as the testimony of 256 former prisoners and Solzhenitsyn's own research into the history of the penal system. It discussed the system's origins from the founding of the Communist regime, with Lenin himself having responsibility, detailing interrogation procedures, prisoner transports, prison camp culture, prisoner uprisings and revolts, and the practice of internal exile.
The Gulag Archipelago's rich and varied authorial voice, its unique weaving together of personal testimony, philosophical analysis, and historical investigation, and its unrelenting indictment of communist ideology made The Gulag Archipelago one of the most consequential books of the twentieth century. The appearance of the book in the West put the word gulag into the Western political vocabulary and guaranteed swift retribution from the Soviet authorities.
In the West
On 12 February 1974, Solzhenitsyn was arrested and deported the next day from the USSR to Frankfurt, West Germany and stripped of his Soviet citizenship. The KGB had found the manuscript for the first part of The Gulag Archipelago and, less than a week later, Yevgeny Yevtushenko suffered reprisals for his support of Solzhenitsyn. U.S. military attache William Odom managed to smuggle out a large portion of Solzhenitsyn's archive, including the author's membership card for the Writers' Union and Second World War military citations; Solzhenitsyn subsequently paid tribute to Odom's role in his memoir "Invisible Allies" (1995).
In Germany, Solzhenitsyn lived in Heinrich Böll's house in Cologne. He then moved to Zurich, Switzerland before Stanford University invited him to stay in the United States to "facilitate your work, and to accommodate you and your family." He stayed on the 11th floor of the Hoover Tower, part of the Hoover Institution, before moving to Cavendish, Vermont in 1976. He was given an honorary Literary Degree from Harvard University in 1978 and on Thursday, 8 June 1978 he gave his Commencement Address condemning, among other things, materialism in modern western culture.
Over the next 17 years, Solzhenitsyn worked on his cyclical history of the Russian Revolution of 1917, The Red Wheel. By 1992, four "knots" (parts) had been completed and he had also written several shorter works.
Despite spending two decades in the United States, Solzhenitsyn did not become fluent in spoken English. He had, however, been reading English-language literature since his teens, encouraged by his mother. More importantly, he resented the idea of becoming a media star and of tempering his ideas or ways of talking in order to suit television. Solzhenitsyn's warnings about the dangers of Communist aggression and the weakening of the moral fiber of the West were generally well received in Western conservative circles (for example, before being denied the opportunity by then-president Gerald Ford, Ford administration staffers Richard Cheney and Donald Rumsfeld advocated on Solzhenitsyn's behalf to speak directly to the president about the Soviet threat), alongside the tougher foreign policy pursued by U.S. President Ronald Reagan. At the same time, liberals and secularists became increasingly critical of what they perceived as his reactionary preference for Russian nationalism and the Russian Orthodox religion. Solzhenitsyn also harshly criticised what he saw as the ugliness and spiritual vapidity of the dominant pop culture of the modern West, including television and much of popular music: "...the human soul longs for things higher, warmer, and purer than those offered by today's mass living habits ... by TV stupor and by intolerable music". Despite his criticism of the "weakness" of the West, Solzhenitsyn always made clear that he admired the political liberty which was one of the enduring strengths of western democratic societies. In a major speech delivered to the International Academy of Philosophy in Liechtenstein on 14 September 1993, Solzhenitsyn implored the West not to "lose sight of its own values, its historically unique stability of civic life under the rule of law—a hard-won stability which grants independence and space to every private citizen."
In a series of writings, speeches, and interviews after his return to his native Russia in 1994, Solzhenitsyn spoke about his admiration for the local self-government he had witnessed first hand in Switzerland and New England during his western exile. He "praised 'the sensible and sure process of grassroots democracy, in which the local population solves most of its problems on its own, not waiting for the decisions of higher authorities.'"
Return to Russia
In 1990, his Soviet citizenship was restored, and, in 1994, he returned to Russia with his wife, Natalia, who had become a United States citizen. Their sons stayed behind in the United States (later, his oldest son Yermolai returned to Russia to work for the Moscow office of a leading management consultancy firm). From then until his death, he lived with his wife in a dacha in Troitse-Lykovo (Троице-Лыково) in west Moscow between the dachas once occupied by Soviet leaders Mikhail Suslov and Konstantin Chernenko. A staunch believer in traditional Russian culture, Solzhenitsyn expressed his disillusionment with post-Soviet Russia and called for a restoration of the Russian monarchy. After returning to Russia in 1994, Solzhenitsyn published eight two-part short stories, a series of contemplative "miniatures" or prose poems, a literary memoir on his years in the West (The Grain Between the Millstones) among many other writings.
Solzhenitsyn died of heart failure near Moscow on 3 August 2008, at the age of 89. A burial service was held at Donskoy Monastery, Moscow, on Wednesday, 6 August 2008. He was buried on the same date at the place chosen by him in Donskoy necropolis. Russian and world leaders paid tribute to Solzhenitsyn following his death.
The most complete 30-volume edition of Solzhenitsyn's collected works is soon to be published in Russia. The presentation of its first three volumes, already in print, recently took place in Moscow. Unhappy with the economic and social malaise of the Yeltsin era, Solzhenitsyn expressed his admiration for President Vladimir Putin's attempts to restore a sense of national pride in Russia. Putin signed a decree conferring on Solzhenitsyn the State Prize of the Russian Federation for his humanitarian work and personally visited the writer at his home on 12 June 2007 to present him with the award. Like his father, Yermolai Solzhenitsyn has translated some of his father's works. Stephan Solzhenitsyn lives and works in Moscow. Ignat Solzhenitsyn is the music director of The Chamber Orchestra of Philadelphia.
KGB operations against Solzhenitsyn
On 19 September 1974, Yuri Andropov approved a large-scale operation to discredit Solzhenitsyn and his family and cut his communications with Soviet dissidents. The plan was jointly approved by Vladimir Kryuchkov, Philipp Bobkov, and Grigorenko (heads of First, Second and Fifth KGB Directorates). The residencies in Geneva, London, Paris, Rome and other European cities participated in the operation. Among other active measures, at least three StB agents became translators and secretaries of Solzhenitsyn (one of them translated the poem Prussian Nights), keeping KGB informed regarding all contacts by Solzhenitsyn.
KGB sponsored a series of hostile books about Solzhenitsyn, most notably a "memoir published under the name of his first wife, Natalia Reshetovskaya, but probably mostly composed by Service", according to historian Christopher Andrew. Andropov also gave an order to create "an atmosphere of distrust and suspicion between PAUK and the people around him" by feeding him rumors that everyone in his surrounding was a KGB agent and deceiving him in all possible ways. Among other things, the writer constantly received envelopes with photographs of car accidents, brain surgery and other frightening illustrations. After the KGB harassment in Zurich, Solzhenitsyn settled in Cavendish, Vermont, reduced communications with others and surrounded his property with a barbed wire fence. His influence and moral authority for the West diminished as he became increasingly isolated and critical of Western individualism. KGB and CPSU experts finally concluded that he alienated American listeners by his "reactionary views and intransigent criticism of the US way of life", so no further active measures would be required.
