- Atal Bihari Vajpayee
infobox Prime Minister
order=11th & 13th
Prime Minister of India
name=Atal Bihari Vajpayee
अटल बिहारी वाजपेयी
birth_date =birth date and age|mf=yes|1924|12|25
Gwalior State, India
Bharatiya Janata Party
term_start1 =May 16, 1996
term_end1 =June 1, 1996
term_start2 =March 19, 1998
term_end2 =May 22, 2004
predecessor1 =P.V. Narasimha Rao
successor1 =H.D. Deve Gowda
I. K. Gujral
Atal Bihari Vajpayee ( _hi. अटल बिहारी वाजपेयी, IPA2|əʈəl bɪhaːɾiː ʋaːdʒpeiː) (born December 25, 1924) The eleventh
Prime Minister of India. After two brief stints as Prime Minister in 1996, and 1998-'99, Vajpayee headed a coalition government from October 13, 1999 until May 19, 2004. He has since retired from active politics, though as a Member of Parliament, he has at times commented on various issues.
Early political career
Vajpayee's involvement in politics began as a freedom-fighter. He participated in the
Quit India Movementbeforejoining the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh.
He soon became a close follower and aide to
Syama Prasad Mookerjee, the leader of the Bharatiya Jana Sangh(BJS). Vajpayee was at Mookerjee's side when he went on a fast-unto-death in Kashmirin 1953, to protest what the BJS claimed the inferior treatment of Indian citizens visiting Kashmir. Mookerjee's fast and protest ended the identity card requirement, and hastened the integration of Kashmir into the Indian Union. However, Mookherjee died soon after due to health problems caused by his confinement in jail.
As the leader of BJS, he expanded its political appeal, organization and agenda. Vajpayee was elected to the
parliament in 1957 from the Balrampur. In spite of his youth, he soon became a respected voice in the opposition. His broad appeal brought respect, recognition and acceptance to a rising nationalist cultural movement.
The Janata phase
While the Bharatiya Jana Sangh had strong constituencies of support, it failed to dislodge the
Indian National Congressfrom governance. The newly formed Congress(I)under Indira Gandhicame to power in 1967 and 1971.When Indira Gandhi declared state of emergency in 1975, the RSS and BJS joined a wide-array of parties in opposing the suspension of elections and civil liberties. Vajpayee, along with many of his colleagues, was briefly jailed during that period.
However, when the general election was held in 1977 following the resignation of Indira Gandhi, the BJS joined handswith a vast collage of regional groups, socialist parties and similar groups to form the
Janata Party. Theparty swept the polls and formed a new government with Morarji Desaias Prime Minister. Vajpayee won the election from New Delhi parliamentary constituency and was sworn in as the Minister for External Affairs.
In a tenure lasting two years, Vajpayee achieved several milestones. He went on a historic visit to
Chinain 1979, normalizing relations with China for the first time since the 1962 Sino-Indian War. He also visited Pakistanand initiated normal dialogue and trade relations that were frozen since the
1971 Indo-Pakistani War and subsequent political instability in both countries. Vajpayee represented the nation at the
Conference on Disarmament, where he defended the national nuclear program, the centerpiece of national security in the Cold Warworld, especially with neighboring China being a nuclear power. (In 1974, India had become the sixth nuclear power of the world when she conducted an underground nuclear test at Pokhran) Although he resigned in 1979 when the government politically attacked the RSS, he had established his credentials as an experienced statesman and a respected political leader. During this tenure, he also became the first person to deliver a speech to the United Nations General Assembly in Hindi (in 1977), the "most unforgettable" moment in his life by his own admission.
The rise of the BJP
The Janata government did not last long.Morarji Desai resigned as prime minister, and the Janata party was dissolved soon after. The BJS had devoted political organization to sustain the coalition and was left exhausted by the internecine wars within Janata.
Atal Bihari Vajpayee, along with many BJS and RSS colleagues, particularly his long-time and close friends
Lal Krishna Advaniand Bhairon Singh Shekhawat, founded the Bharatiya Janata Partyin 1980. Vajpayee became its first President. The BJP was a strong critic of the Congress(I) government that followed the Janata rule, and while it opposed the Sikh militancy that was rising in the state of Punjab, it also blamed Indira Gandhi for divisive and corrupt politics that fostered the militancy at national expense. Leader Darasingh opines that Vajpayee thus "brought in Hindu-Sikh harmony." [http://www.deccanherald.com/deccanherald/apr162004/d10.asp]
Although it supported
Operation Bluestar, the BJP strongly protested violence against Sikhsin Delhithat broke out in 1984 following the assassination of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi by one of her Sikh bodyguards. Vajpayee was known and commended for protecting Sikhs against Congress-followers seeking to avenge the death of their leader. The BJP was left with only two parliamentary seats in the 1984 elections; the party, however, had established itself in the mainstream of Indian politics, and soon began expanding its organization to attract young Indians throughout the country. During this period Vajpayee remained center-stage as party President and Leader of the Opposition in Parliament, but increasingly hard-line Hindu nationalists began to rise within the party and define its politics.
