Emperor Kōkō

name = Emperor Kōkō
title =58th Emperor of Japan

caption =(from the "Ogura Hyakunin Isshu")
reign =The 4th Day of 2nd Month of Gangyō 8 (884) - The 26th Day of 8th Month of Ninna 3 (887)
coronation =The 23rd Day of 2nd Month of Gangyō 8 (884)
predecessor =Emperor Yōzei
successor =Emperor Uda
suc-type =
heir =
consort =
issue =
royal house =
royal anthem =
father =Emperor Nimmyō
mother =Fujiwara no "Takushi"/Sawako
date of birth =Tenchō 7 (830)
place of birth =Heian Kyō (Kyōto)
date of death =The 26th Day of 8th Month of Ninna 3 (887)
place of death =Heian Kyō (Kyōto)
place of burial=Komatsuyama no "Misasagi" (Kyōto)

nihongo|Emperor Kōkō |光孝天皇 |"Kōkō-tennō" (830-August 26,887) was the 58th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. He reigned from 884 to 887. [Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). "Annales des empereurs du japon," p. 124-125; Brown, Delmer "et al." (1979). "Gukanshō," pp. 289; Varley, H. Paul, ed. (1980). "Jinō Shōtōki," pp. 171-175.]


Before his ascension to the Chrysanthemum Throne, his personal name (his "imina") [Brown, pp. 264. [Up until the time of Emperor Jomei, the personal names of the emperors (their "imina") were very long and people did not generally use them. The number of characters in each name diminished after Jomei's reign.] ] was Tokiyasu "Shinnō" (時康親王). [Titsingh, p. 124; Varley, p. 171.]

Tokiyasu "Shinnō" was the third son of Emperor Nimmyō. His mother was Fuijwara no Sawako. [Brown, p. 289; Varley, p. 171.]

Kōkō had four Imperial consorts and 41 Imperial sons and daughters.Brown, p. 289.]

Events of Kōkō's life

The first "kampaku" Fujiwara no Mototsune was influential in the process by Kōkō became emperor. At the time Emperor Yōzei was deposed, Prince Tokiaytsu was already Governor of Hitachi and Chief Minister of Ceremonies ("Jibu-kyō", 治部卿) [Varley, p. 172; Titsingh, p. 429.]

According to Kitabatake Chikafusa's 14th century account, Mototsune resolved the problem of succession by simply going to visit Tokiyatsu"-shinnō", where the kampaku addressed the prince as a sovereign and assigned imperial guards. The prince signaled his acceptance by going into the imperial palaquin, which then conducted him to the emperor's residence within the palace. Curiously, he was still wearing the robes of a prince when he decided to take this ride into an entirely unanticipated future.Varley, p. 172.]

* "Gangyō 8", on the 4th day of the 1st month (884):In the 8th year of Emperor Yōzei's reign (陽成天皇8年), the emperor was deposed; and scholars then construed that the succession (‘‘senso’’) was received by the third son of former Emperor Ninmyō, who was then age 55. [Brown, p. 289; Varley, p. 44. [A distinct act of "senso" is unrecognized prior to Emperor Tenji; and all sovereigns except Jitō, Yōzei, Go-Toba, and Fushimi have "senso" and "sokui" in the same year until the reign of Go-Murakami.] ]
* "Gangyō 8", on the 23rd day of the 2nd month (884): Emperor Kōkō is said to have acceded to the throne (‘‘sokui’’). [Titsingh, p. 124; Varley, p. 44.]
* "Gangyō 9" (885): The era name was changed accordingly in 885. [see above] ]

During his reign, Kōkō revived many ancient court rituals and ceremonies, and one example is the imperial hawking excursion to Serikawa, which had been initiated in 796 by Emperor Kammu. This ritual event was revived by Kōkō after a lapse of 50 years. [see above] ]

* "Ninna 2", on the 14th day of the 12th month (886): Kōkō traveled to Seri-gawa to hunt with falcons. He very much enjoyed this kind of hunting, and he often took time for this kind of activity. [Titsingh, p. 125.]
* "Ninna 3", on the 26th day of the 8th month (887): Kōkō died at the age of 57. [Brown, p. 289; Varley, p.173.]

Kōkō was also known as "the Emperor of Komatsu." [see above] ]


"Kugyō" (公卿) is a collective term for the very few most powerful men attached to the court of the Emperor of Japan in pre-Meiji eras. [http://www.furugosho.com/moyenage/empereur-g2.htm -- "kugyō" of Kōkō-tennō (in French)]

In general, this elite group included only three to four men at a time. These were hereditary courtiers whose experience and background would have brought them to the pinnacle of a life's career. During Kōkō's reign, this apex of the "Daijō-kan" included:
* "Kampaku", Fujiwara no Mototsune (藤原基経) (Shōsen-kō, 昭宣公), 836-891. [see above] ]
* "Daijō-daijin", Fujiwara no Mototsune. [see above] ]
* "Sadaijin", Minamoto no Tōru (源融).
* "Udaijin", Minamoto no Masaru (源多).
* "Naidaijin" (not appointed)
* "Dainagon", Fujiwara no Yoshiyo (藤原良世)
* "Dainagon", Fujiwara no Fuyuo (藤原冬緒)