Accusations of collaboration with NKVD
In his book The Gulag Archipelago Solzhenitsyn states that he was recruited to report to the NKVD on fellow inmates and was given a code-name Vetrov, but due to his transfer to another camp he was able to elude this duty and never produced a single report.
In 1976, after Solzhenitsyn was expelled from the Soviet Union a report signed by Vetrov surfaced. After a copy of the report was obtained by Solzhenitsyn he published it together with a refutation in the Los Angeles Times (published 24 May 1976). In 1978 the same report was published by journalist Frank Arnau in a socialist Western German magazine Neue Politik. However, according to Solzhenitsyn the report is a fabrication by the KGB. He claimed that the report is dated 20 January 1952 while all Ukrainians were transferred to a separate camp on 6 January and they had no relation to the uprising in Solzhenitsyn's camp on 22 January. He also claimed that the only people who might in 1976 have access to a "secret KGB archive" were KGB agents themselves. Solzhenitsyn also requested Arnau to put the alleged document to a graphology test but Arnau refused.
In 1990 the report was reproduced in Soviet Voyenno-Istoricheskiy Zhurnal among the memoirs of L.A. Samutin, a former ROA soldier and GULAG inmate who was an erstwhile supporter of Solzhenitsyn, but later became his critic. According to Solzhenitzyn, publication of the Samutin memoirs was canceled at the request of Samutin's widow, who stated that the memoirs were in fact dictated by the KGB.
Views on atheism, history, and politics
Regarding atheism, Solzhenitsyn declared:
Over a half century ago, while I was still a child, I recall hearing a number of old people offer the following explanation for the great disasters that had befallen Russia: "Men have forgotten God; that's why all this has happened." Since then I have spent well-nigh 50 years working on the history of our revolution; in the process I have read hundreds of books, collected hundreds of personal testimonies, and have already contributed eight volumes of my own toward the effort of clearing away the rubble left by that upheaval. But if I were asked today to formulate as concisely as possible the main cause of the ruinous revolution that swallowed up some 60 million of our people, I could not put it more accurately than to repeat: "Men have forgotten God; that's why all this has happened."
On Russia and the Jews
Solzhenitsyn also published a two-volume work on the history of Russian-Jewish relations (Two Hundred Years Together 2001, 2002). This book stirred controversy and caused Solzhenitsyn to be widely accused of anti-Semitism.
The book became a best-seller in Russia. Solzhenitsyn begins this work with a plea for "patient mutual comprehension" on the part of Russians and Russian Jews. The author writes that the book was conceived in the hope of promoting "mutually agreeable and fruitful pathways for the future development of Russian-Jewish relations".
There is sharp division on the allegation of anti-Semitism. From Solzhenitsyn's own essay "Repentance and Self-Limitation in the Life of Nations", he calls for Russians and Jews alike to take moral responsibility for the "renegades" from both communities who enthusiastically supported a Marxist dictatorship after the October Revolution. At the end of chapter 15, he writes that Jews must answer for the "revolutionary cutthroats" in their ranks just as Russian Gentiles must repent "for the pogroms, for those merciless arsonist peasants, for...crazed revolutionary soldiers." It is not, he adds, a matter of answering "before other peoples, but to oneself, to one's consciousness, and before God." Writing of Solzhenitsyn's novel, August 1914 in the New York Times on 13 November 1985, the American historian Richard Pipes commented: "Every culture has its own brand of anti-Semitism. In Solzhenitsyn's case, it's not racial. It has nothing to do with blood. He's certainly not a racist; the question is fundamentally religious and cultural. He bears some resemblance to Dostoevsky, who was a fervent Christian and patriot and a rabid anti-Semite. Solzhenitsyn is unquestionably in the grip of the Russian extreme right's view of the Revolution, which is that it was the doing of the Jews".
According to D. M. Thomas, Elie Wiesel said Solzhenitsyn is not an anti-Semite. "he is too intelligent, too honest, too courageous, too great a writer." He says he wishes Solzhenitsyn were more sensitive to Jewish suffering, but believes the insensitivity is unconscious. This statement however predates the publication in 2001 of "200 Years Together" by at least 3 years.
Similarities between Two Hundred years together and an anti-Semitic essay titled "Jews in the USSR and in the Future Russia", attributed to Solzhenitsyn, has led to inference that he stands behind the anti-Semitic passages. Solzhenitsyn himself claims that the essay consists of manuscripts stolen from him, and then manipulated, forty years ago. However, according to the historian Semyon Reznik, textological analyses have proven Solzhenitsyn's authorship.
In 1984 Solzhenitsyn was interviewed by Nikolay Kazantsev, a monarchist Russo-Argentine journalist, for Nasha Strana, a Russia-language newspaper based in Buenos Aires. In the interview he said: "We (Russia) are walking a narrow isthmus between Communists and the World Jewry. Neither is acceptable for us... And I mean this not in the racial sense, but in the sense of the Jewry as a certain world view. The Jewry is embodied in "Fevralism" (i.e. democracy). Neither side is acceptable to us in the case the War breaks out." He also described the United States as a "province of Israel".
Russian dissident writer Vladimir Voynovich, interviewed for Radio Liberty on the first anniversary of Solzhenitsyn' death, has said that Solzhenitshyn harbored anti-Semitic sentiments all his life, as attested by the 1964 manuscript he later developed into "200 Years Together". Voynovich further alleged that Solzhenitsyn deliberately concealed this anti-Semitism, because he knew this would have prevented him from receiving the Nobel Prize.
On new Russian "democracy"
In some of his later political writings, such as Rebuilding Russia (1990) and Russia in Collapse (1998), Solzhenitsyn criticized the oligarchic excesses of the new Russian 'democracy,' while opposing any nostalgia for Soviet Communism. He defended moderate and self-critical patriotism (as opposed to radical nationalism), argued for the indispensability of local self-government to a free Russia, and expressed concerns for the fate of the 25 million ethnic Russians in the "near abroad" of the former Soviet Union. He sought to protect the national character of the Russian Orthodox church and fought against the admission of Catholic priests and Protestant pastors to Russia from other countries. For a brief period, he had his own TV show, where he freely expressed his views. The show was cancelled because of low ratings, but Solzhenitsyn continued to maintain a relatively high profile in the media.
