- Emperor Yōzei
name = Emperor Yōzei
title =55th Emperor of Japan
caption =(from the "
Ogura Hyakunin Isshu")
reign =The 29th Day of 11th Month of
Jōgan18 (876) - The 4th Day of 2nd Month of Gangyō8 (884)
coronation =The 3rd Day of 1st Month of
royal house =
royal anthem =
mother =Fujiwara no Takaiko
date of birth =The 16th Day of 12th Month of
place of birth =Somedono In, Heian Kyō (Kyōto)
date of death =The 29th Day of 9th Month of
place of death =Heian Kyō (Kyōto)
place of burial=Kaguragaoka-no-Higashi no "Misasagi" (Kyōto)|
Emperor Yōzei (陽成天皇 "Yōzei-tennō") (869-949) was the 57th emperor of
Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. His reign spanned the eyrs from 876 through 884. [Titsigh, Isaac. (1834). "Annales des empereurs du Japon," pp. 121-124; Brown, Delmer "et al." (1979). "Gukanshō," pp. 288-289; Varley, H. Paul, ed. (1980). "Jinō Shōtōki," pp. 170-171.]
Before his ascension to the
Chrysanthemum Throne, his personal name (his "imina") [Brown, pp. 264. [Up until the time of Emperor Jomei, the personal names of the emperors (their "imina") were very long and people did not generally use them. The number of characters in each name diminished after Jomei's reign.] ] was Sadakira "Shinnō" (貞明親王). [Titsingh, p. 121; Varley, p. 170.]
Yōzei was the oldest son of
Emperor Seiwa. His mother was the Empress Fujiwara no Takakiko, who was also known after Seiwa's abdication as the Nijo empress. [Varley, p. 170.] Yōzei's mother was the sister of Fujiwara no Mototsune, who would figure prominently in the young emperor's life.Titsigh, p. 121.]
In ancient Japan, there were four noble clans, the "Gempeitōkitsu" (源平藤橘). One of these clans, the Minamoto clan (源氏)are also known as Genji, and of these, the "Yōzei Genji" (陽成源氏) are descended from the 57th emperor Yōzei.
Yōzei had nine Imprial sons, born after he had abdicated.Brown, p. 288.]
Events of Yōzei's life
Yōzei was made emperor when he was an immature, unformed young boy.
Jōgan10" (869): Yōzei was born, and he is named Seiwa's heir in the following year.Titsingh, p. 122.]
* "Jōgan 18", on the 29th day of the 11th month (876): In the 18th year of Emperor Seiwa's reign (清和天皇18年), he ceded his throne to his son, which meant that the young child received the succession (‘‘senso’’). Shortly thereafter, Emperor Yōzei formally acceded to the throne (‘‘sokui’’). [Titsingh, p. 122; Brown, p. 288; Varley, p. 44. [A distinct act of "senso" is unrecognized prior to Emperor Tenji; and all sovereigns except Jitō, Yōzei, Go-Toba, and Fushimi have "senso" and "sokui" in the same year until the reign of Go-Murakami.] ]
Gangyō1", on the 3rd day of the 1st month (元慶元年; 877): Yōzei was formally enthroned at age 8; and the beginning of a new " nengō" was proclaimed. However, the new residence being constructed for the emperor had not been completed; and initially, he must live elsewhere in the palace compound. [see above] ]
* "Gangyō 1", in the 2nd month (877): Ambassadors from "
Baekje" arrived in the province of Izumo; but they were turned back. [see above] ]
* "Gangyō 1", in the 6th month (877): There was a great drought; and sacrifices were made at the temples of
Hachiman, Kamoand other temples in Ise province. Eventually, it rained. [see above] ]
* "Gangyō 7", in the 1th month (883): In his early teens, Yōzei often spent time alone; and sometimes he would feed live frogs to snakes so that he could watch the reptile swallowing; or sometimes, he would find pleasure in setting dogs and monkeys to fight. In time, these amusements became more dangerous. He himself executed criminals. When he became angry, he sometimes chased after those who dared speak up; and he sometimes tried to use his sword. Fujiwara no Mototsune, the "
Kanpaku", used every possible opportunity to turn Yōzei towards more seemly conduct, but the emperor closed his ears to all remonstrances. [Titsingh, pp. 123-124.]
* "Gangyō 8", in the 1st month (884): The extravagant and dangerous habits of the emperor continued unabated. At one point, Mototsune came to the court and discovered that Yōzei had arranged a bizarre scenario for his diversion: He ordered some men to climb high into trees, and then he ordered others to use sharp lances to poke at these men in trees until they fell to their deaths. This extraordinary event convinced Motosune that the emperor was too "undignified" to reign. Mototsune reluctantly realized that someone needed to devise a strategy for deposing the emperor. Shortly thereafter, Mototsune approached Yōzei and remarked that it must be boring to be so often alone, and then Mototsune suggested that the emperor might be amused by a horse race. Yōzei was attracted to this proposition, and he eagerly encouraged Mototsune to set a time and place for the event. It was decided that this special amusement for the emperor would take place on the 4th day of the 2nd month of Gangyō 8.Titsingh, p. 124.]
