Middelburg


Middelburg
This is about the city in the Netherlands. For other uses, see Middelburg (disambiguation).
Middelburg
—  Municipality  —
Old city hall, now a university
Flag of Middelburg
Flag
Coat of arms of Middelburg
Coat of arms
Coordinates: 51°30′N 3°37′E / 51.5°N 3.617°E / 51.5; 3.617Coordinates: 51°30′N 3°37′E / 51.5°N 3.617°E / 51.5; 3.617
Country  Netherlands
Province Zeeland
Area(2006)
 – Total 53.05 km2 (20.5 sq mi)
 – Land 48.64 km2 (18.8 sq mi)
 – Water 4.41 km2 (1.7 sq mi)
Population (1 June 2007)
 – Total 47,308
 – Density 973/km2 (2,520.1/sq mi)
  Source: CBS, Statline.
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 – Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)

Middelburg [ˈmɪdəɫˌbʏrx] ( listen) is a municipality and a city in the south-western Netherlands and the capital of the province of Zeeland. It is situated in the Midden-Zeeland region. It has a population of about 48,000.

Contents

History of Middelburg

The city of Middelburg dates back possibly to the late 8th century or early 9th century. The first mention of Middelburg was as one of three fortified towns (i.e., borgs) erected on Walcheren (then an island) to guard against Viking raids. In 844 a monastery was built on the site, which remained an active Catholic foundation until the Reformation. Foundations for Middelburg's "stately and picturesque" cathedral (one of only two pre-Reformation cathedrals in The Netherlands, along with St. Martin's in Utrecht) were first laid in the 10th century; additional construction continued through the Middle Ages.

Middelburg was granted city rights in 1217. During the Middle Ages, it became an important trading center in the commerce between England and the rising cities of Flanders. The town continued to gain in power and prestige during the 13th and 14th centuries as a member of the powerful, multi-national Hanseatic League of Northern European merchant cities. In the Eighty Years' War, the northern provinces of the original Low Countries won their independence from their former Spanish Hapsburg rulers and formed The Netherlands, a Protestant state. Later, in the 17th century (the Dutch Golden Age), Middelburg becane an important center for the Dutch East India Company.

Middelburg played an important role in 17th century Slave Trade.

Much of the old city center was bombed in the early phases of World War II, on May 17, 1940 by the German Luftwaffe, to compel the surrender of the Dutch Army forces in Zeeland. After the War, as much of the old town center was rebuilt and restored along pre-War lines as possible. The city's archives, however, had been incinerated during the German bombardment.

Since the reconstruction, modern Middelburg has re-gained much of its historic and picturesque character. There are lavish 17th and 18th century merchant houses and storehouses standing along canals, of a similar style as found in cities like Amsterdam. The old city moats are still there, as is one of the city gates, the Koepoort Gate. Part of the 18th century moat and defense works, however, were demolished in the 19th century, to make way for a commercial canal which crosses Walcheren from Vlissingen to Veere. The medieval abbey is still in use today, as a museum and as the seat of the provincial government.

The painter Pieter Gaal, (1769–1819) was born and, after traveling over Europe to paint, settled and died here.

Another well-known citizen of Middelburg was the Admiral and Explorer, Jacob Roggeveen, who was born in the city in 1659, and died there in 1729. Roggeveen discovered Easter Island/Rapa Nui in the South Pacific on Easter Sunday, April 6, 1722. Further discoveries on the same journey included islands of the Tuamotu group, now part of French Polynesia.

Education

When William of Orange decided to found the first university in the Netherlands in 1575, he initially considered locating it in Middelburg. Ultimately he chose Leiden, however, and Middelburg--as well as all of Zeeland--remained without a university until 2004 when the Roosevelt Academy, affiliated with Utrecht University, was established.