Delivering the commencement address at Harvard University in 1978, he called the United States spiritually weak and mired in vulgar materialism. Americans, he said, speaking in Russian through a translator, suffered from a "decline in courage" and a "lack of manliness." Few were willing to die for their ideals, he said. He condemned both the United States government and American society for its "hasty" capitulation in the Vietnam War. He criticized the country's music as intolerable and attacked its unfettered press, accusing it of violations of privacy. He said that the West erred in measuring other civilizations by its own model. While faulting Soviet society for denying fair legal treatment of people, he also faulted the West for being too legalistic: "A society which is based on the letter of the law and never reaches any higher is taking very scarce advantage of the high level of human possibilities."
Shortly after Solzhenitsyn's death, Richard Pipes, a history professor at Harvard, wrote of him: "Solzhenitsyn blamed the evils of Soviet communism on the West. He rightly stressed the European origins of Marxism, but he never asked himself why Marxism in other European countries led not to the gulag but to the welfare state. He reacted with white fury to any suggestion that the roots of Leninism and Stalinism could be found in Russia's past. His knowledge of Russian history was very superficial and laced with a romantic sentimentalism. While accusing the West of imperialism, he seemed quite unaware of the extraordinary expansion of his own country into regions inhabited by non-Russians. He also denied that Imperial Russia practiced censorship or condemned political prisoners to hard labor, which, of course, was absurd.".
In his 1978 Harvard address, Solzhenitsyn argued over Russian culture, that the West erred in "denying its autonomous character and therefore never understood it "
Communism, Russia and nationalism
Solzhenitsyn emphasized the significantly more oppressive character of the Soviet totalitarian regime, in comparison to the Russian Empire of the House of Romanov. He asserted that Imperial Russia did not practice any real censorship in the style of the Soviet Glavlit, that political prisoners typically were not always forced into labor camps, and that the number of political prisoners and exiles was only one ten-thousandth of those in the Soviet Union. He noted that the Tsar's secret police, or Okhrana, was only present in the three largest cities, and not at all in the Imperial Russian Army.
In a speech commemorating the Vendée Uprising, Solzhenitsyn compared Lenin's Bolsheviks with Jacobins of the French Revolution. However, he commented that, while the French Reign of Terror ended with the execution of Maximilien Robespierre, its Soviet equivalent raged unabated from 1917 until the Khrushchev thaw in the 1950s.
According to Solzhenitsyn, Russians were not the ruling nation in the Soviet Union. He believed that all ethnic cultures have been oppressed in favor of an atheistic Marxism. Russian culture was even more repressed than any other culture in the Soviet Union, since the regime was more afraid of ethnic uprisings among Russian Christians than among any other ethnicity. Therefore, Solzhenitsyn argued, Russian nationalism and the Orthodox Church should not be regarded as a threat by the West but rather as allies.
Solzhenitsyn said that for every country, great power status deforms and harms the national character and that he has never wished great power status for Russia. He rejected the view that the USA and Russia are natural rivals, saying that before the [Russian] revolution, they were natural allies and that during the American Civil War, Russia supported Lincoln and the North [in contrast to Britain and France, which supported the Confederacy], and then they were allies in the First World War. But beginning with Communism, Russia ceased to exist and the confrontation was not at all with Russia but with the Communist Soviet Union.
World War II
Solzhenitsyn criticized the Allies for not opening a new front against Nazi Germany in the west earlier in World War II. This resulted in Soviet domination and oppression of the nations of Eastern Europe. Solzhenitsyn claimed the Western democracies apparently cared little about how many died in the East, as long as they could end the war quickly and painlessly for themselves in the West. While stationed in East Prussia as an artillery officer, Solzhenitsyn witnessed war crimes against the civilian German population by Soviet "liberators" as the elderly were robbed of their meager possessions and women were gang-raped to death. He wrote a poem entitled "Prussian Nights" about these incidents. In it, the first-person narrator seems to approve of the troops' crimes as revenge for German atrocities, expressing his desire to take part in the plunder himself. The poem describes the rape of a Polish woman whom the Red Army soldiers mistakenly thought to be a German.
In his The Gulag Archipelago Solzhenitsyn rejected the view that it was Stalin who created the Soviet totalitarian state. He argued that it was Lenin who started the mass executions, created a planned economy, founded the Cheka which would later be turned into the KGB, and started the system of labor camps later known as Gulag.
Solzhenitsyn was the most prominent of the Nobel Laureate Mikhail Sholokhov's many detractors. He alleged that the work which made Sholokhov's international reputation, And Quiet Flows the Don was written by Fyodor Kryukov, a Cossack and Anti-Bolshevik, who died in 1920, possibly in retaliation for Sholokhov scathing opinion re One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich. Solzhenitsyn claimed that Sholokhov found the manuscript and published it under his own name. These rumors first appeared in the late 1920s, but an investigation upheld Sholokhov's authorship of And Quiet Flows the Don and the allegations were denounced as malicious slander in Pravda.
A 1984 monograph by Geir Kjetsaa and others demonstrated through statistical analyses that Sholokhov was indeed the likely author of Don. And in 1987, several thousand pages of notes and drafts of the work were discovered and authenticated.
During the second world war, Sholokhov's archive was destroyed in a bomb raid, and only the fourth volume survived. Sholokhov had his friend Vassily Kudashov, who was killed in the war, look after it. Following Kudashov's death, his widow took possession of the manuscript, but she never disclosed the fact of owning it. The manuscript was finally found by the Institute of World Literature of Russia's Academy of Sciences in 1999 with assistance from the Russian Government. An analysis of the novel has unambiguously proved Sholokhov's authorship. The writing paper dates back to the 1920s: 605 pages are in Sholokhov's own hand, and 285 are transcribed by his wife Maria and sisters.
The Sino-Soviet Conflict
In 1973, near the height of the Sino-Soviet conflict, Solzhenitsyn sent a Letter to the Soviet Leaders to a limited number of upper echelon Soviet officials. This work, which was published for the general public in the Western world a year after it was sent to its intended audience, beseeched the Soviet Union's authorities to
Give them their ideology! Let the Chinese leaders glory in it for a while. And for that matter, let them shoulder the whole sackful of unfulfillable international obligations, let them grunt and heave and instruct humanity, and foot all the bills for their absurd economics (a million a day just to Cuba), and let them support terrorists and guerrillas in the Southern Hemisphere too if they like. The main source of the savage feuding between us will then melt away, a great many points of today's contention and conflict all over the world will also melt away, and a military clash will become a much remoter possibility and perhaps won't take place at all [author's emphasis].
In his commencement address at Harvard University in 1978 (A World Split Apart), Solzhenitsyn alleged that many in the U.S. did not understand the Vietnam War. He rhetorically asks if the American Anti-War Movement ever realized the effects their actions had on Vietnam: "But members of the U.S. antiwar movement wound up being involved in the betrayal of Far Eastern nations, in a genocide and in the suffering today imposed on 30 million people there. Do those convinced pacifists hear the moans coming from there?"
