A sweatshop is a working environment with very difficult or dangerous conditions, usually where the workers have few rights or ways to address their situation. This can include exposure to harmful materials, hazardous situations, extreme temperatures, or abuse from employers. Sweatshop workers are often forced to work long hours for little or no pay, regardless of any laws mandating overtime pay or a minimum wage. Child labor laws may also be violated. Sweatshops may be compared to the factories of the early industrial revolution in countries such as the UK and US, where regulations were few and far between.
Though often associated with LEDC's (Less Economically Developed Countries, many people working in primary employment, low levels of technology), sweatshops can exist in any country. Sweatshops have existed in several cultures, including Early American culture beginning in the 1850s. Sweatshops can produce many different goods, from clothing to furniture.
Meanwhile, defenders of sweatshops, such as
Paul Krugman[ [http://web.mit.edu/krugman/www/smokey.html In Praise of Cheap Labor] by Paul Krugman] and Johan Norberg[ [http://www.johannorberg.net/?page=articles&articleid=53 The Noble Feat of Nike] by Johan Norberg] , claim that people choose to work in sweatshops because the sweatshops offer them substantially higher wages and better working conditions compared to their previous jobs of manual farm labor, and that sweatshops are an early step in the process of technological and economic development whereby a poor country improves its economic stature. In addition, sometimes when anti-sweatshop activists were successful in getting sweatshops to close, some of the employees who had been working in the sweatshops ended up starving to death, while others ended up turning to prostitution. [ [http://www.capmag.com/article.asp?ID=2750 "Sweatshops," Boycotts, and the Road to Poverty] Radley Balko, May 11, 2003]
Positions on Sweatshops
As of 1997, Harvard economist
Jeffrey Sachssaid, "My concern is not that there are too many sweatshops, but that there are too few."cite news| last =Meyerson| first =Allen| title =In Principle, A Case for More 'Sweatshops'| work = The New York Times| date = 1997-06-22| url =http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9B05E6D8103EF931A15755C0A961958260| accessdate =2008-04-04] Sachs and other proponents of sweatshops cite the economic theory of comparative advantage, which states that international tradewill, in the long run, make some parties better off. The theory holds that developing countries improve their condition by doing something that they do "better" than industrialized nations (in this case, they charge less but do the same work). Developed countries will also be better off because their workers can shift to jobs that they do better. These are jobs that some economists say usually entail a level of education and training that is exceptionally difficult to obtain in the developing world. Thus, economists like Sachs say, developing countries get factories and jobs that they would not otherwise . The catch with this occurs when developing countries try to increase wages because sweatshops tend to just get moved on to a new state that is welcoming. This leads to a situation where states often will not try and get increased wages for sweatshop workers for fear of losing investment and boosted GDP.
When asked about the working condition in sweatshops, proponents say that although wages and working conditions may appear inferior by the standards of developed nations, they are actually improvements over what the people in developing countries had before. It is said that if jobs in such factories did not improve their workers'
standard of living, those workers would not have taken the jobs when they appeared. It is also often pointed out that, unlike in the industrialized world, the sweatshops are not replacing high-paying jobs. Rather, sweatshops offer an improvement over subsistence farmingand other back-breaking tasks, or even prostitution, trash picking, or starvationby unemployment. [cite news | last =Kristof| first =Nicholas| authorlink =Nicholas Kristof| title =Inviting All Democrats| work = The New York Times| date = 2004-01-14| url =http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=940DE0DD1330F937A25752C0A9629C8B63| accessdate =2008-04-04] This is the case since most under-developed countries have weak labor markets and little (if any) economic growth.
