image_caption = The "
Basilica Palladiana" in "Piazza dei Signori"
img_coa = Vicenza-Stemma.png
official_name = Comune di Vicenza
name=Vicenza| mapx = 45.558|mapy=11.54
province = Vicenza (VI)
elevation_m = 39
area_total_km2 = 80
January 1, 2007
population_total = 119038
timezone = CET, UTC+1
coordinates = coord|45|33|N|11|33|E|region:IT_type:city(119038)|display=inline,title
frazioni = Anconetta, Bertesina, Bertesinella, Bugano, Campedello, Casale, Debba, Longara, Maddalene, Ospedaletto, Polegge, San Pietro Intrigogna, Santa Croce Bigolina, Tormeno
telephone = 0444
postalcode = 36100
gentilic = Vicentini
saint = Madonna of Monte Berico
mayor = Achille Variati
website = [http://www.comune.vicenza.it www.comune.vicenza.it]
Infobox World Heritage Site
WHS = City of Vicenza and the
Palladian Villas of the Veneto
State Party = ITA
Type = Cultural
Criteria = i, ii
ID = 712
Region = Europe and North America
Year = 1994
Session = 18th
Extension = 1996
Link = http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/712
Vicenza, a city in northern
Italy, is the capital of the eponymous province in the Venetoregion, at the northern base of the " Monte Berico", straddling the Bacchiglione. Vicenza is approximately 60 km west of Venice and 200 km east of Milan. As of 2007, Vicenza had an estimated population of 119,038.cite web | url=http://www.world-gazetteer.com/wg.php?men=gpro&des=gamelan&geo=487999154 | title="The World Gazetteer" | accessdate=2007-02-21] Vicenza is the third largest Italian industrial city by export.
Vicentia was settled by the Italic
Euganeiand then by the Palaeo- Venetiin the 2nd-3rd century BC, from whom it was taken by the Gauls. The Romans conquered it to the latter in 157 BC, giving the city the name of "Vicetia" or "Vincentia" ("victorious").
The Vicentini received the
Roman citizenshipin 49 BC. The city had some importance as a hub on the important road from "Mediolanum" to Aquileia, but was overshadowed by its neighbor Patavium( Padua). Little survives of the Roman city, but three of the bridges across the Bacchiglione and Retrone rivers are of Roman origin, and isolated arches of a Roman aqueductexist outside Porta Santa Croce.
During the decline of the
Western Roman Empire, Heruls, Vandals, Alaricand Hunslaid the area to waste, but the city recovered after the Ostrogothconquest in 489. It was also an important Lombard and then Frank centre. Numerous Benedictinemonasteries were built in Vicenza area, which, in particular, dried the lake that once was located north of Vicenza by export.
In 899 Vicenza was destroyed by Magyar raiders.
Otto IIIhanded over the government of the city to the bishop, and its communal organization had an opportunity to develop, separating soon from the episcopal authority. It took an active part in the League with Verona and, most of all, in the Lombard League(1164-1167) against Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa compelling Padua and Treviso to join: its podestà, Ezzelino II il Balbo, was captain of the league. When peace was restored, however, the old rivalry with Padua, Bassano, and other cities was renewed, besides which there were the internal factions of the Vivaresi ( Ghibellines) and the Maltraversi ( Guelphs).
Ezzelino IIIdrove the Guelphs out of Vicenza, and caused his brother, Alberico, to be elected podestà (1230). The independent commune joined the Second Lombard League against Emperor Frederick II, and was sacked by that monarch (1237), after which it was annexed to Ezzelino's dominions. On his death the old oligarchic republicpolitical structure was restored -a "consiglio maggiore" ("grand council") of four hundred members and a "consiglio minore" ("small council") of forty members - and it formed a league with Padua, Trevisoand Verona. Three years later the Vicentines entrusted the protection of the city to Padua, so as to safeguard republican liberty; but this protectorate ("custodia") quickly became dominion, and for that reason Vicenza in 1311 submitted to the Scaligerilords of Verona, who fortified it against the Viscontiof Milan.
Vicenza came under rule of
Venicein 1404, and its subsequent history is that of Venice. It was besieged by the Emperor Sigismund, and Maximilian Iheld possession of it in 1509 and 1516.
Vicenza was a candidate to host the
Council of Trent.
The 16th century was the time of
Andrea Palladio, who left many outstanding examples of his art with palaces and villas in the city's territory.
After 1797, under Napoleonic rule, it was made a
duché grand-fief(not a grand duchy, but a hereditary (extinguished in 1896), nominal duchy, a rare honor reserved for French officials) within Bonaparte's personal Kingdom of Italy for general Caulaincourt, also imperial Grand-Écuyer.