Solzhenitsyn has stated that the ongoing Ukrainian effort to have the 1930s famine, the Holodomor, recognized as an act of genocide against the Ukrainian people is in fact historical revisionism. According to Solzhenitsyn, the famine was caused by the nature of the Communist regime, under which all peoples suffered. As such it was not an assault by the Russian people against the Ukrainian people, and the wish to represent it as such is only recent and politically motivated.
Solzhenitsyn's views on this matter are in line with those of several historians of the period (such as Dmitri Volkogonov and Aleksandr Bushkov) as well as the official stance of the Russian Government. This view suggests that policies of collectivization and mass seizure of property that lead to the Ukrainian famine of the 1930s were a result of the political (communist) and economic (favoring rapid industrial growth over consumption) policies of the Soviet Union, and not racial hatred against the Ukrainians.
Published works and speeches
- The Solzhenitsyn Reader: New and Essential Writings, 1947–2005, edited by Edward E. Ericson, Jr. and Daniel J. Mahoney, ISI Books (2009)
- A Storm in the Mountains
- One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich (1962; novella)
- An Incident at Krechetovka Station (1963; novella)
- Matryona's Place (1963; novella)
- For the Good of the Cause (1964; novella)
- The First Circle (1968; novel). Translated into English by Henry Carlisle and Olga Carlisle.
- Cancer Ward (1968; novel)
- The Love-Girl and the Innocent (1969; play), a.k.a. The Prisoner and the Camp Hooker or The Tenderfoot and the Tart.
- Nobel Prize delivered speech (1970)The speech was delivered to the Swedish Academy in writing and not actually given as a lecture.
- August 1914 (1971). The beginning of a history of the birth of the USSR in an historical novel. The novel centers on the disastrous loss in the Battle of Tannenberg in August 1914, and the ineptitude of the military leadership. Other works, similarly titled, follow the story: see The Red Wheel (overall title).
- The Gulag Archipelago (three volumes) (1973–1978), not a memoir, but a history of the entire process of developing and administering a police state in the Soviet Union. Translated into English by Henry Carlisle and Olga Carlisle.
- Prussian Nights (Finished in 1951, first published in 1974; poetry)
- Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn's speech at the Nobel Banquet at the City Hall in Stockholm, 10 December 1974
- Aleksandr Isaevich Solzhenitsyn, A Letter to the Soviet leaders, Collins: Harvill Press (1974), ISBN 0-06-013913-7
- The Oak and the Calf (1975)
- Lenin in Zürich (1976; separate publication of chapters on Lenin, none of them published before this point, from The Red Wheel. They were later incorporated into the 1984 edition of the expanded August 1914.)
- Warning to the West (1976; 5 speeches (translated to English), 3 to the Americans in 1975 and 2 to the British in 1976)
- Harvard Commencement Address (1978) link
- The Mortal Danger: Misconceptions about Soviet Russia and the Threat to America (1980)
- Pluralists (1983; political pamphlet)
- November 1916 (1983; novel in The Red Wheel sequence)
- Victory Celebration (1983)
- Prisoners (1983)
- Godlessness, the First Step to the Gulag. Templeton Prize Address, London, 10 May (1983)
- August 1914 (1984; novel, much-expanded edition)
- Rebuilding Russia (1990)
- March 1917 (1990)
- April 1917
- The Russian Question (1995)
- Solzhenitsyn, Aleksandr (1997). Invisible Allies. Basic Books. ISBN 978-1-887178-42-6. http://books.google.com/books?id=5yYBZ35HPo4C&dq.
- Russia under Avalanche (Россия в обвале,1998; political pamphlet) (Complete text in Russian:)
- Two Hundred Years Together (2003) on Russian-Jewish relations since 1772, aroused ambiguous public response.
TV documentaries on Solzhenitsyn
In 1998, Russian filmmaker Alexander Sokurov shot TV documentary Besedy s Solzhenitsynym (The Dialogues with Solzhenitsyn) of four parts. The documentary shot in Solzhenitsyn’s home shows his everyday life and covers his reflections on Russian history and literature.
- The Dialogues with Solzhenitsyn, part 1, 45 min (in Russian) on YouTube
- The Dialogues with Solzhenitsyn, part 2, 44 min (in Russian) on YouTube
- The Dialogues with Solzhenitsyn, part 3, 48 min (in Russian) on YouTube
- The Dialogues with Solzhenitsyn, part 4, 50 min (in Russian) on YouTube
On 12 December 2009, the Russian channel Rossiya K showed the French television documentary L'Histoire Secrète de l'Archipel du Goulag made by Jean Crépu and Nicolas Miletitch and translated into Russian under the title Taynaya Istoriya “Arkhipelaga GULAG” (Secret History: The Gulag Archipelago). The documentary covers events related to creation and publication of The Gulag Archipelago.
- Secret History: The Gulag Archipelago (online in Russian)
- Secret History: The Gulag Archipelago (online in English)
- ^ See inogolo:pronunciation of Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn.
- ^ В Москве скончался Александр Солженицын, Gazeta.ru (Russian)
- ^ a b "Solzhenitsyn | Definition of Solzhenitsyn at Dictionary.com". Dictionary.reference.com. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/solzhenitsyn. Retrieved 14 February 2010.
- ^ "Александр Солженицын: человек и архипелаг | СЕГОДНЯ | Мир Кризис Світ". Segodnya.ua. 2 December 2009. http://www.segodnya.ua/news/12049583.html. Retrieved 14 February 2010.
- ^ O'Neil, Patrick M. Great world writers: twentieth century, p.1400. Marshall Cavendish, 2004, ISBN 0-7614-7478-1. Scammell, Michael, Solzhenitsyn, a biography, p. 25-59. W. W. Norton ISBN 0-393-01802-4
- ^ Scammell p 129
- ^ Terras, Victor. Handbook of Russian Literature, p. 436. Yale University Press, 1985, ISBN 0-300-04868-8.
- ^ Scammell 1984, p. 366
- ^ Cook, Bernard A. Europe Since 1945: An Encyclopedia, p.1161. Taylor & Francis, 2001, ISBN 0-8153-4058-3
- ^ Aikman, David. Great Souls: Six Who Changed a Century, pp. 172–3. Lexington Books, 2003, ISBN 0-7391-0438-1
- ^ Scammell, p. 119
- ^ Solzhenitsyn, Proterevshi glaza: sbornik (Moscow: Nash dom: L'Age d'Homme, 1999)
- ^ Klimoff, Alexis; Edward E., Jr Ericson (2008). The Soul and Barbed Wire: An Introduction to Solzhenitsyn. Lanham, MD: Intercollegiate Studies Institute. p. 10. ISBN 1-933859-57-1.