Cultural institutions

  • Zeeuws Museum
  • SBKM De Vleeshal
  • Zeeuws Archief [1]
  • Zeeuwse Bibliotheek
  • Centrum Beeldende Kunst

Theaters and concerthalls

  • Schouwburg
  • Concertzaal Zeeland
  • Spiegeltheater
  • Minitheater
  • Filmtheater Schuttershof

Transportation

Middelburg has a railway station with intercity train connections to Vlissingen, Goes, Roosendaal, Rotterdam, The Hague, Leiden, Schiphol International Airport and Amsterdam, among others.

Sports

Middelburg has a fieldhockey club, MMHC, and four football (soccer) clubs: MZVC, Zeelandia Middelburg, Jong Ambon and FC Dauwendaele. Jong Ambon is translated Young Ambon, and consists of mostly Ambonese players. FC Dauwendaele is the main club in Dauwendaele.

Population centres

Zuid

Zuid ("South") is a neighbourhood in Middelburg. It lies adjacent to Dauwendaele. The neighbourhood consists mostly of residential building projects. The town of Oost-Souburg lies to the south, as does Vlissingen.

The West part of Zuid was built in the mid-1970s, the East part was built later, mainly in the late 1980s and early 1990s. There are significant changes in architecture between the West and East parts.

There are educational and recreational facilities available. There numerous Sports teams in positioned in the neighborhood, mainly soccer teams, but also a couple of basketball and hockey teams.

Twin cities

References

External links


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Middelburg — Bandera …   Wikipedia Español

  • Middelburg —   [ mɪdəlbyrx], Hauptstadt der Provinz Seeland, Niederlande, auf der ehemaligen Nordseeinsel Walcheren, 39 900 Einwohner; Seeländisches Museum, Seeländisches Archiv; Maschinen , Stahl und Apparatebau, Gießereien; Gemüse und Obstgroßmarkt;… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Middelburg — 1) Bezirk in der niederländischen Provinz Seeland; 62,000 Ew.; 2) Hauptstadt des Bezirks u. der Provinz, auf der Insel Walcheren; hat gute Befestigung, 12 Kirchen, Lateinische Schule, Gelehrte Gesellschaften (für Naturforschung, Maler , Bildhauer …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Middelburg [1] — Middelburg, 1) Distrikt im östlichen Bergland der Kapkolonie, südlich der Zourberge, östlich der Schneeberge und durchzogen von dem hier entspringenden Großen Fischfluß mit dem Großen und Kleinen Brak, 5755 qkm mit (1891) 9689 Einw. (4042 Weiße,… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Middelburg [2] — Middelburg, Hauptstadt der niederländ. Provinz Zeeland, auf der Insel Walcheren, an der Staatsbahnlinie Roosendaal Vlissingen, steht durch breite Kanäle nach Vlissingen und Veere mit den zeeländischen Strömen und der Nordsee in Verbindung. Unter… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Middelburg — (spr. börch), Hauptstadt der niederländ. Prov. Seeland, auf der Insel Walcheren, (1899) 18.831 E.; spätgot. Rathaus mit Museum …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Middelburg — Middelburg, Stadt des Königreichs Holland auf der Insel Walchern an einem Canale gelegen, mit Graben und Wällen umgeben, die mit Baumreihen bepflanzt, anmuthige Promenaden bilden. Die Häuser sind gut gebaut; alles zeigt von Reinlichkeit und… …   Damen Conversations Lexikon

  • Middelburg — Middelburg, stark befestigte Hauptstadt der niederländ. Provinz Zeeland auf der Insel Walcheren, durch Kanäle mit dem Hafen, der Westerschelde und Vließingen in Verbindung, mit 16000 E., Schiffsbau, Leinwandfabrikation, beträchtlichem Seehandel …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

  • Middelburg — Gemeinde Middelburg Flagge Wappen Provinz Zeeland Bürgermeister …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Middelburg — 1 Original name in latin Middelburg Name in other language Gorad Midehlburg, Medioburgum, Middelbourg, Middelburch, Middelburg, Midelb org, Midelburg, Midelburgas, Midelburgo, Mintelmpourch, mi de er bao, midelbwileuheu, mideruburufu, Горад… …   Cities with a population over 1000 database


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