After 1814, Vicenza passed to the
Austrian Empire. In 1848, however, the populous rose against Austria, but it was recovered after a stubborn resistance. As a part of the Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia, it was annexed to Italy after the 3rd war of Italian independence.
Vicenza's area was a location of fights in both
World War Iand World War II. After the end of the latter, strong economic development made it one of the richest cities in Italy.
Vicenza is home to the
United States Armypost Caserma Ederle(Camp Ederle), also known as the U.S. Army Garrison Vicenza. In 1965, Caserma Ederlebecame the headquartersfor the Southern European Task Force, and today is the central U.S. military installation in Southern Europe.
In January 2006 the
European Gendarmerie Forcewas inaugurated in Vicenza.
Among its patron saints the city venerates
St. Lontius, bishop and martyr, and St. Theodoreand St. Apollonius, bishops and confessors in the fourth century. The Christian cemetery discovered near the Church of Sts. Felix and Fortunatus, dates from the earlier half of the fourth century, and these two saints were probably martyred under Diocletian.
The first bishop of whom there is any certain record is Horontius (590), a partisan of the
Schism of the Three Chapters. Other bishops were: Vitalis (901), high chancellor of King Berengar of Ivrea; Girolamo (1000), deposed by Emperor Henry II for political sedition; Torengo, in whose episcopate a number of bishops rebelled against the episcopal authority. Uberto was deposed by Pope Innocent IIIas a despoiler of church property, but the canons put off until 1219 the election of his successor, Gilberto, who was forced by the tyranny of Ezzelino to live in exile.
Under Bishop Emiliani (1409) took place the apparition of the Blessed Virgin on Monte Berico which led to the foundation of the famous sanctuary. Pietro Barbo (1451) was afterwards elected
Pope Paul II.
Cardinal Giovanni Battista Zeno (1468) was distinguished for his sanctity and learning. Matteo Priuli (1563) founded the seminary and made efforts for reform. Alvise M. Ganrielli (1779) restored many churches and the seminary. The
See of Vicenzawas suffraganof the patriarchate of Aquileia, then of the archdiocese of Udine, and since 1818 of the archdiocese of Venice.
The surrounding country is agricultural, but there are also quarries of marble, sulphur, copper, and silver mines, and beds of lignite and kaolin; mineral springs also abound, the most famous being those of Recoaro. The city has an active and lively industrial sector, which is especially famous for
jewelryand clothingfactories. The Gold Exposition is world-famous and it takes place in Vicenza three times per year (January, May, September). Other industries worthy of mention are the woollen and silk, pottery, and musical instruments. The headquarters of the bicycle component manufacturer Campagnoloare located here.
In 2007, there were 114,268 people residing in Vicenza, located in the province of Vicenza,
Veneto, of whom 47.6% were male and 52.4% were female. Minors (children ages 18 and younger) totalled 17.17 percent of the population compared to pensioners who number 21.60 percent. This compares with the Italian average of 18.06 percent (minors) and 19.94 percent (pensioners). The average age of Vicenza residents is 43 compared to the Italian average of 42. In the five years between 2002 and 2007, the population of Vicenza grew by 3.72 percent, while Italyas a whole grew by 3.85 percent. [ [http://demo.istat.it/bil2007/index.html Statistiche demografiche ISTAT:2007] ] The current birth rate of Vicenza is 9.16 births per 1,000 inhabitants compared to the Italian average of 9.45 births.
As of 2006, 87.53% of the population was Italian. The largest immigrant group comes from other
European nations (the largest being Serbia, Albania, and Bosnia): 6.28%, South Asian1.85%, sub-saharan Africa: 1.44%, and North Africa: 1.36%. Currently one quarter babies born in Vicenza has at least one foreign parent. The city is predominantly Roman Catholic, but due to immigration now has some Orthodox Christian, Muslimand Hindufollowers.
UNESCOinscribed "Vicenza, City of Palladio" on its list of World Heritage Sites. In 1996 the site was expanded to include the Palladian villas outside the core area, and accordingly renamed "City of Palladio and the Palladian Villas of the Veneto".