The BJP became the political voice of the Ram Janmabhoomi Mandir Movement, which was led by activists of the
Vishwa Hindu Parishadand the RSS, and was seeking to build a temple dedicated to
Lord Rama at the site of the
Babri mosquein Ayodhya. Hindu activists believed the site was the birthplace of the Lord, and thus qualified as one of the most sacred sites of Hinduism.
On December 6, 1992, hundreds of VHP and BJP activists broke down an organized protest into a frenzied attack, and brought down the mosque. Over the following weeks, waves of violence between Hindus and Muslims erupted in various parts of the country, killing over 1000 people. The VHP was banned by the government, and many BJP leaders including Lal Krishna Advani were arrested briefly for provoking the destruction. Although widely condemned by many across the country for playing politics with sensitive issues, the BJP won the loyalty and support of millions of conservative Hindus, as well as national prominence.
With victory in assembly elections of
Gujaratand Maharashtrain March 1995, and a good performance in theelections to the Karnatakaassembly in December 1994 propelled the BJP to the centerstage. During the BJP session at Mumbai in November 1995, BJP President L.K.Advani declared that Vajpayee would be the Prime Minister of India if the BJP won next parliamentary elections held in May 1996.
Prime Minister of India
First Term: 1996
Political energy and expansion made BJP the single-largest political party in the Lok Sabha elected in 1996. Mired down by corruption scandals, the Congress was at a historic low, and a vast medley of regional parties and break-off factions dominated the
hungParliament. Asked to form the government, A.B. Vajpayee was sworn in as prime minister, but the BJP failed to gather enough support from other parties to form a majority. Vajpayee resigned after just 13 days, when it became clear that he could not garner a majority.
econd Term: 1998-1999
After the fall of two governments by the third-front between 1996 and 1998, the parliament was dissolved and fresh elections were held. These elections again put the BJP at the head. This time, a cohesive bloc of political parties lined up with it to form the
National Democratic Alliance, and A.B. Vajpayee was sworn in as the prime minister.The NDA proved its majority in parliament. Towards the end of 1998 however, the AIADMKunder J.Jayalalithawithdrew its support from the 13-month old government. The government lost the ensuing vote of confidence motion by a single vote. The Chief Minister of Orissa state voted in the parliament as sitting congress member. As the opposition was unable to come up with the numbers to form the new government, the country returned to electionswith Vajpayee remaining the "care-taker prime minister".
His premiership began at a decisive phase of national life and history: the Congress Party, dominant for over 40 years, appeared irreparably damaged, and fractious regional parties seemed to threaten the very stability of the nation by continually fracturing government work.
Nuclear Bomb Testing
In May 1998, India conducted five underground nuclear tests in
Pokhran, Rajasthan. The five tests shocked and surprised the world, especially considering that the government had been in power for only a month. Two weeks later, Pakistan responded with its own nuclear weapon tests, making it the newest nation with nuclear weapons.
While some nations, such as
Russiaand France, endorsed India's right to defensive nuclear power, others including the US, Canada, Japan, the UKand the European Unionimposed sanctions on the sale of military equipment and high-tech scientific information, resources and technology to India or Pakistan. In spite of the intense international criticism and the steady decline in foreign investment and trade, the nuclear tests were popular domestically and the Vajpayee's popularity and the BJP's prestige rose in response.
During his reign, Vajpayee introduced many important economic and infrastructural reforms domestically including, encouraging the private sector and foreign investements; reducing governmental waste; encouraging research and development and privatizing of government owned corporations.
The Lahore summit
In late 1998 and early 1999, Vajpayee began a push for a full-scale diplomatic peace process with Pakistan. With the historic inauguration of the
Delhi-Lahore bus servicein February 1999, Vajpayee initiated a new peace process aimed towards permanently resolving the Kashmir dispute and other territorial/nuclear/strategic conflicts with Pakistan. The resultant Lahore Declarationespoused a commitment to dialogue, expanded trade relations and the goal of denuclearized South Asia, and mutual friendship. This eased the tension created by the 1998 nuclear tests, not only within the two nations, but also in South Asia and the rest of the world.