Eras of Kōkō's reign

The years of Kōkō's reign are more specifically identified by more than one era name or "nengō". [Titsingh, p. 124.]
* "Gangyō" (877-885)
* "Ninna" (885-889)

Consorts and Children

Hi("Kōtaigō"): Princess "Hanshi" (班子女王) (833-900), daughter of Imperial Prince Nakano(son of Emperor Kammu)
*Imperial Prince Koretada (是忠親王) (857-922)
*Imperial Prince Koresada (是貞親王) (?-903)
*Minamoto no Motonaga (源元長) (?-883), dead before Emperor Kōkō's succession
*Imperial Prince Sadami (定省親王) (867-931) (Emperor Uda)
*Imperial Princess Tadako (忠子内親王) (854-904), married to Emperor Seiwa
*Imperial Princess "Kanshi" (簡子内親王) (?-914), married to Emperor Yōzei
*Imperial Princess Yasuko (綏子内親王) (?-925), married to Emperor Yōzei
*Imperial Princess "Ishi" (為子内親王) (?-899), married to Emperor Daigo

Nyōgo: Fujiwara no Kamiko (藤原佳美子) (?-898), daughter of Fujiwara no Mototsune (藤原基経)

Nyōgo: Taira no Motoko/"Tōshi" (平等子), daughter of Taira no Yoshikaze (平好風)

Nyōgo: Fujiwara no Motoyoshi (藤原元善), daughter of Fujiwara no Yamakage (藤原山蔭)

Koui: Shigeno no Naoiko (滋野直子)
*Imperial Princess Shigeko (繁子内親王) (?-916), 23rd Saio in Ise Shrine 884-887

Koui: A daughter of Sanuki no Naganao (讃岐永直の娘)
*Minamoto no Motomi (源旧鑒) (?-908)

Koui: A daughter of Fujiwara no Kadomune (藤原門宗の娘)
*Minamoto no Koreshige (源是茂) (886-941)

Court lady: Princess Keishin (桂心女王), daughter of Prince Masami (正躬王)
*Imperial Princess "Bokushi" (穆子内親王) (?-903), 8th Saiin in Kamo Shrine 882-887

Court lady: Sugawara no "Ruishi" (菅原類子), daughter of Sugawara no Koreyoshi (菅原是善)
*Minamoto no "Junshi" (源順子) (875-925), married to Fujiwara no Tadahira (藤原忠平)

Court lady: A daughter of Tajihi clan (多治氏の娘)
*Minamoto no "Kanshi"/Ayako (源緩子/綾子) (?-908)

Court lady: A daughter of Fuse clan (布勢氏の娘)
*Shigemizu no Kiyozane (滋水清実), gived the family name 'Shigemizu' from Emperor (Shisei Kōka, 賜姓降下) in 886

(from unknown women)
*Minamoto no "Washi" (源和子) (?-947), married to Emperor Daigo
*Minamoto no "Reishi" (源麗子) (?-?)
*Minamoto no "Onshi"/Kusuko (源音子/奇子) (?-919)
*Minamoto no Takaiko (源崇子) (?-?)
*Minamoto no "Renshi"/Tsurako (源連子) (?-905)
*Minamoto no "Reishi" (源礼子) (?-909)
*Minamoto no "Saishi" (源最子) (?-886)
*Minamoto no "Kaishi" (源偕子) (?-?)
*Minamoto no "Mokushi" (源黙子) (?-902)
*Minamoto no "Heishi" (源並子) (?-906)
*Minamoto no "Kenshi" (源謙子) (?-924)
*Minamoto no "Shinshi" (源深子) (?-917)
*Minamoto no "Shūshi" (源周子) (?-912)
*Minamoto no Mitsuko (源密子) (?-?)
*Minamoto no "Kaishi" (源快子) (?-910)
*Minamoto no "Zenshi" (源善子) (?-?)


* Brown, Delmer M. and Ichirō Ishida, eds. (1979). [ Jien, c. 1220] , "Gukanshō (The Future and the Past, a translation and study of the Gukanshō, an interpretative history of Japan written in 1219)." Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-03460-0
* Titsingh, Isaac, ed. (1834). [Siyun-sai Rin-siyo/Hayashi Gahō, 1652] , "Nipon o daï itsi ran; ou, Annales des empereurs du Japon, tr. par M. Isaac Titsingh avec l'aide de plusieurs interprètes attachés au comptoir hollandais de Nangasaki; ouvrage re., complété et cor. sur l'original japonais-chinois, accompagné de notes et précédé d'un Aperçu d'histoire mythologique du Japon, par M. J. Klaproth." Paris: Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. [http://books.google.com/books?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ&dq=nipon+o+dai+itsi+ran ...Click link for digitized, full-text copy of this book (in French)]
* Varley, H. Paul , ed. (1980). [ Kitabatake Chikafusa, 1359] , "Jinnō Shōtōki ("A Chronicle of Gods and Sovereigns: Jinnō Shōtōki of Kitabatake Chikafusa" translated by H. Paul Varley)." New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-04940-4

ee also

* Emperor Go-Komatsu

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