The absence of the work opportunities provided by sweatshops can quickly lead to malnourishment or starvation. After the
Child Labor Deterrence Actwas introduced in the US, an estimated 50,000 children were dismissed from their garment industry jobs in Asia, leaving many to resort to jobs such as "stone-crushing, street hustling, and prostitution." UNICEF's 1997 "State of the World's Children" study found these alternative jobs "more hazardous and exploitative than garment production." cite conference| first =Carol| last =Bellamy| authorlink =Carol Bellamy| title =An Agreement in Bangladesh| booktitle =The State of the World's Children 1997| pages =66| publisher = United Nations Children's Fund| year =1997| url =http://www.unicef.org/sowc97/download/sow2of2.pdf| accessdate =2007-05-31| id = ISBN 0-19-262871-2] Critics point out that sweatshop workers don't earn enough money to buy the products that they make, even though such items are often commonplace goods such as t-shirts, shoes, and toys. However, defenders of such practices respond that critics of sweatshops are comparing wages paid in one country to prices set in another. In 2003, Honduran garment factory workers were paid US$0.24 for each $50 Sean Johnsweatshirt, $0.15 for each long-sleeved t-shirt, and only five cents for each short-sleeved shirt – less than one-half of one percent of the retail price.cite web| title =Sean John Setisa Report| publisher = National Labor Committee| year =2003| month=October| url =http://www.nlcnet.org/article.php?id=103| accessdate =2007-05-31] Although the wages paid to workers in Honduras would hardly be enough to live in the United States, it could very well be enough to live in Honduras, where prices are much lower. The $0.15 that a Honduran worker earned for the long-sleeved t-shirt was equal in purchasing powerto $3.00 in the United States.
Johan Norberg, a proponent of market economics, points out an irony:cite web| last =Gillespie| first =Nick| authorlink =Nick Gillespie| title =Poor Man's Hero| work = Reason magazine| publisher = Reason Foundation| year =2003| month=December| url =http://www.reason.com/0312/fe.ng.poor.shtml| accessdate =2007-05-31] Penn & Tellerin their Wal-Martepisode interview Benjamin Powell, a Professor of Economics from San Jose State University, who argues out that sweatshop-type jobs in a developing countryare often a significant improvement over other employment options (e.g. subsistence farming) and points out that the United Stateswent through its own period of sweatshop labor during its development. [ [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hjsshqyAFh8 YouTube] ]
In an article about a Nike sweatshop in Vietnam, Johan Norberg wrote, "But when I talk to a young Vietnamese woman, Tsi-Chi, at the factory, it is not the wages she is most happy about. Sure, she makes five times more than she did, she earns more than her husband, and she can now afford to build an extension to her house. But the most important thing, she says, is that she doesn't have to work outdoors on a farm any more... Farming means 10 to 14 hours a day in the burning sun or the intensive rain... The most persistent demand Nike hears from the workers is for an expansion of the factories so that their relatives can be offered a job as well." [ [http://www.johannorberg.net/?page=articles&articleid=53 johannorberg.net] ]
According to a November 2001
BBCarticle, in the previous two months, 100,000 sweatshop workers in Bangladesh had lost their sweatshop jobs. The sweatshop workers wanted their jobs back, and the Bangladeshi government was planning to lobby the U.S. government to repeal its trade barriers so the sweatshop workers could have their jobs back. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/1650952.stm BBC] ]
A 2005 article in the
Christian Science Monitorstates, "For example, in Honduras, the site of the infamous Kathy Lee Giffordsweatshop scandal, the average apparel worker earns $13.10 per day, yet 44 percent of the country's population lives on less than $2 per day... In Cambodia, Haiti, Nicaragua, and Honduras, the average wage paid by a firm accused of being a sweatshop is more than double the average income in that country's economy." [ [http://www.csmonitor.com/2005/0802/p09s02-coop.html csmonitor.com] ]
On three documented occasions, anti-sweatshop activists have unintentionally caused increases in childhood prostitution. In the early 1990s, there was a closure of several sweatshops in Vietnam, and as a result, several thousand Vietnamese children who had been working in those sweatshops ended up working as prostitutes, turning to crime, or starving to death. In the mid-1990s, a Nepalese carpet manufacturing company closed several sweatshops, resulting in thousands of Nepalese girls turning to prostitution. An anti-sweatshop protest in the 1990s also resulted in the closure of several Pakistani sweatshops, which caused those Pakistani children to turn to prostitution. [ [http://www.capmag.com/article.asp?ID=2750 "Sweatshops," Boycotts, and the Road to Poverty] Radley Balko, May 11, 2003]
