Gouda


Gouda

Infobox Settlement
official_name = Gouda



flag_size = 120x100px
image_shield = Wapen-gouda.gif
shield_size = 120x100px


mapsize = 280px
subdivision_type = Country
subdivision_name = Netherlands (Nederland)
subdivision_type1 = Province
subdivision_name1 = South Holland (Zuid Holland)
area_footnotes = (2006)
area_total_km2 = 18.10
area_land_km2 = 16.92
area_water_km2 = 1.19
population_as_of = 1 January, 2007
population_note = Source: CBS, [http://statline.cbs.nl/ Statline] .
settlement_type = Municipality
population_total = 71873
population_density_km2 = 4189
timezone = CET
utc_offset = +1
timezone_DST = CEST
utc_offset_DST = +2
latd = 52.02
latNS = N
longd = 4.70
longEW = E
website = [http://www.gouda.nl www.gouda.nl]

Gouda Audio-IPA|lang=Dutch|Nl-Gouda.ogg| [ɣʌuda] (population 71,797 in 2004) is a city and municipality in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland. Gouda, which was granted city rights in 1272, is famous for its Gouda cheese, smoking pipes and its 15th century city hall.

The town takes its name from the Van der Goude family, who built a fortified castle alongside the banks of the Gouwe River, from which the family took its name. The area, originally marshland, developed over the course of two centuries. By 1225, a canal was linked to the Gouwe and its estuary was transformed into a harbour. Gouda's fabulous array of historic churches and other buildings makes it a very popular day trip destination.

History

Around the year 1000, the area where Gouda now is located was swampy and covered with a peat forest, crossed by small creeks such as the Gouwe. Along the shores of this stream near the current market and city hall, peat harvesting began in the 11th and 12th centuries. In 1139, the name "Gouda" is first mentioned in a statement from the Bishop of Utrecht.

In the 13th century, the Gouwe was connected to the Oude Rijn (Old Rhine) by means of a canal and its mouth at the Hollandse IJssel was developed into a harbour. Castle Gouda was built to protect this harbour. This shipping route was used for trade between Flanders and France with Holland and the Baltic Sea. In 1272, Floris V, Count of Holland, granted city rights to Gouda, which by then had become an important location.

Great fires in 1361 and 1438 destroyed the city. In 1572, the city was occupied by Les Gueux (Dutch rebels against the Spanish King) who also committed arson and destruction. In 1577 demolition of Castle Gouda began.

In 1574, 1625, 1636, and 1673, Gouda suffered from deadly Plague epidemics, of which the last one was the most severe: 2995 persons died, constituting 20% of its population [Abels, pp. 302-303] .

In the last quarter of the 16th century, Gouda had serious economic problems. It recovered in the first half of the 17th century and even prospered between 1665 and 1672. But its economy collapsed again when war broke out in 1672 and the plague decimated the city in 1673, even affecting the pipe industry. After 1700, Gouda enjoyed a period of progress and prosperity until 1730. Then another recession followed, resulting in a long period of decline that lasted well into the 19th century [Abels, pp. 364-365] . Gouda was one of the poorest cities in the country during that period, even the terms "Goudaner" and "beggar" were considered synonymous [Schouten, Jan (1977) "Gouda door de eeuwen" ("Gouda through the ages") Repro-Holland, Alphen aan de Rijn, NL, pg. 156 [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/63324059 OCLC 63324059] in Dutch] .

Starting in 1830, demolition of the city walls began. The last city gate was torn down in 1854. Only from the second half of the 19th century onward, Gouda started to profit from an improved economic condition. New companies, such as "Stearine Kaarsenfabriek" (Stearine Candle Factory) and "Machinale Garenspinnerij" (Mechanized Yarn Spinnery), acted as the impetus to its ecomomy. In 1855, the railway Gouda-Utrecht began to operate. In the beginning of the 20th century, large scale development began, extending the city beyond the its moats. First the new neighbourhoods Korte Akkeren, Kort Haarlem and Kadebuurt were built, followed by Oosterwei, Bloemendaal, and Goverwelle after World War II.

From 1940 on, backfilling of the city moats and canals began: the Nieuwe Haven, Raam, Naaierstraat, and Achter de Vismarkt. But because of protests from city dwellers and revised policies of city planners, Gouda did not continue backfilling moats and canals, now considered historically valuable. In 1944, the train station was damaged during an Allied bombardment, killing 8 and wounding 10 persons. This bombardment was intended to destroy the railroad connecting The Hague and Rotterdam to Utrecht. Since 1977, the weekly pig market, the largest in the Netherlands, is no longer held in the city.

Economy

Gouda is world famous for its Gouda cheese, which still is traded on its cheese market held each Thursday. It is further well-known for the fabrication of candles, smoking pipes, and syrup waffles. Gouda used to have a considerable linen industry and a number of beer breweries.

Gouda cheese is not really made in the city itself but in the surrounding region. Yet it gets its name from being traded in Gouda where the city council provided a serious quality control.

Attractions

* Old City Hall at the market - built between 1448 and 1450, one of the oldest Gothic city halls in the Netherlands.
* The "Waag" (weigh house) - built in 1667 across from the Old City Hall, this building was used for weighing goods to levy taxes. It now is a national monument.
* Grote of St. Jans Kerk (Great or Saint John Church) - largest cross-shaped church in the Netherlands, famed for its stained glass which were made between 1530 and 1603, considered the most significant stained glass collection in the Netherlands [ [http://www.press.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/hfs.cgi/00/16544.ctl Harten-Boers, Henny van: The stained-glass windows in the Sint Janskerk at Gouda I ] ] . Even in the 17th century, it already was a tourist attraction.
* Waaiersluis (Waaier Locks) - a historic lock on the Hollandse IJssel just east of Gouda.
* Museumhaven Gouda (Harbour Museum Gouda)
* Other museums: Museum Gouda (history museum), Museum De Verborgen Tijd (modern art), Museum De Moriaan (national pharmaceutical museum), and Verzets Museum (about the Dutch resistance during World War II).