The Vajpayee led government was faced with two crises in mid-1999. The AIADMK party had continually threatened to withdraw support from the coalition and national leaders repeatedly flew down from Delhi to Chennai to pacify the AIADMK chief
J. Jayalalitha. Finally, in May 1999, the AIADMK did pull the plug on the NDA, and the Vajpayee administration was reduced to a caretaker status pending fresh elections scheduled for October.
(see main article
Kargil War)More importantly and soon after, it was revealed that thousands of terrorists and non-uniformed Pakistani soldiers (many with official identifications and Pakistan Army's custom weaponry) had infiltrated into the Kashmir Valley and captured control of border hilltops, unmanned border posts and were spreading out fast. The incursion was centered around the town of Kargil, but also included the Batalikand Akhnoorsectors and include artillery exchanges at the Siachen Glacier.
Indian army units were rushed into Kashmir in response.
Operation Vijay (1999), launched in June 1999, saw the Indian military fighting thousands of terrorists and soldiers amidst heavy artillery shelling and while facing extremely cold weather, snow and treacherous terrain at the high altitude. Over 500 Indian soldiers died in the three-month long Kargil War, and it is estimated around 600 Pakistani militants and soldiers died as well. Pakistan's army shot down two air force jets. The mutilation of the body of pilot Ajay Ahujainflamed public opinion in India. After both the United States and China refused to condone the incursion or threaten India to stop its military operations, Pakistan's Prime Minister Nawaz Sharifasked the militants to stop and withdraw to Pakistan-occupied Kashmir.
Third Term: 1999-2004
On October 13, 1999, Atal Bihari Vajpayee took oath as Prime Minister of India for the third time. The BJP-led NDA had won 303 seats in the 543 seat Lok Sabha, thereby securing a comfortable, stable majority. The coalition government that was formed lasted its full term of 5 years – the only non-Congress government to do so.
In October 1999, General Pervez Musharraf, chief of Pakistan's army and the chief architect of the Kargil plotting, seized power from the civilian, democratic government of Pakistan, and established his own dictatorship. A national crisis popped up in December 1999, when an
Indian Airlinesflight ( IC 814from Nepal) was hijacked by Pakistani terrorists and flown via Pakistan to Talibanruled Afghanistan. The media and the relatives of the hijacked passengers built up tremendous pressure on the government to give in to the hijackers' demand to release certain Kashmiri terrorists, including high-ranking Maulana Masood Azhar, from prison. The government ultimately caved in and Jaswant Singh, the Indian External Affairs minister, flew with the terrorists to Afghanistan and exchanged them for the passengers. No explanation was given by the Indian government for the External Affairs minister personally escorting the terrorists. The crisis also worsened the relationship between India and Pakistan, as the hijacked plane was allowed to re-fuel in Lahore, and all the hijackers, except one, were Pakistanis.
National Highways Development Project, Foreign Policy and Economic Reform
Vajpayee oversaw his
National Highway Development Projectbegin construction, in which he took a personal interest.
In March 2000
Bill Clinton, the President of the United Statespaid a state visit to India. His was the first state visit to India by US President in 22 years. President Clinton's visit to India was hailed as a significant milestone in the relations between the two countries. Since the visit followed barely two years after the Pokhran tests, and one year after the Kargil invasion and the subsequent coup in Pakistan, it was read to reflect a major shift in the post- Cold War U.S. foreign policy. The Indian Prime Minister and the U.S. President discussed strategic issues, but the chief achievement was a significant expansion in trade and economic ties.Historic Vision Document on the future course of relations between the two countries was signed by Prime Minister Vajpayee and President Clinton during the visit.
Domestically, the BJP led government was under constant pressure from its ideological mentor, the RSS, and the hard-line VHP to enact the Hindutva agenda. But owing to its dependence on coalition support, it was impossible for the BJP to push items like building the
Ram Janmabhoomi Mandirin Ayodhya, repealing Article 370which gave a special status to the state of Kashmir, or enacting a uniform civil code applicable to adherents of all religions. The BJP was however accused of "saffron-ising" (saffron is the color of the flag of the RSS, symbol of the Hindu nationalism movement) the official state education curriculum and apparatus. Home Minister L.K. Advaniand Education Minister Murli Manohar Joshiwere indicted in the 1992 Babri Mosquedemolition case for inciting the mob of activists. The RSS also routinely criticized the government for free-market policies which introduced foreign goods and competition at the expense of home industries and products.