Defenders of sweatshops argue that every country starts out poor, and that the emergence of sweatshops in a country is a sign that the country has started to climb up the ladder of economic growth. These defenders of sweatshops cite Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan as recent examples of countries that benefited from having sweatshops. [ [http://www.hoover.org/pubaffairs/dailyreport/archive/2864991.html hoover.org] ] [ [http://www.ncpa.org/pd/pdint152.html ncpa.org] ] [ [http://tqe.quaker.org/2003/TQE087-EN-ProductCycle.html tqe.quaker.org] ]
Some of the earliest sweatshop critics were found in the 19th century
abolitionistmovement that had originally coalesced in opposition to chattel slavery, and many abolitionists saw similarities between slavery and sweatshop work. As slavery was successively outlawed in industrial countries between 1794 (in France) and 1865 (in the United States), some abolitionists sought to broaden the anti-slavery consensus to include other forms of harsh labor, including sweatshops. As it happened, the first significant law to address sweatshops (the Factory Act of 1833) was passed in the United Kingdomat about the same time that the slave trade (1807) and ownership of slaves (1833) were made illegal, and the anti-sweatshop movement drew from much the same reservoir of supporters and social thinkers. Similarly, once the United States had ended slavery during the American Civil War, the Reconstruction period saw social reformers turn their attention to the plight of the urban workforce.
Ultimately, the abolitionist movement split apart. Some advocates focused on working conditions and found common cause with trade unions and
Marxistsand socialistpolitical groups, or progressive movementand the muckrakers. Others focused on the continued slave trade and involuntary servitudein the colonial world. For those groups that remained focused on slavery "per se," sweatshops became one of the primary objects of controversy. Workplaces across multiple sectors of the economy were categorized as "sweatshops." However, there were fundamental philosophical disagreements about what constituted slavery. Unable to agree on the status of sweatshops, the abolitionists working with the League of Nationsand the United Nationsultimately backed away from efforts to define slavery, and focused instead on a common precursor of slavery — human trafficking. [cite book|last=Miers|first=Suzanne|year=2003|title=Slavery in the Twentieth Century: The Evolution of a Global Problem|publisher=Alta Mira Press, Walnut Creek, CA]
Those focused on working conditions included
Friedrich Engels, whose book " The Condition of the Working Class in England in 1844" would inspire the Marxist movement named for his collaborator, Karl Marx. In the United Kingdomthe Factory Act was revised six further times between 1844 and 1878 to help improve the condition of workers by limiting work hours and the use of child labor. The formation of the International Labour Organizationin 1919 under the League of Nationsand then the United Nationssought to address the plight of workers the world over. Concern over working conditions as described by muckraker journalists during the Progressive Erain the United Statessaw the passage of new workers rights laws and ultimately resulted in the Fair Labor Standards Actof 1938, passed during the New Deal. [ [http://www.finduslaw.com/fair_labor_standards_act_flsa_29_u_s_code_chapter_8 Fair Labor Standards Act - FLSA - 29 U.S. Code Chapter 8 | finduslaw ] ]
More recently, the
anti-globalization movementhas arisen in opposition to corporate globalization, a process by which multinational corporations move their operations overseasin order to lower their costs and increase profits. The anti-sweatshop movement has much in common with the anti-globalization movement. Both consider sweatshops harmful, and both have accused many companies (such as the Walt Disney Company, The Gap, and Nike) of using sweatshops. The movement charges that neoliberal globalizationis similar to the sweating system. Furthermore, they argue that there tends to be a " race to the bottom," as multinationals leap from one low-wage country to another searching for lower production costs, in the same way that "sweaters" would have steered production to the lowest cost sub-contractor.