- ^ Moody 1973, p. 6
- ^ Scammell 1986, pp. 152–4. Björkegren 1973, Introduction.
- ^ Moody, p. 7
- ^ Solzhenitsyn, Aleksandr I. (13 October 2009). "retrieved Jan 06, 2010". Harpercollins.com. http://www.harpercollins.com/books/9780061479014/In_the_First_Circle/index.aspx. Retrieved 14 February 2010.
- ^ (Romanian) Organizatia anti-sovietica “Sabia Dreptatii”
- ^ GA, part IV, Daniel J. Mahoney, "Hero of a Dark Century", National Review, 1 September 2008, pp. 47–50
- ^ "Beliefs" in Ericson-Klimoff, The Soul and Barbed Wire: An Introduction to Solzhenitsyn, ISI Books, 2008, pp. 177–205)
- ^ Solzhenitsyn, Proterevshi glaza: sbornik, Moscow: Nash dom—L'age d'Homme, 1999
- ^ Edward E. Ericson, Jr.- Daniel J. Mahoney eds., The Solzhenitsyn Reader:New and Essential Writings, 1947–2005, ISI Books (2006)
- ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature". Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/literature/laureates/1970/index.html. Retrieved 14 February 2010.
- ^ Peter Benno, "The Political Aspect", in Max Hayward and Edward L. Crowley, eds., Soviet Literature in the Sixties (London, 1965), p. 191
- ^ Rosenfeld, Alla; Norton T. Dodge (2001). Art of the Baltics: The Struggle for Freedom of Artistic Expression Under the Soviets, 1945–1991. Rutgers University Press. pp. 55, pp.134. ISBN 978-0-8135-3042-0. http://books.google.com/books?id=r73fmcC5itkC&pg.
- ^ Solzhenitsyn, Aleksandr (1997). Invisible Allies. Basic Books. pp. 46–64 The Estonians. ISBN 978-1-887178-42-6. http://books.google.com/books?id=5yYBZ35HPo4C&dq.
- ^ GA, Ekaterinburg: U-Faktoriia
- ^ Anne Applebaum's 2007 "Foreword" to Harper Perennial Modern Classics editions of GA
- ^ Michael Robert Patterson. "William Eldridge Odom, Lieutenant General, United States Army". Arlingtoncemetery.net. http://www.arlingtoncemetery.net/weodom.htm. Retrieved 14 February 2010.
- ^ "Rise of The Vulcans" p. 64-66
- ^ The Solzhenitsyn Reader, p. 599
- ^ "Russia in Collapse" in The Solzhenitsyn Reader, pp. 480–1
- ^ "The Cavendish Farewell" in The Soltzhenitsyn Reader, pp. 606–7
- ^ Kauffman, Bill (19 December 2005) Free Vermont, The American Conservative
- ^ "The End of Art – Speech" (PDF). http://www.edgewaysbooks.com/columns/022Solzhenitsyn.pdf. Retrieved 14 February 2010.
- ^ "Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn Is Dead at 89". Associated Press in New York Times. 3 August 2008. http://www.nytimes.com/aponline/arts/AP-Obit-Solzhenistyn.html?hp. Retrieved 3 August 2008. "Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, the Nobel Prize-winning author whose books chronicled the horrors of the Soviet gulag system, has died of heart failure, his son said Monday. He was 89. Stepan Solzhenitsyn told The Associated Press his father died late Sunday of heart failure, but declined further comment." [dead link]
- ^ "Alexander Solzhenitsyn dies at 89". BBC News. 3 August 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/7540038.stm. Retrieved 3 August 2008.
- ^ "Russia to pay tribute to Solzhenitsyn". RIA Novosti. 4 August 2008. http://en.rian.ru/culture/20080804/115673613.html. Retrieved 5 August 2008.
- ^ "Solzhenitsyn is buried in Moscow". BBC. 6 August 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/7544265.stm. Retrieved 6 August 2008.
- ^ "Russia to pay tribute to Solzhenitsyn". RIA Novosti. http://en.rian.ru/culture/20080804/115673613.html. Retrieved 6 August 2008.
- ^ a b c d Christopher Andrew and Vasili Mitrokhin (2000). The Mitrokhin Archive: The KGB in Europe and the West. Gardners Books. ISBN 0-14-028487-7, pages 416–419.
- ^ KGB gave Solzhenitsyn a code name "PAUK", which means "a spider" in translation
- ^ a b c d Solzhenitsyn, Alexander (22 October 2003). "Потёмщики света не ищут" (in Russian). Komsomolskaya Pravda. Retrieved 17 December 2009
- ^ Frank Arnau "Solzhenitzyn — Vetrov" in "Neue Politik" (№2, 1978. Hamburg)
- ^ "Ме Янрбнпх Йслхпю" (in (Russian)). Aha.ru. http://www.aha.ru/~vladkov/samutin-1.html. Retrieved 14 February 2010.
- ^ Edward E. Ericson, Jr., "Solzhenitsyn – Voice from the Gulag," Eternity, October 1985, pp. 23–4
- ^ Solzhenitsyn breaks last taboo of the revolution by Nick Paton Walsh, The Guardian, January 25, 2003
- ^ Gimpelevich, Zinaida (2 June 2009). "Dimensional Spaces in Alexander Solzhenitsyn's Two Hundred Years Together | Canadian Slavonic Papers | Find Articles at BNET". Findarticles.com. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3763/is_200609/ai_n18622003?tag=rel.res1. Retrieved 14 February 2010.
- ^ "VOstrovsky1.htm". Berkovich-zametki.com. http://berkovich-zametki.com/2006/Zametki/Nomer6/VOstrovsky1.htm. Retrieved 14 February 2010.
- ^ "22". Sunround.com. http://www.sunround.com/club/22/133_chanan.htm. Retrieved 14 February 2010.
- ^ Cathy Young from the May 2004 issue. "Traditional Prejudices: The anti-Semitism of Alexander Solzhenitsyn. – Reason Magazine". Reason.com. http://www.reason.com/news/show/29113.html. Retrieved 14 February 2010.
- ^ The Solzhenitsyn Reader, p. 489
- ^ The Solzhenitsyn Reader, pp. 527–55
- ^ The Solzhenitsyn Reader, p. 505
- ^ Thomas, D.M. Alexander Solzhenitsyn St. Martin's Press, New York, New York, United States of America, 1998 ISBN 0-312-18036-5, p. 490
- ^ Thomas, p. 491
- ^ Cathy Young: Traditional Prejudices. The anti-Semitism of Alexander Solzhenitsyn Reason Magazine May 2004.
- ^ Cathy Young: Reply to Daniel J. Mahoney in Reason Magazine, August–September 2004.