Vajpayee's administration earned the ire of many unionized workers groups and government workers for their aggressive campaign to privatize government owned corporations. Vajpayee promoted pro-business, free market reforms to reinvigorate India's economic transformation and expansion that were started by former PM
Narasimha Raobut stalled after 1996 due to unstable governments and the 1997 Asian financial crisis. Increased competitiveness, extra funding and support for the information technology and high-tech industries, improvements in infrastructure, deregulation of trade, investments and corporate laws - all increased foreign capital investment and set in motion an economic expansion.
These couple of years of reform however were accompanied by infighting in the administration and confusion regarding the direction of government. Cabinet portfolios were created and shuffled every six months apparently to pacify restless coalition partners. Vajpayee's weakening health was also a subject of public interest, and he underwent a major knee-replacement surgery at the
Breach Candy Hospitalin Mumbaito relieve great pressure on his legs.
In March 2001, the
Tehelkagroup released incriminating videos of the BJP President Bangaru Laxman, senior army officers and NDA members accepting bribes from journalists posing as agents and businessmen. While the scandals were not linked to Vajpayee's personally, the Defence Minister George Fernandeswas forced to resign following this Barak Missile Deal Scandal, another scandal involving the botched supplies of coffins for the soldiers killed in Kargil, and the finding of an inquiry commission that the Government could have prevented the Kargil invasion. These developments as well as an ambiguous response of the economy to the reforms, reduced the Vajpayee administration's popularity and undermined its future.
Vajpayee again broke the ice in the Indo-Pak relations by inviting Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf to
Delhiand Agrafor a joint summit and peace talks. His second-major attempt to move beyond the stalemate tensions involved inviting the man who had planned the Kargil invasions, but accepting him as the President of Pakistan, Vajpayee chose to move forward. But after three days of much fanfare, which included Musharraf visiting his birthplace in Delhi, the summit failed to achieve a breakthrough as President Musharraf declined to leave aside the issue of Kashmir.
Attack on Parliament
On December 13, 2001, a group of masked, armed men with fake IDs stormed the Parliament building in Delhi. The terrorists managed to kill several security guards, but the building was sealed off swiftly and security forces cornered and killed the men, who were later proven to be Pakistan nationals. Coming just three months after the
September 11 terrorist attacksupon the United States, this fresh escalation instantly enraged the nation. Although the Government of Pakistanofficially condemned the attack, Indian intelligence reports pointed the finger at a conspiracy rooted in Pakistan. Prime Minister Vajpayee ordered a mobilization of India's military forces, and as many as 500,000 servicemen amassed along the international boundary bordering Punjab, Rajasthan, Gujaratand Kashmir. Pakistan responded with the same. Vicious terrorist attacks and an aggressive anti-terrorist campaign froze day-to-day life in Kashmir, and foreigners flocked out of both India and Pakistan, fearing a possible war and nuclear exchange. For as long as two years, both nations remained perilously close to a terrible war.
