Coalition


Coalition

A coalition is a pact or treaty among individuals or groups, during which they cooperate in joint action, each in their own self-interest, joining forces together for a common cause. This alliance may be temporary or a matter of convenience. A coalition thus differs from a more formal covenant. Possibly described as a joining of 'factions', usually those with overlapping interests rather than opposing

Contents

Politics and government

A coalition government, in a parliamentary system, is a government composed of a coalition of parties. In Australia, the Coalition is also used to refer to an alliance (coalition agreement) of three parties (the Liberals, Nationals and Country Liberals) existing in federal politics since 1922—this constitutes a parliamentary coalition. A coalition of parties is also an electoral fusion. The Cambridge Dictionary defines coalition as: the union of different political parties or groups for a particular purpose, usually for a limited time.

In international relations, a coalition can be an ad hoc grouping of nations united for a specific purpose. Sometimes, such groups are diverse and are characterized by some degree of commonalities. Sometimes, the degree of uncommonalities would lead some to perceive the group's bond as being ordinarily unlikely; here it can indicate the fact the historical ties may no longer be in operation, and the coalition members, instead, are joined by a new intention, not necessarily prior bonds.

A coalition might also refer to a group of citizens uniting behind a common goal. Many of these are grassroots organizations, like the Christian Coalition.

It can also be a collaborative, means-oriented arrangement, especially a temporary one, that allows distinct people or organizational entities to pool resources and combine efforts in order to effect change. The combination of such persons or entities into one body, as a union, variously organized and structured, but generally less formal than a covenant. Although persons and groups form coalitions for many and varied reasons, the most common purpose is to combat a common threat or to take advantage of a certain opportunity; hence, the often-temporary nature of coalitions. The common threat or existence of opportunity is what gives rise to the coalition and allows it to exist. Such collaborative processes can gain political influence and potentially initiate social movements. According to Sidney Tarrow, four elements are necessary to maintain a coalition:

  1. Members must frame the issue that brings them together with a common interest.
  2. Members’ trust in each other and believe that their peers have a credible commitment to the common issue(s) and/or goal(s).
  3. The coalition must have a mechanism(s) to manage differences in language, orientation, tactics, culture, ideology, etc. between and among the collective’s members (especially in transnational coalitions).
  4. The shared incentive to participate and, consequently, benefit.

Coalitions manifest in a variety of forms, types and terms of duration:

  • Campaign coalitions with high intensity and long-term cooperation
  • Federations, characterized by relatively lower degree of involvement, intensity and participation, involving cooperation of long duration, but with members’ primary commitment remaining with their own entities
  • Instrumental coalitions, involving low-intensity involvement without a foundation to mediate conflict
  • Event-based coalitions that have a high level of involvement and the potential for future collaboration.

A coalition government is currently in place in the UK, with the Conservative Party under David Cameron (current prime minister) joining forces with the Liberal Democrats under Nick Clegg. The conservatives managed to gain 306 seats in the 2010 General Election, thus not giving them an overall majority. The Liberal Democrats gained 57 seats. These two parties formed a coalition allowing the coalition to have a majority. The deal for coalition included places in the cabinet for senior Liberal Democrat officials and a referendum on the alternative vote electoral system.

Economics

A coalition in economics refers to a group of companies that create a mutual trust between each other in order for increased profit. For example, Dunkin Donuts and Baskin-Robbins create a coalition by having shared stores and thus shared revenue.

Political science

Within political science, coalition theory is using game theory to analyze formation, workings and break-up of coalitions. Coalitions also describe alliances between civil society organizations, such as labor unions, community organizations and religious institutions. Sometimes called labor-community coalitions, coalitions have proven to be an important strategy for social change in many contexts. Yet their power is variable, dependent on the context in which they are organizing and the strategies used by the organizers, as documented in the book Power in Coalition.[1]

Military

A coalition is a collection of countries involved in a military operation who are unified under a single command. An example is the Coalition assembled by George H.W. Bush during the Persian Gulf War, as well as the "Coalition of the Willing", a phrase employed during the 2003 campaign for the war in Iraq led by the United States and its allies [1]. A contemporary example is the United Nations coalition presently intervening in the 2011 Libyan uprising against Col Gaddafi.