- ^ "Семён Резник: Лебедь Белая И Шесть Пудов Еврейского Жира[Win]". Vestnik.com. http://www.vestnik.com/issues/2003/0611/win/reznik.htm. Retrieved 14 February 2010.
- ^ «НАША СТРАНА», №2850. Buenos-Aires, 8/23/2008
- ^ Юрий Васильев. "Спор с Солженицыным продолжается – Радио Свобода 2009 RFE/RL, Inc.". Svobodanews.ru. http://www.svobodanews.ru/content/article/1791697.html?utm_source=gazeta.ru&utm_medium=links&utm_campaign=GazetaRu. Retrieved 14 February 2010.
- ^ a b c A World Split Apart Harvard Class Day Exercises, 8 June 1978. Also here  and here 
- ^ Richard Pipes: Solzhenitsyn's Troubled Prophetic Mission The Moscow Times 7 August 2008. Also in The St. Petersburg Times 8 August 2008.
- ^ "A brief history of censorship in Russia in 19th and 20th century" Beacon for Freedom
- ^ Andrew Gentes: Katorga: Penal Labor and Tsarist Siberia in The Siberian Saga: A History of Russias Wild East, ed. Eva-Maria Stolberg, Frankfurt am Main 2005, Peter Lang.
- ^ For Solzhenitsyn's connections with Russian nationalism, see e.g. Rowley, David G. (1997). "Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn and Russian Nationalism". Journal of Contemporary History 32 (3): 321–337. JSTOR 260964.
- ^ Norman Davies, God's Playground. A History of Poland (Columbia University Press (1982), Vol II
- ^ Izgarshev, Igor (25 May 2005). "Михаил Шолохов: жизнь не по лжи" (in Russian). Argumenty i Fakty. Retrieved 17 December 2009.
- ^ "Студенты ЮФУ против Солженицына! – Новость дня – 161.ru". 161.ru. http://161.ru/news/62709.html. Retrieved 14 February 2010.
- ^ http://winner.ru/dart/+(25 August 2004). "Михаил Александрович Шолохов / Mihail Aleksandrovich Sholohov: Михаил Шолохов: жизнь не по лжи". Peoples.ru. http://www.peoples.ru/art/literature/story/sholohov/history1.html. Retrieved 14 February 2010.
- ^ "Ф. Кузнецов. Рукопись "Тихого дона" и проблема авторства (F. Kuznetsov. Rough drafts of ''And Quiet Flows the Don'' and the problem of authorship) (Russian)". Feb-web.ru. http://www.feb-web.ru/feb/sholokh/critics/nos/nos-096-.htm. Retrieved 14 February 2010.
- ^ a b "Труд: Рукописи Вправду Не Горят!". Trud.ru. http://www.trud.ru/issue/article.php?id=200005250940801. Retrieved 14 February 2010.
- ^ Solzhenitsyn, Aleksandr. Letter to the Soviet Leaders. Harper & Row, NY. p. 18
- ^ "Mark Steel: A reactionary called Solzhenitsyn – Mark Steel, Commentators – The Independent". The Independent (UK). 6 August 2008. http://www.independent.co.uk/opinion/commentators/mark-steel/mark-steel-a-reactionary-called-solzhenitsyn-886115.html. Retrieved 14 February 2010.
- ^ Solzhenitsyn compares NATO to Hitler[dead link] Associated Press 3 June 1999.
- ^ Nobel winner accuses Ukrainian authorities of 'historical revisionism' Russia Today Retrieved on 10 April 2008
- ^ "Title Unknown". Archived from the original on 25 October 2009. http://www.webcitation.org/5kmWS9S0F.
- ^ "Solzhenitsyn breaks last taboo of the revolution". The Guardian (London). 25 January 2003. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2003/jan/25/russia.books.
- ^ [dead link]
- ^ Interview with Solzhenitsyn about "200 Years Together" Lydia Chukovskaya, OrthodoxyToday.com, 1–7 January 2003
- ^ Савельев, Дмитрий (2006). "Узловая элегия". In Аркус Л. Сокуров: Части речи: Сборник: Книга 2. Санкт-Петербург: Сеанс. ISBN 5901586107. http://russiancinema.ru/template.php?dept_id=15&e_dept_id=2&e_movie_id=6834.
- ^ a b "«Тайная история "Архипелага ГУЛАГ"». Премьера фильма". The press service the channel Rossiya K. 12 December 2009. http://www.tvkultura.ru/news.html?id=399188. Retrieved 23 August 2011.
- ^ Marina, Nicolaev (10 October 2009). "Ultimul interviu Aleksandr Soljeniţîn: «L\'histoire secrète de L\'ARCHIPEL DU GULAG»". Poezie. http://www.poezie.ro/index.php/article/13908962/index.html. Retrieved 23 August 2011.
- Björkegren, Hans, and Kaarina Eneberg Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn: A Biography, Henley-on-Thames: Aiden Ellis, 1973. ISBN 0-85628-005-4.
- Daprà Veronika: "A.I. Solzhenitsyn: The Political Writings". Università degli Studi di Venezia, 1991; Prof. Vittorio Strada, Dott. Julija Dobrovol'skaja
- Ericson, Edward E. Jr. and Klimoff, Alexis, The Soul and Barbed Wire: An Introduction to Solzhenitsyn, ISI books, 2008.
- Mahoney, Daniel J., Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn: The Ascent From Ideology, Rowman & Littlefield, 2001
- Moody, Christopher. Solzhenitsyn. Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd, 1973. ISBN 0-05-002600-3
- Nivat, Georges, Le phénomène Soljénitsyne, Fayard, 2009
- Pontuso, James F., Assault on Ideology: Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn's Political Thought 2nd ed. Lanham, Md. Lexington Books, 2004. ISBN 978-0-7391-0594-8
- Scammell, Michael Solzhenitsyn: A Biography. London: Paladin, 1986. ISBN 0-586-08538-6
- Thomas, D.M.: Alexander Solzhenitsyn: A Century in his Life. New York 1998, St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-18036-5
- Victor A. Pogadaev. Solzhenitsyn: Tanpa Karyanya Sejarah Abad 20 Tak Terbayangkan – "Pentas", Jil. 3, Bil. 4 October–December 2008. Kuala Lumpur, hlm. pp. 60–63
- David Burg and George Feifer (1972). Solzhenitsyn: A Biography. New York: Stein & Day.
- Leopold Labedz, ed (1973). Solzhenitsyn: A Documentary Record. Bloomington: Indiana University.
- Natal'ia Alekseevna Reshetovskaia (1975). V spore so vremenem. Moscow: Agentsvo pechati Novosti.
- Sanya: My Husband Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn. translated by Elena Ivanoff. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill. 1975.
