Bharatpur, India

Infobox Indian Jurisdiction
native_name = Bharatpur | type = city | latd = 27.22 | longd = 77.48
locator_position = right | state_name = Rajasthan
district = Bharatpur
leader_title =
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altitude = 183
population_as_of = 2001
population_total = 204,456| population_density =
area_magnitude= km²
area_total =
area_telephone =
postal_code =
vehicle_code_range =
sex_ratio =
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Bharatpur ( _hi. भरतपुर) is a city in the Indian state of Rajasthan. It was founded by Maharaja Suraj Mal in 1733. Located in Mewat region, Bharatpur was once an impregnable, well-fortified city, and the capital of a kingdom ruled by Jat maharajas. The trio of Bharatpur, Deeg and Dholpur has played an important part in the Jat history of Rajasthan. Located 50 km west of the city of Agra (the city of the Taj Mahal), it is also the administrative headquarters of Bharatpur District.

Geography

Bharatpur is located at coord|27.22|N|77.48|E| [ [http://www.fallingrain.com/world/IN/24/Bharatpur.html Falling Rain Genomics, Inc - Bharatpur] ] . It has an average elevation of 183 metres (600 feet).

Demographics

As of the 2001 Indian census [GR|India] , Bharatpur had a population of 2,04,560. Males constitute 54% of the population and females 46%. Bharatpur has an average literacy rate of 66%, higher than the national average of 59.5%; with male literacy of 75% and female literacy of 56%. 15% of the population is under 6 years of age.

History

The town was named Bharatpur after Bharata, a brother of Lord Rama, whose other brother Laxman is the family deity of the erstwhile royal family of Bharatpur. The name 'Laxman' was engraved on the arms, seals and other emblems of the state.

The city and the fort of Bharatpur have been believed to be founded by Lord Aditya Consul in the early 17th century, the majesty established a state in the Mewat region south of Delhi, with its capital at Deeg. Leaders like Gokula, Raja Ram, Churaman and Badan Singh brought the Jats together and moulded them into a force to be reckoned with.

Maharaja Suraj Mal was the state's greatest ruler; he made the state a formidable force in the region. Suraj Mal took over the site of Bharatpur from Khemkaran, a son of Rustam, and established it as the capital of his state. He fortified the city by building a massive wall around it.

During the British Raj, the state covered an area of 5,123 km² and its rulers enjoyed a salute of 17 guns. The state acceded unto the dominion of India in 1947. It was merged with three nearby princely states to form the 'Matsya Union', which in turn was merged with other adjoining territories to create the present-day state of Rajasthan.

Former flag of Bharatpur

When Bharatpur was a princely state, it was the only political entity ever to have a chartreuse colored flag. [ [http://www.fotw.us/flags/in-bhara.html Baratpur—Indian Princely State—the only political entity ever to have a chartreuse colored flag:] ]

Meo

See Meo

Chronology of Bharatpur rulers

The Jat rulers of Bharatpur were from Sinsinwar clan. Before the formation of Bharatpur state the capital of Sinsinwars was at Sinsini.

Sinsini earlier was known as 'Shoor saini' and its inhabitants were known as 'Saur Sen'. The influence of Saur Sen people can be judged from the fact that the dialect of the entire north India at one time was known as 'Saursaini'.

Shoor Sain people were Chandra Vanshi kshatriyas. Lord Krishna was also born in vrishni branch of Chandravansh. A group of Yadavas was follower of Shiv and Vedic God in Sindh. Some inscriptions and coins of these people have been found in 'Mohenjo Daro'. ' Shiv Shani Sevi' words have been found engraved on one inscription. Yajur Veda mentions 'Shinay Swah'. 'Sini Isar' was found on one gold coin. Atharva Veda mentions 'Sinwali' for Sini God.

The above group of Yadavas came back from Sindh to Brij area and occupied Bayana in Bharatpur district. After some struggle the 'Balai' inhabitants were forced by Shodeo and Saini rulers to move out of Brij land and thus they occupied large areas. 'Saur Saini' was changed to 'ShinShoor' or 'Sinsini' after their God 'Shin'. These people of Sinsini were called Sinsinwar. The chronology of Sinsinwar Jat clan rulers of Bharastpur is as under:

*Gokula, ? - 1670
*Raja Ram, 1670 - 1688
*Churaman, 1695 - 1721
*Badan Singh, 1722 - 1756
*Maharaja Suraj Mal, 1756 - 1767
*Maharaja Jawahar Singh, 1767 - 1768
*Maharaja Ratan Singh, 1768 - 1769
*Maharaja Kehri Singh, 1769 - 1771
*Maharaja Nawal Singh, 1771 - 1776
*Maharaja Ranjit Singh, 1776 - 1805
*Maharaja Randhir Singh, 1805 - 1823
*Maharaja Baldeo Singh, 1823 - 1825
*Maharaja Balwant Singh, 1825 - 1853
*Maharaja Jashwant Singh, 1853 - 1893
*Maharaja Ram Singh, 1893 - 1900 (Exiled)
*Maharani Girraj Kaur, regent 1900-1918
*Maharaja Kishan Singh, 1900 - 1929
*Maharaja Brijendra Singh, 1929-1947 (Joined the Indian Union)

Keoladeo National Park

Now declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO, duck-hunting reserve of the Maharajas is one of the major wintering areas for large numbers of aquatic birds from Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, China and Siberia. Some 364 species of birds, including the rare Siberian Crane, have been recorded in the park. The name "Keoladeo" is derived from the name of an ancient Hindu temple devoted to Lord Shiva in the sanctuary's central zone while the Hindi term 'Ghana' implies dense, thick areas of forest cover.

Places to see

*Keoladeo National Park
*Lohagarh Fort
*Government Museum
*The Palace
*Jawahar Burj and Fatej Burj

Fairs and festivals
*Brij festival
*Jaswant exhibition
*Gangaur
*Teej Surrounding area
*Deeg Fort
*Gopal Bhavan

References

* [http://www.4dw.net/royalark/India/bharatp.htm Brief history and detailed genealogy of the ruling chiefs of Bharatpur]
* [http://www.uq.net.au/~zzhsoszy/ips/b/bharatpur.html Genealogy of the ruling chiefs of Bharatpur]
* [http://dsal.uchicago.edu/reference/gazetteer/text.html?objectid=DS405.1.I34_V08_079.gifImperial Gazeteer of India Vol 8, P-73 Bharatpur State]
*R.C.Majumdar, H.C. Raychaudhury, Kalikaranjan Datta: An Advanced History of India, fourth edition, 1978, ISBN 0333 90298 X, p.535-36

Notes

See also

*The Jat Uprising of 1669
*The rise of Jat power
*Jats in the pre-Aurangzeb period
*Bharatpur (Lok Sabha constituency)


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