The Vajpayee administrations passed the Prevention of Terrorist Act against vigorous opposition of non-NDA parties. Human rights groups have condemned the act which gives wide authority to the government to crack down and hold anybody. Its repeal was advocated by human rights organisations. [http://hrw.org/english/docs/2004/09/22/india9370.htm]
But the biggest political disaster hit between December 2001 and March 2002: the VHP held the Government hostage in a major standoff in Ayodhya over the Ram temple. At the 10th anniversary of the destruction of the Babri mosque, the VHP wanted to perform a "sheela daan", or a ceremony laying the foundation stone of the cherished temple at the disputed site. Tens of thousands of VHP activists amassed and threatened to overrun the site and forcibly build the temple. A grave threat of not only communal violence, but an outright breakdown of law and order owing to the defiance of the government by a religious organization hung over the nation. Fact|date=February 2007
Just a week following the standoff, a train carriage carrying hundreds of VHP activists returning from Ayodhya was attacked by a Muslim mob( not yet confirmed) in
Godhra, Gujaratand the bogey was set afire, killing 59 activists. The result was an episode of communal violence in which over 1,000 people were killed and displaced. Three fourths of the killed were Muslims while the rest were Hindus. Organizations such as VHP affiliated with the ruling BJP, as well as the State government led by BJP leader and Chief Minister Narendra Modi, were accused of fomenting the violence, though this only remained to be an allegation. Vajpayee visited the state and publicly criticized the Chief Minister for not doing his moral duty to protect the people; he also spoke at a national party convention in Goain June, 2002 allegedly attacking Muslims for having tolerated the Godhra attackers, and not doing enough to counter Islamic terrorism entering the country. In a Cabinet reshuffle, his long-time and close associate Lal Krishna Advani was designated Deputy Prime Minister of India, and increased power in the party and the Cabinet, and more credibility with the RSS and the conservative Hindu base. In September 2002, Narendra Modi led the BJP to a major victory, and thus vindication through the state assembly elections. His defiant victory was seen standing right against the moral criticism handed down by the Prime Minister. ("See also": 2002 Gujarat violence)
In late 2002 and 2003 the government pushed economic reforms, and the country's
GDPgrowth accelerated at record levels, exceeding 6-7%. Increasing foreign investment, modernization of public and industrial infrastructure, the creation of jobs, a rising high-tech and IT industry and urban modernization and expansion improved the nation's national image. Good crop harvests and strong industrial expansion also helped the economy. The Government reformed the tax system, increased the pace of reforms and pro-business initiatives, major irrigation and housing schemes and so on. The political energies of the BJP shifted to the rising urban middle-class and young people, who were positive and enthusiastic about the major economic expansion and future of the country.
In August 2003, Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee announced before Parliament his "absolute last" effort to achieve peace with Pakistan. Although the diplomatic process never truly set-off immediately, visits were exchanged by high-level officials and the military stand-off ended. The Pakistani President and Pakistani politicians, civil and religious leaders hailed this initiative as did the leaders of America, Europe and much of the world. In July 2003, Prime Minister Vajpayee, visited
China, and met with various Chinese leaders. He recognised Tibet, as a part of China, which was reacted to positively, by the Chinese leadership, who the following year, recognised Sikkim, as a part of India. Sino-Indian Relations, improved greatly, in the following years.
In November-December 2003, the BJP won three major state elections, fought mainly on development issues, without ideological campaigns. A major public relations campaign was launched to reach out to Muslims and stop the 2002 controversies from haunting the party's future. But the attention of the media and of millions now moved from Vajpayee to his more possible successor, L.K. Advani, although the question was never directly raised or contested in any way. Vajpayee's age, failing health and diminished physical and mental vigor were obvious factors in such speculations. Advani assumed greater responsibilities in the party, and although no perceivable conflict has been known to arise between the longtime friends and political colleagues, several embarrassing statements were made. Once Vajpayee said "Advani would lead the BJP in the elections," prompting Advani to clarify that he would merely lead the election campaign, not the party. And then the BJP President Venkiah Naidu used mythological references to depict Vajpayee as a "Vikas Purush", (Man of Progress), comparing him to"Bhishma Pitamah" of the
Mahabharataepic, a man respected by all political outfits and hundreds of millions of people. Advani was called the "Loh Purush" (Iron Man), a more potent reference suggestive of future developments.
As the BJP prepared for general elections in 2004, either early or late, Vajpayee was still the choice of the BJP, and crucially of the wider NDA for the prime minister's job.
Post 2004 elections
National Democratic Alliancewas widely expected to retain power after the 2004 genaral election. The parliament had been dissolved before the completion of term in order to capitalize on the economic boom and improved security and cultural atmosphere.
However, despite it's best efforts, the coalition - during camapign, controversial and ideological issues had been side-stepped in favor of bread-butter economic issues - lost almost half the seat it had, with several prominent cabinet ministers getting defeated. The congress(I), led by
Sonia Gandhibecame the single largest party and along with many minor parties formed the United Progressive Alliance. With the conditional support of the leftist parties from the outside, the UPA formed government under Dr. Manmohan Singh.
Vajpayee attended the swearing-in ceremony of the new government despite his party's decision to boycott it. Vajpayee was criticized for sacrificing core issues like
Hindutvaand the Ram Temple inorder to please Muslim voters (the BJP lost the Muslim vote by a heavy margin). Vajpayee expressed his anger and frustration at being blamed and at a high-level party meeting, he decided to give up the position of the Leader of the Opposition to Lal Krishna Advani. However, he retained his post as Chairman of the National Democratic Alliance.