- A.V. Korotkov, S.A. Melchin, and A.S. Stepanov (1994). Kremlevskii samosud: Sekretnye dokumenty Politburo o pisatele A. Solzhenitsyne. Moscow: Rodina.
- A.V. Korotkov, S.A. Melchin, and A.S. Stepanov (1995). Michael Scammell. ed. The Solzhenitsyn Files. translated by Catherine A. Fitzpatrick and others. Chicago: Edition q.
- Vladimir Glottser and Elena Chukovskaia (1998). Slovo probivaet sebe dorogu: Sbornik statei i dokumentov ob A. I. Solzhenitsyne, 1962–1974. Moscow: Russkii put'.
- Joseph Pearce (2001). Solzhenitsyn: A Soul in Exile. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker Books.
- Nikolai Ledovskikh (2003). Vozvrashchenie v Matrenin dom, ili Odin den' Aleksandra Isaevicha. Riazan': Poverennyi.
- Reference works
- Sergei Alekseevich Askol'dov, Petr Berngardovich Struve, and others (1918). Iz glubiny: Sbornik statei o russkoi revoliutsii. Moscow: Russkaia mysl'.
- Sergei Alekseevich Askol'dov, Petr Berngardovich Struve, and others (1986). William F. Woehrlin. ed. Out of the Depths=De Profundis. translated by William F. Woehrlin. Irvine, Cal.: C. Schlacks, Jr..
- Francis Barker (1977). Solzhenitsyn: Politics and Form. New York: Holmes & Meier.
- Nikolai A. Berdiaev, S. N. Bulgakov, M. O. Gershenzon, and others (1909). Vekhi: Sbornik statei o russkoi intelligentsii. Moscow: Kushnerev.
- Nikolai A. Berdiaev, S. N. Bulgakov, M. O. Gershenzon, and others (1977). Boris Shragin and Albert Todd. ed. Landmarks: A Collection of Essays on the Russian Intelligentsia. translated by Marian Schwartz. New York: Karz Howard.
- Ronald Berman, ed (1980). Solzhenitsyn at Harvard: The Address, Twelve Early Responses, and Six Later Reflections. Washington, D.C.: Ethics & Public Policy Center.
- Harold Bloom, ed (2001). Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, Modern Critical Views. Philadelphia: Chelsea House.
- Edward J. Brown, "Solzhenitsyn and the Epic of the Camps," in his Russian Literature Since the Revolution (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University, 1982), pp. 251–291
- John B. Dunlop, Richard Haugh, and Alexis Klimoff, ed (1975). Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn: Critical Essays and Documentary Materials. New York & London: Collier Macmillan.
- Dunlop, Haugh, and Michael Nicholson, ed (1985). Solzhenitsyn in Exile: Critical Essays and Documentary Materials. Stanford: Hoover Institution.
- Edward E. Ericson, Jr. (1993). Solzhenitsyn and the Modern World. Washington, D.C.: Regnery Gateway.
- Edward E. Ericson, Jr. (1980). Solzhenitsyn: The Moral Vision. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans.
- Kathryn Feuer, ed (1976). Solzhenitsyn: A Collection of Critical Essays. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.
- M. M. Golubkov (1999). Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn. Moscow: MGU.
- Alexis Klimoff (1997). One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich: A Critical Companion. Evanston, Ill.: Northwestern University Press.
- Andrei Kodjak (1978). Alexander Solzhenitsyn. Boston: Twayne.
- Lev Kopelev (1983). Ease My Sorrows: A Memoir. translated by Antonina W. Bouis. New York: Random House.
- Michael Lydon, "Alexander Solzhenitsyn," in his Real Writing: Word Models of the Modern World (New York: Patrick Press, 2001), pp. 183–251
- Mahoney, "Solzhenitsyn on Russia's 'Jewish Question,'" Society (November–December 2002): 104–109
- Rufus W. Mathewson, Jr., "Solzhenitsyn," in his The Positive Hero in Russian Literature (Stanford, Cal.: Stanford University Press, 1975), pp. 279–340
- Mary McCarthy, "The Tolstoy Connection," Saturday Review, 16 September 1972, pp. 79–96
- Modern Fiction Studies, special Solzhenitsyn issue, 23 (Spring 1977)
- Georges Nivat (1980). Soljénitsyne. Paris: Seuil.
- Nivat and Michel Aucouturier, ed (1971). Soljénitsyne. Paris: L'Herne.
- Dimitri Panin (1976). The Notebooks of Sologdin. translated by John Moore. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
- James F. Pontuso (1990). Solzhenitsyn's Political Thought. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press.
- Robert Porter (1997). Solzhenitsyn's One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich. London: Bristol Classical.
- David Remnick, "The Exile Returns," New Yorker (14 February 1994): 64–83
- Abraham Rothberg (1971). Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn: The Major Novels. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University.
- Mariia Shneerson (1984). Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn: Ocherki tvorchestva. Frankfurt & Moscow: Posev.
- Dora Shturman (1988). Gorodu i miru: O publitsistike A. I. Solzhenitsyna. Paris & New York: Tret'ia volna.
- Leona Toker, "The Gulag Archipelago" and "The Gulag Fiction of Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn," in her Return from the Archipelago: Narrative of Gulag Survivors (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2000), pp. 101–121, 188–209
- Dariusz Tolczyk, "A Sliver in the Throat of Power," in his See No Evil: Literary Cover-Ups and Discoveries of the Soviet Camp Experience (New Haven, Conn. & London: Yale University Press, 1999), pp. 253–310
- Transactions of the Association of Russian-American Scholars in the U.S.A., 29 (1998)
- A. V. Urmanov (2003). Tvorchestvo Aleksandra Solzhenitsyna: Uchebnoe posobie. Moscow: Flinta/Nauka.
- Urmanov, ed., "Odin den' Ivana Denisovicha" A. I. Solzhenitsyna: Khudozhestvennyi mir. Poetika. Kul'turnyi kontekst (Blagoveshchensk: BGPU, 2003)
- Zvezda, special Solzhenitsyn issue (June 1994)
- Tretyakov, Vitaly (2 May 2006). "Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn: "Saving the Nation Is the Utmost Priority for the State"". The Moscow News. Archived from the original on 27 May 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20060527214210/http://english.mn.ru/english/issue.php?2006-15-35.
