Emperor Junna

Infobox_Monarch
name = Emperor Junna
title =53rd Emperor of Japan


caption =
reign =The 16th Day of 4th Month of "Kōnin" 14(823) - The 28th Day of 2nd Month of "Tenchō" 10 (833)
coronation =The 27th Day of 4th Month of "Kōnin" 14(823)
predecessor =Emperor Saga
successor =Emperor Ninmyō
suc-type =
heir =
consort =Princess "Shoshi"/Masako (810-879)

issue =
royal house =
royal anthem =
father =Emperor Kammu
mother =Fujiwara no Tabiko
date of birth ="Enryaku 5" (786)
place of birth =
date of death =the 8th Day of the 5th Month of "Jōwa 7" (840)
place of death =Heian Kyō(Kyōto)
place of burial=Ōharano-no-nishi-no-minenoe no "Misasagi"(Kyōto)|

Emperor Junna (淳和天皇 "Junna-tennō") (786-840) was the 53rd emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. He was a son of Emperor Kammu. He reigned from 823 to 833. [Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). "Annales des empereurs du Japon," pp. 102-106; Brown, Delmer "et al." (1979). "Gukanshō," pp.282-283; Varley, H. Paul. (1980). "Jinnō Shōtōki," p. 164.]

Genealogy

Before his ascension to the Chrysanthemum Throne, his personal name (his "imina") [Brown, pp. 264. [Up until the time of Emperor Jomei, the personal names of the emperors (their "imina") were very long and people did not generally use them. The number of characters in each name diminished after Jomei's reign.] ] was Ōtomo" shinnō" (大伴親王). [Titsingh, p. 103; Brown, p. 282.]

Junna had six Empresses and Imperial consorts and 13 Imperial sons and daughters.Brown, p. 282.]

Events of Junna's life

After the rebellion of Emperor Heizei. he became the crown prince of Emperor Saga.

* "Kōnin 14", 17th day of the 4th month 823): In the 14th year of Emperor Saga's reign (嵯峨天皇14年), he abdicated; and the succession (‘‘senso’’) was received by a his younger brother, Emperor Kammu's third son. Shortly thereafter, Emperor Junna is said to have acceded to the throne (‘‘sokui’’). [Titsingh, p. 102-103; Brown, pp. 282; Varley, p. 44. [A distinct act of "senso" is unrecognized prior to Emperor Tenji; and all sovereigns except Jitō, Yōzei, Go-Toba, and Fushimi have "senso" and "sokui" in the same year until the reign of Go-Murakami.] ]

* "Tenchō 10", on the 28th day of the 2nd month (833): Emperor Junna abdicated in favor of his second son who would later be known as Emperor Ninmyō. During the seven years after stepping down from the throne, two former Emperors were alive. In this period, Saga was called the Senior Retired Emperor and Junna was known as the Junior Retired Emperor. [Brown, pp. 282-283.]

* "Jōwa 7", on the 8th day of the 5th month (840): Former-Emperor Juntoku died at the age of 55. [Brown, p. 284; Varely, p. 164.]

"Kugyō"

"Kugyō" (公卿) is a collective term for the very few most powerful men attached to the court of the Emperor of Japan in pre-Meiji eras. [http://www.furugosho.com/moyenage/empereur-g2.htm -- "kugyō" of Junna-tennō (in French)]

In general, this elite group included only three to four men at a time. These were hereditary courtiers whose experience and background would have brought them to the pinnacle of a life's career. During Junna's reign, this apex of the "Daijō-kan" included:
* "Sadaijin", Fujiwara no Fuyutsugu (藤原冬嗣), 825-826.
* "Sadaijin", Fujiwara no Otsugu (藤原緒嗣), 832-843.
* "Udaijin", Fujiwara no Otsugu (藤原緒嗣), 825-832.
* "Udaijin", Kiyohara no Natsuno (清原夏野), 832-837. [see above] ]
* "Naidaijin" (not appointed)
* "Dainagon", Fujiwara no Otsugu (藤原緒嗣), 821-825.
* "Dainagon", Yoshimine no Yasuyo (良峯安世)(half brother of Emperor Junna), 828-830.
* "Dainagon", Kiyohara no Natsuno (清原夏野), 828-832
* "Dainagon", Fujiwara no Mimori (藤原三守), 829-838