"Twin Towns"

* Gloucester, England, since 1972
* Kongsberg, Norway, since 1956
* Solingen, Germany, since 1957

Natives of Gouda

* Gheraert Leeu (1445 - 1493), one of the first incunabulum pressers in North Holland.
* Desiderius Erasmus (1466 - 1536), philosopher, humanist (though Erasmus "de Roterodamus" is usually thought to be born in Rotterdam)
* Adriaan Vlacq (1600-1667), mathematician and publisher.
* Gerard Kamphuisen, who is said to have invented the syrup waffle in 1810
* Pieter Johannes van Rhijn (1886—1960), astronomer.
* Leo Vroman (born 1915), poet.
* Ad Melkert (born 1956), politician
*Ed de Goey (born 1966), former goalkeeper from the Dutch national soccer team
*Marco de Goeij (born 1967), reconstructs the lost composition Concerto for Group and Orchestra of Jon Lord
*Andrea Nuyt (born 1974), ice skater
*Paulien van Deutekom (born 1981), ice skater
*Golan Yosef (born 1984), actor and dancer
*John de Wit (born 1956), famous builder

Notes

References

* Abels, P.H.A.M. (2002) "Duizend jaar Gouda: een stadsgeschiedenis" {"Thousand year Gouda: A history of the city") Verloren, Hilversum, ISBN 90-6550-717-5, in Dutch
* Denslagen, W.F. and Akkerman, Chris (2001) "Gouda" Rijksdienst voor de Monumentenzorg, Zeist, NL, ISBN 90-400-9515-9, in Dutch
* Schouten, Jan and de Wit, Bob (1960) "Gouda" (translated from the Dutch by Flora van Os-Gammon) W. van Hoeve, The Hague [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/1492541 OCLC 1492541] , in English

External links

* [http://www.gouda.nl/ Official website for the city of Gouda] (in Dutch)
* [http://www.plattegronden.nl/gouda/ Map of the city]

* [http://members.lycos.nl/stadgouda/ A collection of beautiful old pictures and drawings of Gouda. (A journey through the past)]
* [http://www.sintjan.com/ Virtual Tour of St. Johns church (Sint Janskerk) Gouda]
* [http://www.rfcgouda.nl Local Rugbyclub RFC Gouda]


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • gouda — gouda …   Dictionnaire des rimes

  • gouda — [ guda ] n. m. • 1926; de Gouda, n. d une ville de Hollande ♦ Fromage de Hollande de forme sphérique, à pâte pressée non cuite, lisse et sans trou. Des goudas. Du gouda au cumin. ● gouda nom masculin (de Gouda, nom propre) Fromage hollandais de… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Gouda — ist: eine Stadt in den westlichen Niederlanden, siehe Gouda (Niederlande) eine Käsesorte, siehe Gouda (Käse) ein ehemaliger Staat in Indien, siehe Gouda (Indien) ein Ort in Südafrika, siehe Gouda (Südafrika) Gouda ist der Name folgender Personen …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • gouda — {{/stl 13}}{{stl 7}}[wym gołda] {{/stl 7}}{{stl 8}}rz. ż Ia, CMc. goudzie, blm a. ndm {{/stl 8}}{{stl 7}} twardy żółty ser o łagodnym smaku : {{/stl 7}}{{stl 10}}Ukroić plasterek goudy. Kanapka z serem gouda. <od nazwy miasta w Holandii>… …   Langenscheidt Polski wyjaśnień

  • Gouda — (spr. Gauda), Stadt im Bezirk Rotterdam der niederländischen Provinz Südholland, an der Gouwe (daher der holländische Name Ter Gouwe [spr. Tergau], d.h. an der Gouwe); großer Markt für Stolkschmor (Gouwer )käse; Pfeifenfabriken (sonst 400, jetzt… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Gouda — (auch Ter Gouw), Stadt in der niederländ. Provinz Südholland, nordöstlich von Rotterdam, an der Holländischen Yssel und der Gouwe, Knotenpunkt an der Staatsbahnlinie Utrecht Rotterdam, altertümlich gebaut, mit breiten Kanalstraßen, hat 5 Kirchen… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Gouda — (spr. chau ), holländ. Ter Gouwe, Stadt in der niederländ. Prov. Südholland, an der Holländ. Yssel, (1903) 23.552 E., St. Janskirche mit prächtigen Glasmalereien …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Gouda — Gouda, südholländ. Stadt am Gouwe, mit 16000 E., schönen Glasmalereien in der Johanniskirche, einigen 100 Thonpfeifenfabriken, Ziegelbrennereien …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

  • Gouda — type of cheese, 1885, named for a town in Holland …   Etymology dictionary

  • gouda — (izg. hòuda/ob. gàuda) ž DEFINICIJA punomasni sir porijeklom iz Nizozemske ETIMOLOGIJA prema gradu Goudi …   Hrvatski jezični portal

  • gouda — gòuda dkt. Grį̇̃ždamas namõ, nupir̃k gòudos …   Bendrinės lietuvių kalbos žodyno antraštynas


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