- (Russian) Official website
- The Nobel Prize in Literature 1970
- The Nobel Prize Internet Archive's page on Solzhenitsyn
- Negative Analysis of Alexander Solzhenitsyn by the Stalin Society
- A World Split Apart: Solzhenitsyn's 1978 Commencement Address to the graduating class at Harvard University
- Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn: "Saving the Nation Is the Utmost Priority for the State" Moscow News 2 May 2006
- Der Spiegel interviews Alexander Solzhenitsyn: 'I Am Not Afraid of Death' Der Spiegel 23 July 2007
- Vermont Recluse Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn
- Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn – Obituary and public tribute
- The Solzhenitsyn Reader: New and Essential Writings, 1947–2005
- Alexander Solzhenitsyn's Profile
- Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn at the Internet Book List
- The Leaders and the Dreamers – Russia Profile
Works by Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn Novels Short fiction Plays
The Love-Girl and the Innocent (1969) · Candle in the Wind (1960)
One Word of Truth (1970) · A lenten letter to Pimen, Patriarch of All Russia (1972) · The Gulag Archipelago (1973-78) · Letter to Soviet Leaders (1974) · The Oak and the Calf (1975) · Warning to the West (1975-76) · Lenin in Zürich (1976) · A World Split Apart (1978) · Mortal Danger (1986) · Rebuilding Russia (1990) · Invisible Allies (1992) · The Russian Question at the End of the Twentieth Century (1995) · Russia under Avalanche (1998) · Two Hundred Years Together (2003)
Prose Poems (1958–1960) · Prussian Nights (1974)
Nobel Laureates in Literature (1951–1975)
- Pär Lagerkvist (1951)
- François Mauriac (1952)
- Winston Churchill (1953)
- Ernest Hemingway (1954)
- Halldór Laxness (1955)
- Juan Ramón Jiménez (1956)
- Albert Camus (1957)
- Boris Pasternak (1958)
- Salvatore Quasimodo (1959)
- Saint-John Perse (1960)
- Ivo Andrić (1961)
- John Steinbeck (1962)
- Giorgos Seferis (1963)
- Jean-Paul Sartre (declined award) (1964)
- Mikhail Sholokhov (1965)
- Shmuel Yosef Agnon / Nelly Sachs (1966)
- Miguel Ángel Asturias (1967)
- Yasunari Kawabata (1968)
- Samuel Beckett (1969)
- Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn (1970)
- Pablo Neruda (1971)
- Heinrich Böll (1972)
- Patrick White (1973)
- Eyvind Johnson / Harry Martinson (1974)
- Eugenio Montale (1975)
- Complete list
Joseph Stalin History and politics
- Early life
- Russian Revolution, Russian Civil War, Polish-Soviet War
- Rule as Soviet leader
- World War II
- Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact
- Winter War
- Occupation of the Baltic states
- Invasion of Poland
- German–Soviet Axis talks
- Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact
- Tehran Conference
- Yalta Conference
- Potsdam Conference
- Cold War
- Sino–Soviet Treaty of Friendship
- Eastern Bloc
- Tito–Stalin split
- Great Purge
- Population transfer (Nazi–Soviet)
- Forced settlement
- Soviet war crimes
- Rootless cosmopolitan
- Doctors' plot
- Moscow Trials
- Allegations of antisemitism
- NKVD prisoner massacres
- Murder of Sergey Kirov
- Katyń massacre
- 1937 Soviet Census
- Deportations (Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina
- Operation North
- Georgian Affair
- Mingrelian Affair
- Leningrad Affair
- Relationship with Shostakovich
- Censorship of images
- Operation Lentil in the Caucasus
- Operation Priboi
- Vinnytsia massacre
- Nazino affair
- 1941 Red Army purge
- 1907 Tiflis bank robbery
- Soviet offensive plans controversy
Works De-Stalinization Criticism Remembrances Family Soviet dissidents
- Andrei Amalrik
- Mykola Bakay
- Anna Barkova
- Vasile Bătrânac
- Yuri Bezmenov
- Larisa Bogoraz
- Yelena Bonner
- Leonid Borodin
- Alexei Borovoi
- Vladimir Bougrine
- Joseph Brodsky
- Vladimir Bukovsky
- Valery Chalidze
- Lev Chernyi
- Viacheslav Chornovil
- Lydia Chukovskaya
- Yuli Daniel
- Vadim Delaunay
- David Devdariani
- Mihai Dolgan
- Ivan Drach
- Alexander Esenin-Volpin
- Eliyahu Essas
- Benjamin Fain
- Viktor Fainberg
- Moysey Fishbein
- Ilya Gabay
- Yuri Galanskov
- Alexander Galich
- Zviad Gamsakhurdia
- Alexander Ginzburg
- Yevgenia Ginzburg
- Semyon Gluzman
- Natalya Gorbanevskaya
- Pyotr Grigorenko
- Vasily Grossman
- Paruyr Hayrikyan
- Oleksa Hirnyk
- Mykola Horbal
- Grigory Isayev
- Boris Kagarlitsky
- Romas Kalanta
- Sofiya Kalistratova
- Ihor Kalynets
- Vitaliy Kalynychenko
- Dina Kaminskaya
- Ivan Kandyba
- Ephraim Kholmyansky
- Yuliy Kim
- Lev Kopelev
- Boris Korczak
- Anatoly Koryagin
- Merab Kostava
- Lina Kostenko
- Sergei Kovalev
- Zoya Krakhmalnikova
- Jüri Kukk
- Eduard Kuznetsov
- Anatoly Kuznetsov
- Yaroslav Lesiv
- Eduard Limonov
- Pavel Litvinov
- Levko Lukyanenko
- Kronid Lyubarsky
- Michail J. Makarenko
- Guram Mamulia
- Nadezhda Mandelstam
- Osip Mandelstam
- Anatoly Marchenko
- Valeriy Marchenko
- Myroslav Marynovych
- Roy Medvedev
- Zhores Medvedev
- Naum Meiman
- Yosef Mendelevitch
- Ion Moraru
- Viktor Muravin
- Mustafa Abdülcemil Qırımoğlu
- Lev Navrozov
- Viktor Nekipelov
- Alexander Nekrich
- Valeria Novodvorskaya
- Vasile Odobescu
- Yuri Orlov
- Boris Pasternak
- Yekaterina Peshkova
- Leonid Plyushch
- Alexandr Podrabinek
- Grigory Pomerants
- Irina Ratushinskaya
- Maria Rozanova
- Mykola Rudenko
- Ain Saar
- Andrei Sakharov
- Dmitri Savitski
- Shmuel Schneurson
- Efraim Sevela
- Igor Shafarevich
- Varlam Shalamov
- Vladimir Shelkov
- Danylo Shumuk
- Andrei Sinyavsky
- Victor Sokolov
- Sergei Soldatov
- Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn
- Vladimir Strelnikov
- Vasyl Stus
- Sultan Galiev
- Nadiya Svitlychna
- Vasyl Symonenko
- Les Tanyuk
- Alexander Tarasov
- Valery Tarsis
- Enn Tarto
- Georgi Vins
- Georgi Vladimov
- Vladimir Voinovich
- Michael Voslenski
- Gleb Yakunin
- Yevgeny Zamyatin
- Aleksandr Zinovyev
- Yosyf Zisels
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