Eras of Junna's reign

The years of Junna's reign are more specifically identified by more than one era name or "nengō". [Titsingh, p. 102.]
* "Kōnin" (810-824)
* "Tenchō" (824-834)

Consorts and Children

Empress: Imperial Princess "Shōshi"/Masako (正子内親王) (810-879), daughter of Emperor Saga
*Imperial Prince Tsunesada (恒貞親王) (825-884), the Crown Prince (deposed in 842)
*Imperial Prince Tsunefusa (恒統親王) (830-842)
*Imperial Prince Motosada (基貞親王) (?-869)

"Hi"(Empress as posthumous honors): Imperial Princess Koshi (高志内親王) (789-809), daughter of Emperor Kammu
*Imperial Prince Tsuneyo (恒世親王) (806-826)
*Imperial Princess Ujiko (氏子内親王) (?-885), 16th Saiō in Ise Shrine(823-827)
*Imperial Princess "Yushi" (有子内親王) (?-862)
*Imperial Princess Sadako (貞子内親王) (?-834)

"Nyogō": Nagahara no Motohime (永原原姫)

"Nyogō": Tachibana no Ujiko (橘氏子), daughter of Tachibana no Nagana

"Koui": Fujiwara no Kiyoko (藤原潔子), daughter of Fujiwara no Nagaoka

Court lady: Princess Otsugu (緒継女王) (787-847)

Court lady: Ōnakatomi no Yasuko (大中臣安子), daughter of Ōnakatomi no Fuchiio
*Imperial Prince Yoshisada (良貞親王) (?-848)

Court lady: Ōno no Takako (大野鷹子), daughter of Ōno no Masao
*Imperial Princess Hiroko (寛子内親王) (?-869)

Court lady: Tachibana no Funeko (橘船子), daughter of Tachibana no Kiyono
*Imperial Princess Takaiko (崇子内親王) (?-848)

Court lady: Tajihi no Ikeko (丹犀池子), daughter of Tajihi no Kadonari
*Imperial Princess Tomoko (同子内親王) (?-860)

Court lady: Kiyohara no Haruko (清原春子), daughter of Kiyohara no Natsuno
*Imperial Princess "Meishi" (明子内親王) (?-854)

Unknown lady
*Mune no "Chushi" (統忠子) (?-863), removed from the Imperial Family by receiving the family name from Emperor (Shisei Kōka賜姓降下) in 862.

References

* Brown, Delmer M. and Ichirō Ishida, eds. (1979). [ Jien, c. 1220] , "Gukanshō (The Future and the Past, a translation and study of the Gukanshō, an interpretative history of Japan written in 1219)." Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-03460-0
* Titsingh, Isaac, ed. (1834). [Siyun-sai Rin-siyo/Hayashi Gahō, 1652] , "Nipon o daï itsi ran; ou, Annales des empereurs du Japon, tr. par M. Isaac Titsingh avec l'aide de plusieurs interprètes attachés au comptoir hollandais de Nangasaki; ouvrage re., complété et cor. sur l'original japonais-chinois, accompagné de notes et précédé d'un Aperçu d'histoire mythologique du Japon, par M. J. Klaproth." Paris: Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. [http://books.google.com/books?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ&dq=nipon+o+dai+itsi+ran ...Click link for digitized, full-text copy of this book (in French)]
* Varley, H. Paul , ed. (1980). [ Kitabatake Chikafusa, 1359] , "Jinnō Shōtōki ("A Chronicle of Gods and Sovereigns: Jinnō Shōtōki of Kitabatake Chikafusa" translated by H. Paul Varley)." New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-04940-4
* Kasai, M. (1991). ‘’Kugyō Bunin Nenpyō’’(Japanese). Yamakawa Shuppan-sha. ISBN 4-634-60270-9


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