Anti-globalization activists and
environmentalistsalso deplore transfer of heavy industrial manufacturing (such as chemical production) to the developing world. Although chemical factories have little in common with "sweatshops" in the original sense, detractors describe them as such and claim that there are negative environmental and healthimpacts (such as pollution and birth defects, respectively) on workers and the local community.
Various groups support or embody the anti-sweatshop movement today. The
National Labor Committeebrought sweatshops into the mainstream media in the 1990s when it exposed the use of sweatshop and child labor to sew Kathie Lee Gifford's Wal-Mart label. United Students Against Sweatshopsis active on college campuses. The International Labor Rights Fundfiled a lawsuit [" [http://laborrights.org/projects/corporate/walmart/WalMartComplaint091305.pdf Jane Doe et all v. Wal-Mart Stores] ", International Labor Rights Fund. "Retrieved 2006-12-30."] on behalf of workers in China, Nicaragua, Swaziland, Indonesia, and Bangladesh against Wal-Mart charging the company with knowingly developing purchasing policies particularly relating to price and delivery time that are impossible to meet while following the Wal-Mart code of conduct. Labor unions, such as the AFL-CIO, have helped support the anti-sweatshop movement out of concern both for the welfare of people in the developing world and that companies will move jobs from the United Stateselsewhere in order to capitalize on lower costs. For example, the American labor union UNITE HERE, which represents garment workers, has only approximately 3,000 garment workers remaining in its base, because some of the larger garment making operations have already been transferred overseas.
Gender and sweatshops
Arguments that sweatshops provide skills and a boost to the economy are sometimes criticized for not taking into account the gendered nature of sweatshop employees. Because of the relatively higher value placed on male education, young women are often encouraged by their families to leave school and migrate to urban areas or Export Processing Zones (EPZ) to work in the garment industry. As outsiders in a new community, these young women lack the legal or family support they might receive in their own community and therefore, have to spend a larger amount of income on supporting themselves. Consequently, these young women who are no longer receiving an education often find it hard to earn enough money to send back to their family. [" [http://www.feminist.org/other/sweatshops/index.html Feminists against sweatshops] ", Feminists Against Sweatshops. ]
The division of labour in sweatshops is gendered because the vast majority of workers are young women. The problems faced by many workers are also gendered because gender-based notions of what is acceptable inform working conditions. Thus medical or maternity leave, employer / employee relations and the right to organize can all become gender biased. Consequently, the negative aspects of sweatshops have a disproportionate impact on women. Because of this, some argue that efforts to combat the poor working conditions in sweatshops should focus more on empowering women Fact|date=June 2007. Although company-led attempts to improve the working conditions in sweatshops such as the Ethical Trading Initiative (ETI) have had some successes, others criticize the ETI as 'gender-blind' Fact|date=June 2007. The modern anti-sweatshop movement combines notions of a living wage, trade unions, and feminism, which some argue makes these grassroots approaches more sustainable. [" [http://www.cleanclothes.org/ftp/made_by_women.pdf Made by Women] ", Clean Clothes Campaign. Retrieved
Current status of sweatshops
Some companies have acceded to public pressure to reduce or end their use of sweatshops. Such firms often publicize the fact that their products are not made with sweatshop labour; a number of organizations publish lists of companies that pay their workers a living wage. A
1998report by the Catholic Fund for Overseas Development says a third of all clothes on sale in the UK's high street stores have been made in sweatshops in Asia. [ BBC News: UK shops selling 'sweatshop' clothes [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/213529.stm] ]
In the United States, shoemaker