Mathematics

Coalitions can be studied as games. The Nash equilibrium defines conditions where rational players can benefit other players in the coalition.

Computer science

In the computer field, and in the study of cognition, the entities can be called agents or daemons. By definition, agents can form coalitions.

Fiction

  • The Coalition, a group in the Star Fleet Universe, the General War era.
  • The Trader Emergency Coalition, a playable race in Sins of a Solar Empire.
  • In the game Freelancer, there had been a war with two groups; the Alliance, and the Coalition.
  • In The Gears of War game series the protagonists go under the name of COGs which stands for "Coalition of Ordered Governments"
  • The role-playing game Rifts features a Coalition of their own compromised of human supremacists.

See also

References

External links


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Synonyms:

Look at other dictionaries:

  • coalition — [ kɔalisjɔ̃ ] n. f. • 1544 relig.; lat. coalitus, de coalescere « s unir »; repris à l angl., 1718 1 ♦ Réunion momentanée de puissances, de partis ou de personnes dans la poursuite d un intérêt commun d opposition ou de défense. ⇒ alliance,… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • coalition — co‧a‧li‧tion [ˌkəʊəˈlɪʆn◂ ǁ ˌkoʊə ] noun 1. [countable] a group of people who join together to achieve a particular purpose: • A coalition of junior doctors, managers, and consultants must assess the working practices of all staff. 2.… …   Financial and business terms

  • Coalition — Co a*li tion, n. [LL. coalitio: cf. F. coalition. See {Coalesce}.] 1. The act of coalescing; union into a body or mass, as of separate bodies or parts; as, a coalition of atoms. Bentley. [1913 Webster] 2. A combination, for temporary purposes, of …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • coalition — 1610s, the growing together of parts, from Fr. coalition (1540s), from L.L. coalitus fellowship, originally pp. of L. coalescere (see COALESCE (Cf. coalesce)). First used in a political sense 1715 …   Etymology dictionary

  • Coalition — (v. lat.), 1) Aneinanderhängen ursprünglich freier Pflanzentheile; 2) Verbindung mehrerer Mächte zu einer kriegerischen Unternebmung gegen einen gemeinsamen Feind (vgl. Bündniß); bes. die Vereinigungen der europäischen Mächte gegen Frankreich.… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • coalition — I noun affiliation, alliance, amalgamation, association, binding, bond, cartel, combination, combine, coming together, community, concurrence, confluence, conglomerate, congress, conjoining, conjunctio, conjunction, conjuncture, connection,… …   Law dictionary

  • coalition — COALITION. s. f. Il se dit en Physique pour signifier l Union intime de plusieurs substances. Il se dit au moral De la réunion de différens partis, de la ligue de plusieurs Puissances …   Dictionnaire de l'Académie Française 1798

  • coalition — fusion, confederacy, confederation, federation, *alliance, league …   New Dictionary of Synonyms

  • coalition — [n] allied group, association affiliation, alliance, amalgam, amalgamation, anschluss, bloc, coadunation, combination, combine, compact, confederacy, confederation, conjunction, consolidation, conspiracy, faction, federation, fusion, integration …   New thesaurus

  • coalition — ► NOUN ▪ a temporary alliance, especially of political parties forming a government. DERIVATIVES coalitionist noun. ORIGIN Latin, from coalescere coalesce …   English terms dictionary

  • coalition — [kō΄ə lish′ən] n. [ML coalitio < LL coalitus, fellowship, orig. pp. of coalescere: see COALESCE] 1. a combination; union 2. a temporary alliance of factions, nations, etc., for some specific purpose, as of political parties in times of… …   English World dictionary


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.