* "Gangyō 8", on the 4th day of the 2nd month (884): The pretext of a special horse race enticed the emperor to leave his palace. Yōzei traveled in a carriage which was quickly surrounded by a heavy guard. The carriage was redirected to "Yo seí in" palace ("Yang tchhing yuan") at "Ni zio", a town situated a short distance to the south-west of Miyako. Mototsune confronted the emperor, explaining that his demented behavior made him incapable of reigning, and that he was being dethroned. At this news, Yōzei cried sincerely, which did attract feelings of compassion from those who witnessed his contrition. [see above] ]
According to very scanty information from the Imperial archives, including sources such as "
Rikkokushi," and " Nihon Sandai Jitsuroku," Emperor Yōzei murdered one of his retainers, an action that caused massive scandal in the Heian court. Japanese society during the Heian era was very sensitive to issues of "pollution," both spiritual and personal. Deaths (especially killing animals or people) were the worst acts of pollution possible, and warranted days of seclusion in order to purify oneself. Since the Emperor was seen as a divine figure and linked to the deities, pollution of such extreme degree committed by the highest source was seen as extremely ruinous. Many of the high court officials construed Emperor Yōzei's actions as exceeding the bounds of acceptable behavior, and as justifiable cause for the emperor to be forcibly deposed.
Kitabatake Chikafusa's 14th century account of Emperor Yōzei's reign, the emperor is described as possessing a "violent disposition" and unfit to be a ruler. In the end, when Fujiwara no Mototsune, who was " Sesshō" (regent for the child-emperor, 876-880), "Kampaku" (chief advisor or first secretary for the emperor, 880-890), and " Daijō Daijin" (Great Minister of the Council of State), decided that Yōzei should be removed from the throne, he discovered that there was general agreement amongst the " kuge" that this was a correct and necessary decision.Varley, p.171.]
Yōzei reigned for eight years until being deposed in 884; and he lived in retirement until the age of 81. [see above] ]
Yōzei was succeeded by his father's uncle, Emperor Kōkō; and in the reign of Kōkō's son,
Emperor Uda, the madness re-visited the tormented former emperor:
* "Kanpyō 1", in the 10th month (寛平元年; 889): The former emperor Yōzei was newly attacked by the mental illness. Yōzei would enter the palace and address courtiers he would meet with the greatest rudeness. He became increasingly furious. He garroted women with the strings of musical instruments and then threw the bodies into a lake. While riding on horseback, he directed his mount to run over people. Sometimes he simply disappeared into the mountains where he chased wild boars and
Sika Deer, [Titsingh, p. 127.] which in Shintocosmology, were considered to be messengers of the "kami."
"Kugyō" (公卿) is a collective term for the very few most powerful men attached to the court of the
Emperor of Japanin pre-Meiji eras. [http://www.furugosho.com/moyenage/empereur-g2.htm -- "kugyō" of Yozei-tennō (in French)]
In general, this elite group included only three to four men at a time. These were hereditary courtiers whose experience and background would have brought them to the pinnacle of a life's career. During Yozei's reign, this apex of the "
Sesshō", Fujiwara no Mototsune(藤原基経), 836-891. [see above] ]
Kampaku", Fujiwara no Mototsune (藤原基経).
Daijō-daijin", Fujiwara no Mototsune. [see above] ]
Sadaijin", Minamoto no Tōru (源融).
Udaijin", Fujiwara no Mototsune. [see above] ]
* "Udaijin", Minamoto no Masaru (源多).
Naidaijin" (not appointed)
Dainagon", Minamoto no Masaru (源多).
Dainagon", Minafuchi no Toshina (南淵年名), 807-877
Eras of Yōzei's reign
The years of Yōzei's reign are more specifically identified by more than one era name or "
nengō". [see above] ]
Consorts and Children
Hi: Imperial Princess "Kanshi" (簡子内親王) (?-914), daughter of
Hi: Imperial Princess Yasuko (綏子内親王) (?-925), daughter of
Hi: Princess Aneko (姉子女王)
*Imperial Prince Motonaga (元長親王) (901-976)
*Imperial Prince Mototoshi (元利親王) (?-964)
*Imperial Princess "Chōshi" (長子内親王) (?-922)
*Imperial Princess "Genshi" (儼子内親王) (?-930)
Court lady: A daughter of Fujiwara no Tōnaga (藤原遠永の娘)
*Imperial Prince Motoyoshi (元良親王) (890-943)
*Imperial Prince Motohira (元平親王) (?-958)
Court lady: A daughter of Ki clan (紀氏の娘)
*Minamoto no Kiyokage (源清蔭) (884-950), "Dainagon" 948-950
Court lady: A daughter of Saeki clan (佐伯氏の娘)
*Minamoto no Kiyotō (源清遠) (?-912)
Court lady: A daughter of Tomo clan (伴氏の娘)
*Minamoto no Kiyomi (源清鑒) (?-936)
* Brown, Delmer M. and Ichirō Ishida, eds. (1979). [
Jien, c. 1220] , " Gukanshō(The Future and the Past, a translation and study of the Gukanshō, an interpretative history of Japan written in 1219)." Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-03460-0
* Titsingh, Isaac, ed. (1834). [Siyun-sai Rin-siyo/
Hayashi Gahō, 1652] , " Nipon o daï itsi ran; ou, Annales des empereurs du Japon, tr. par M. Isaac Titsingh avec l'aide de plusieurs interprètes attachés au comptoir hollandais de Nangasaki; ouvrage re., complété et cor. sur l'original japonais-chinois, accompagné de notes et précédé d'un Aperçu d'histoire mythologique du Japon, par M. J. Klaproth." Paris: Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. [http://books.google.com/books?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ&dq=nipon+o+dai+itsi+ran ...Click link for digitized, full-text copy of this book (in French)]
* Varley, H. Paul , ed. (1980). [
Kitabatake Chikafusa, 1359] , " Jinnō Shōtōki("A Chronicle of Gods and Sovereigns: Jinnō Shōtōki of Kitabatake Chikafusa" translated by H. Paul Varley)." New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-04940-4
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