New Balanceis notable for changing its policies after intense pressure from campus anti-sweatshop groups. Clothing retailer GapInc., which includes Gap, Old Navy, Banana Republicand Forth & Towne brands, has significantly changed its policies. Gap Inc. has developed a Code of Vendor Conduct [http://www.gapinc.com/public/documents/code_vendor_conduct.pdf] which applies across all of its brands based on internationally accepted labor standards. Walmartand Nike are two of the largest corporate sponsors of sweatshop labor, but claim that they have safeguards in place to avoid using the worst sweatshops. Disney has also employed sweatshops to produce much of their clothing and toys, but their use has not been as well publicized as the cases of Nike, Walmart, or Kathie Lee Gifford. In the book " Disney; the Mouse Betrayed"; a chapter shows dealings with China, Vietnam, Haiti, but especially targets Disney's relationship with the military junta of Burma, of which it works hard to keep quiet given Burma's huge unpopularity in the international community. "Dozens of American clothes makers, such as Old Navy, Gap, Guess, Donna Karan, Victoria's Secret, have all signed pledges with the U.S. Department of Labor stating their conditions are closely monitored and that no child labor is being used. Disney has not." [ "Disney; the Mouse Betrayed" Peter and Rochelle Schwietzer" ]
World Bankestimates that today, 1/5th of human beings live under the international poverty line.cite journal|url=http://www.igs.berkeley.edu/publications/par/summer2001/poverty.html|title=Global Poverty: The Gap Between the World's Rich and Poor Is Growing, and the Dying Continues|journal=Public Affairs Report|author=The Institute of Governmental Studies|volume=42|issue=2|year=2001|accessdate=2004-04-19|format=Dead link|date=June 2008 – [http://scholar.google.co.uk/scholar?hl=en&lr=&q=intitle%3AGlobal+Poverty%3A+The+Gap+Between+the+World%27s+Rich+and+Poor+Is+Growing%2C+and+the+Dying+Continues&as_publication=Public+Affairs+Report&as_ylo=2001&as_yhi=2001&btnG=Search Scholar search] ] World poverty has become better due in a large part to the economic success of Chinaand India, the two countries with the largest number of workers in sweatshops. Against this progress in the developing world, one should also note that economic inequality between the richest and poorest has never been so large.
"The income gap between the fifth of the world's people living in the richest countries and the fifth in the poorest was 74 to 1 in 1997, up from 60 to 1 in 1990 and 30 to 1 in 1960. Earlier the income gap between the top and bottom countries increased from 3 to 1 in 1820 to 7 to 1 in 1870 to 11 to 1 in 1913."
Some recent political action has been taken against sweatshops. On January 24, 2007,
Byron Dorgan(D, N.D.), Lindsey Graham(R, S.C.) and Sherrod Brown(D, Ohio) introduced the "Decent Working Conditions and Fair Competition Act" with the objective of cracking down on products made in factories overseas where "workers are abused in violation of that country's labor laws." The bill would direct the Federal Trade Commission to conduct an investigation, based on complaints, to determine whether a foreign factory was abusing employees producing apparel and other products in violation of core International Labor Organization standards. If such a ruling were made, the FTC would issue an order prohibiting products from the factory from being imported into the U.S. Each violation of that order would carry a civil penalty of $10,000 in addition to other duties, fines and penalties imposed by the FTC. Customs & Border Protection, a part of the Department of Homeland Security, would be required to enforce the penalties. He added the bill would give American companies the right to sue their competitors in U.S. courts if those competitors were selling merchandise produced in sweatshops. [ [http://www.globalexchange.org/campaigns/sweatshops/4439.html globalexchange.org] ]
Export processing zone
Race to the bottom
SA8000— Social Accountability Certification Scheme for Manufacturing Industry
Trafficking in human beings
Organizations working on the issue
International Labor Rights Fund
United Students Against Sweatshops
National Labor Committee
Students & Scholars Against Corporate Misbehavior