Vicenza is home to twenty-three buildings designed by Palladio. The famous ones include:
* The "
Villa Capra" (also known as "La Rotonda"), located just outside the downtown area;
* The "
Basilica Palladiana", centrally located in Vicenza's Piazza dei Signori, of which Palladio himself said that it might stand comparison with any similar work of antiquity;
* The "
Teatro Olimpico", designed for the "Accademia degli Olimpici". Construction had started on this project when Palladio died in 1580. The scenes are by Vincenzo Scamozzi;
Palazzo Chiericati", home of Vicenza's museum;
Palazzo Barbaran Da Porto";
Palazzo Da Porto Breganze";
* "Palazzo Porto in Piazza Castello";
*The "cathedral", dating from early in the 11th century, and restored in the 13th, 16th, and 19th, possesses numerous pictures and sculptures, nearly all of them by Vicentine artists (
Cittadello, Celestia, Liberi, Ruschi).
*The "Church of the Ara Coeli" (1244), formerly belonging to the Clarisses, contains statues by Marinali and
Cassetti, and paintings by Tiepolo.
*The Churches of the "Carmine" (1372) and "St. Catherine" (1292), formerly belonging to the Humiliati, possess notable pictures.
*S. Corona (1260) was built by the Dominicans after the death of Ezzelino, and is pictures by
Montagna("The Magdelene") and Relline ("Baptism of Christ").
*"Santa Croce" (1179)
*"SS. Felice and Fortunato" (8th century)
*"SS. Filippo and Giacomo" (12th century)
*"S. Lorenzo of the Friars Minor" (1280), in the Gothic style, contains the tombs of many illustrious Vicentines.
*In the cloister of "S. Maria of the Servites" (1319) took place the miracles of St.
Philip Benizi de Damiani.
*The "clock tower" (1224-1446).
*The "Communal Library", founded by Count Giovanni M. Bertolo.
*The "Town Museum" (Pinacoteca Civica) houses mainly Vicentine paintings in the Palladian
Vicenza is home to
Vicenza Calciowho currently play in Serie B. Their home is the Stadio Romeo Menti.
Baccalà alla Vicentina
Risi e Bisi
Polenta e Osei
The inhabitants of Vicenza are jestly known to other Italians as "magnagati" 'cat eaters'. Purportedly, Vicentinos turned to cats for sustenance during times of famine.
Famous people from Vicenza
Flavio Albanese, architect
Roberto Baggio, football player
Giuseppina M. Bakhita, saint
Fernando Bandini, writer
Valerio Belli, sculptor and engraver
Maria Bertilla Boscardin, saint
Ottavio Bertotti Scamozzi, architect
Gelindo Bordin, athlete
Roberto Busa, religious and informatic engineer
Tullio Campagnolo, bicycle maker
Francesco Chieregati, papal nuncio, bishop
Luigi Da Porto, writer
Almerico da Schio, astronomer and inventor
Otello De Maria, painter
Ilvo Diamanti, political scientist
Federico Faggin, inventor
Adolfo Farsari, photographer
Ferreto dei Ferreti, historian (fourteenth century)
Antonio Fogazzaro, writer
Giovanni Giaconi, artist
Antonio Giuriolo, partisan
Fedele Lampertico, economist, writer and politician
Niccolò Leoniceno, medic
Paolo Lioy, naturalist
Luigi Meneghello, writer (professor at Reading University)
Andrea Palladio, architect
Goffredo Parise, writer
Antonio Pigafetta, explorer, companion of Ferdinand Magellan
Guido Piovene, journalist and writer
Orlando Pizzolato, athlete
Manuel Righele, novelist and short story writer
Sergio Romano, diplomatic
Paolo Rossi, football player
Mariano Rumor, politician
Flo Sandon's, singer
Vincenzo Scamozzi, architect
Gian Antonio Stella, journalist and writer
Tiziano Treu, politician
Vitaliano Trevisan, writer and actor
Gian Giorgio Trissino, humanist and poet (1478-1553)
Nicola Vicentino, theorist and composer
Giacomo Zanella, writer and priest
Sonia Gandhi, president of the Congress partyin India
Amy Adams, American Actress
* Mark Nightshade, American Primitive Folk Artist / Folk Artist on Tour Painting the Working Class of Italy
Annecy, France, from 1995
Pforzheim, Germany, from 1991
* [http://www.tour-vicenza.com/en/about_vicenza_heritage.htm Concise guide to Vicenza and its heritage"]
* [http://palladio.ashmultimedia.com/vicennuk.htm Giovanna Grossato, "A short history of Vicenza"]
* [http://mappe.regioneveneto.net/node/7 Map of Vicenza]
* [http://www.comune.vicenza.it/ Official site of the comune]
* [http://www.epalladio.com/ Official site of the book "The Villas of Palladio"]
* [http://www.genovesato.it/smeraldi/fotovicenza.shtml Photos of Vicenza (in Italian)]
* [http://www.heraldica.org/topics/france/napoleon.htm#duches Heraldica.org- Napoleonic heraldry]
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