In December of 2005, Vajpayee announced his retirement from active politics, declaring that he would not participate in the next general election. At a rally in the western city of Mumbai, Vajpayee said "I will not participate in any electoral politics. There are many other leaders to take forward the work which I and other senior leaders have been doing. In a now famous statement at the BJP's silver Jubilee rally at Mumbai's historic Shivaji Park, Vajpayee announced that "from now onwards,
Lal Krishna Advaniand Pramod Mahajanwill be the Ram-Laxman (the two godly brothers much revered and worshipped by Hindus) of the BJP." [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/4567802.stm]
Legacy and criticism
Atal Bihari Vajpayee's six years at the Prime Minister's Office led to a major transformation and expansion of the country's economy. In the 1999
Kargil War, his leadership defended the country's integrity and security, while his broad-minded statesmanship in 1999, 2001 and 2004 kept the country's safety, peace and future on the high-course despite many discouraging events, failures and threats. During his 50 years as Member of Parliament, Vajpayee has established impeccable and virtually infallible credentials as a man of principle, integrity and commitment in the world of Indian politics, and as a leading visionary and statesman of the world.
Atal Bihari Vajpayee sowed the seeds and rose with the growing nationalist movement in Indian politics. For four decades he was the flag-bearer, icon and undisputed leader of the Hindu nationalist political movement, working steadily through years of defeat and desolation to foster a major national movement, broad support amongst hundreds of millions and the leadership of the world's largest democracy and most diverse nation.
However, the Vajpayee government was criticized over its ignorance of the issues and concerns of India's poor millions, over corruption scandals, and the episodes of communal violence and rise of both Hindu and Muslim radicalism in politics. While praised for his leadership during the
Kargil Warand for his peace efforts with Pakistan, the Vajpayee administration was blamed for not being able to detect and prevent two serious terrorist attacks on the country, and an incursion into Indian sovereign territory.
In addition, his opponents in the Congress accused Vajpayee of having turned an approver against freedom fighters during the British regime in 1942. Vajpayee, however, denied these accusations [http://www.tribuneindia.com/1999/99sep12/head6.htm] [http://www.indiatogether.org/opinions/psainath/timeout0702.htm] [http://www.hinduonnet.com/fline/fl2010/stories/20030523008300600.htm] .
Vajpayee led a diverse, fractious coalition to complete a full five-year term in office, be the guiding light over a collage of political chaos. He gave stability and unity when the country was the least united, and security when the country was most susceptible. This included not only the security of the borders from invasion, but of the security of 100 million families with the provision of jobs and education in a solid, hopeful economic future, and the strategic national future security.
Despite the rejection of his party in 2004, Vajpayee has retained a position of esteem and respect amongst common people seldom offered to politicians in India. He was conferred Padma Vibhushan in 1992, Lokmanya Tilak Puruskar and the Pt. Govind Ballabh Pant Award for the Best Parliamentarian, both in 1994.
* J.N. Dixit "India and Pakistan in War and Peace" (2002-03)
* Jonah Blank "Arrow of the Blue Skinned God"
* [http://bjp.org/leader/atalji.htm BJP website]
* [http://pib.nic.in/profile/bajpayee.html Govt. of India Website]
* [http://geeta-kavita.com/article.asp?article=list_poems#atal Read few poems of Atal Bihari Vajpayee in Hindi Script]
* [http://hi.literature.wikia.com/wiki/अटल_बिहारी_वाजपेयी Poems of Atal Bihari Vajapayee at Kavita Kosh]
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Atal Bihari Vajpayee — (Hindi: अटल बिहारी वाजपेयी, Aṭal Bihārī Vājpeyī; * 25. Dezember 1924 in Gwalior) ist ein indischer Politiker der Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), ehemaliger Abgeordneter im Unterhaus d … Deutsch Wikipedia
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Vajpayee, Atal Bihari — born Dec. 15, 1924, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, India Leader of India s pro Hindu Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and prime minister of India in 1996 and from 1998 to 2004. Politically active as a teenager, he was briefly jailed by British colonial… … Universalium
Vajpayee, Atal Bihari — (n. 15 dic. 1924, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, India). Líder del Partido Bharatiya Janata (PBJ), de orientación pro hindú, y primer ministro de India en 1996 y a partir de 1998. Políticamente activo desde la adolescencia, fue encarcelado por un breve … Enciclopedia Universal
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Bihari — may mean: * of Bihar, a state in central eastern India ** Bihari people *** Stranded Pakistanis aka Biharis , Muslim Biharis living as refugees in Bangladesh ** Bihari languages People*Bihari (poet) (1600 1663), Hindi poet famous for the Satasaī… … Wikipedia