* [http://www.sweatfree.org/ SweatFree Communities– Local Action Against Sweatshops]
* [http://www.studentsagainstsweatshops.org/ United Students Against Sweatshops]
* [http://www.nlcnet.org/ National Labor Committee]
* [http://www.mapbig.com/Adidas-sweatshops_195.html Story about Adidas sweatshops]
* [http://www.responsibleshopper.org Responsible Shopper Company Profiles]
* [http://www.sweatfree.org/shopping "Shop with a Conscience" Consumer Guide]
Papers and publications
* [http://truetube.co.uk/media.php?do=detail&mediaid=735 Discussion about the pros and cons of sweatshops (video)]
* [http://www.finduslaw.com/fair_labor_standards_act_flsa_29_u_s_code_chapter_8 Fair Labor Standards Act]
* [http://papers.nber.org/papers/w9669 National Bureau for Economic Research paper: The Effects of Multinational Production on Wages and Working Conditions in Developing Countries]
* [http://home.sandiego.edu/~mzwolinski/Sweatshops_essay_web.pdf Matt Zwolinski on the definition, history, and morality of sweatshops]
* [http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=901689 Academic Paper: "Sweatshops, Choice, and Exploitation"]
* [http://www.nytimes.com/library/magazine/home/20000924mag-sweatshops.html Two Cheers for Sweatshops] - "
New York Times", by Nicholas Kristofand Sheryl WuDunn
* [http://web.archive.org/web/20060210100127/http://www.prospect.org/print/V10/46/dreier-p.html The Campus Sweatshop Movement] -
* [http://www.extension.umn.edu/extensionnews/2000/ForeignOwnedBusinessesInVietnam.html "Foreign owned businesses in Vietnam aren't sweatshops"]
* [http://www.ilr.cornell.edu/trianglefire/photos/photo_enlargements.html?image_id=62&sec_id=8 Triangle Fire: Photographs] from the
Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire
* [http://www.ihscslnews.org Immaculata High School Child Slave Labor News]
* [http://www.dollarsandsense.org/archives/2005/0905blair.html Article on worker takeover of sweatshop in El Salvador]
* [http://www.dollarsandsense.org/archives/2006/0906miller.html Economist John Miller on sweatshops] in "
Dollars & Sense"
* [http://www.msmagazine.com/spring2006/paradise_full.asp Paradise Lost: sweatshop labor on the U.S. island of Saipan] - "
* [http://www.computerworld.com.au/index.php/id;463036027 Rackets, muggings hit social networking sites: Online currency opens channels for money laundering] - "
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Look at other dictionaries:
Sweatshop — in Chicago 1903 Ein Sweatshop bzw. Ausbeutungsbetrieb ist eine abwertende Bezeichnung für Fabriken bzw. Manufakturen, üblicherweise in einem Entwicklungsland, in denen Menschen zu Niedriglöhnen arbeiten. Multinationale Konzerne lagern ihre… … Deutsch Wikipedia
sweatshop — sweat‧shop [ˈswet ʆɒp ǁ ʆɑːp] noun [countable] disapproving a small business, factory etc where people work very hard in poor conditions for very low pay: • My prices are competitive but I can t compete with the sweatshops. * * * sweatshop UK US… … Financial and business terms
sweatshop — 1892, from SWEAT (Cf. sweat) + SHOP (Cf. shop) (n.) … Etymology dictionary
sweatshop — ► NOUN ▪ a factory or workshop employing workers for long hours in poor conditions … English terms dictionary
sweatshop — ☆ sweatshop [swet′shäp΄ ] n. a shop where employees work long hours at low wages under poor working conditions … English World dictionary
Sweatshop — Atelier de misère Dans un sweatshop à Chicago aux États Unis en 1930. Un atelier de misère … Wikipédia en Français
Sweatshop — This name is given to a factory or workplace that operates under unsafe and/or unlawful working conditions and/or employs minors. The name is derived from the hot rooms in which the employed unskilled laborers performed piecework. The name… … Historical Dictionary of the Fashion Industry
sweatshop — UK [ˈswetˌʃɒp] / US [ˈswetˌʃɑp] noun [countable] Word forms sweatshop : singular sweatshop plural sweatshops informal a factory where people work very hard in bad conditions and earn very little money … English dictionary
sweatshop — /swet shop /, n. a shop employing workers at low wages, for long hours, and under poor conditions. [1865 70; SWEAT + SHOP] * * * ▪ labour workplace in which workers are employed at low wages and under unhealthy or oppressive conditions. In… … Universalium
sweatshop — noun Sweatshop is used before these nouns: ↑labour … Collocations dictionary