:"This article is about an area of
Manhattan, New York City. For the area in London, UK see Soho. For Tampa, see Soho, Tampa, Florida. For other meanings see Soho (disambiguation)"SoHo is a neighborhood in the New York Cityborough of Manhattan. Originally associated with the arts, it has since become famous for both destination shopping and its downtownscene. The name is a blend of "South" and "Houston" from "south of Houston Street" and has no relation to the district called Sohoin London, England. Its name is the model for other new neighborhood acronymsin New York City, such as TriBeCa(Triangle Below Canal Street) and DUMBO, Brooklyn (Down Under the Manhattan Bridge Overpass). Before its incarnation as a trendy locale, it was known as the Cast Iron District because of the many buildings incorporating cast iron architectural elements,
It should be noted that Encyclopaedia Britannica's 1956 article on “New York (City)” states that the southern border of
Greenwich Villageis Spring Street. If Britannica was correct, SoHo may have encroached on the southern two blocks of the village’s traditional borders. This enabled it to be called “SoHo” (South of Houston) rather than “SoSp” (South of Spring).
Geography purists from the neighborhood insist SoHo's borders are Houston Street to the North and Canal Street to the South, while Lafayette Street and West Broadway are the eastern and western borders respectively, since the SoHo Cast-Iron Historic District as well as SoHo's unique zoning define these boundaries. The neighborhood to the west of West Broadway is the South Village, which reflects the 1956 Britannica cite. East of Lafayette Street is the northern part of
Little Italy, now more commonly called Nolita.
Cast Iron District and LoMEX
What became SoHo was to have been the locale of two enormous elevated
highways, comprising the two branches of the Lower Manhattan Expressway. The highway was intended to create an automobileand truckthrough-route connecting the Manhattan and Williamsburg Bridges on the east with the Holland Tunnelon the west.
historic preservationmovement and architecturalcritics, stung by the destruction of the original Pennsylvania Station and the threat to other historic structures, challenged the plans because of the threatened loss of a huge quantity of 19th century cast iron structures, which were not then highly valued by the general public or contemporary business community. When John V. Lindsaybecame mayor of New York City in 1966, his initial reaction was to try to push the expressways through with political spin, dubbing the Robert Mosesproject the Lower Manhattan Expressway(or "Lomex"), depressing some of the proposed highway in residential areas and stressing the importance of the artery to the city. Nevertheless, through the efforts of Jane Jacobs, George Maciunasand other local leaders, the project was derailed and abandoned.
Artist studios and residences
After abandonment of the highway scheme, the city was still left with a large number of historic buildings that were unattractive for the kinds of
manufacturingand commercethat survived in the city in the 1970s. Many of these buildings, especially the upper stories which became known as lofts, attracted artists who valued the spaces for their large areas, large windows admitting natural lightand cheap rents. Most of these spaces were also used illegally as living space, being neither zoned nor equipped for residential use; yet, this zoning violation was ignored for a long period of time as occupants were using space that would have most likely been dormant or abandoned as a result of the poor economyin New York City during that time.
SoHo boasts the greatest collection of
cast-iron architecturein the world. Approximately 250 cast iron buildings stand in New York City and the majority of them are in SoHo. Cast iron was initially used as a decorative front over a pre-existing building. With the addition of modern, decorative facades, older industrial buildings were able to attract new commercial clients. Most of these facades were constructed during the period from 1840 to 1880. In addition to revitalizing older structures, buildings in SoHo were later designed to feature the cast iron.
An American architectural innovation, cast iron was cheaper to use for facades than materials such as stone or brick. Molds of ornamentation, prefabricated in foundries, were used interchangeably for many buildings, and a broken piece could be easily recast. The buildings could be erected quickly, some were built in only four months' time. Despite the brief construction period, the quality of the cast iron designs was not sacrificed. Previously, bronze had been the metal most frequently used for architectural detail. Architects now found that the relatively inexpensive cast iron could form the most intricately designed patterns. Classical French and Italian architectural designs were often used as models for these facades. And because stone was the material associated with architectural masterpieces, cast iron, painted in neutral tints such as beige, was used to simulate stone.
There was a profusion of cast iron foundries in New York, including the major firms of Badger's Architectural Iron Works, James L. Jackson's Iron Works, and Cornell Iron Works.
Since the iron was pliable and easily molded, sumptuously curved window frames were created, and the strength of the metal allowed these frames considerable height. Thus, the once somber, gas-lit interiors of the industrial district were flooded with sunlight through the newly enlarged windows. The strength of the cast iron permitted high ceilings with sleek supporting columns, and interiors became more expansive and functional.
During cast iron's heyday, many architects thought it to be structurally more sound than steel. It was also thought that cast iron would be fire resistant, and facades were constructed over many interiors built of wood and other inflammable materials. But, when exposed to heat, cast iron buckled and later cracked under the cold water used to extinguish fire. In 1899, a building code was passed mandating the backing of cast iron fronts with masonry. Most of the buildings which stand today are so constructed. It was the advent of steel as a major construction material that brought a rapid end to the cast iron era."
As the artist population grew, the city made some attempts to stem the movement, especially concerned about the occupation of space that did not meet residential building codes, and the possibility that the space might be needed at some time for the return of manufacturing to New York City.
Pressured on many sides, the city eventually gave up on attempting to keep all of the Cast Iron District as industrial space, and the area received historical designation as "SoHo" in 1973.
The historic district is officially bounded by Houston Street, West Broadway, Canal Street and Crosby Street. It is noted for the elaborate cast-iron architecture of many of its buildings, most of which date from the late 19th century. These buildings originally housed warehouses, factories and sweatshops. It is also noted for its cobblestone streets, which were eventually repaved with the exception of Crosby Street, Wooster Street, Mercer Street and part of Howard Street.
The neighborhood rose to fame as a neighborhood for artists during the 1960s and 1970s, when the cheap spaces vacated by departing factories were converted by artists into lofts and studios. SoHo's lofts were especially appealing to artists because they could use the wide spaces and tall ceilings that factories and warehouses required to create and store their work. During this period, which lasted into the 1980s, living in SoHo was often of dubious legality, as the area was zoned for light industrial and commercial uses rather than residential, and many residents had to convert their apartments into livable spaces on their own, with little money. However, beginning in the 1980s, in a way that would later apply elsewhere, the neighborhood began to draw more affluent residents. However, due to rent protection and stability afforded by the
1982 Loft Law, in addition to the fact that many of the artists owned their co-ops, many of the original pioneering artists remained despite the popular misconception that gentrification forced them to flee. Many residents have lived in the neighborhood for decades. In the mid-90s, most of the galleries moved to Chelsea, and chain stores and restaurants replaced them.
SoHo's location, the appeal of lofts as living spaces, its architecture and, ironically, its "hip" reputation as a haven for artists all contributed to this change. The pattern of
gentrificationis typically known as the "SoHo Effect" and has been observed in several cities around the United States. A backwater of poor artists and small factories in the 1970s, SoHo became a popular tourist destination for people looking for fashionable (and expensive) clothing and exquisite architecture.
SoHo's boutiques and restaurants are clustered in the northern area of the neighborhood, along Broadway and Prince and Spring streets. The sidewalks in this area are often crowded with tourists and with vendors selling jewelry, t-shirts, and other works, sometimes leaving no space for pedestrians to walk. SoHo is known for its eclectic mix of different boutiques for shopping, including Prada, Chanel, Apple, popular skateboard/sneakerhead stores such as Bape, Supreme, Clientele and Kid Robot. In recent years, however, more chain stores have crept into SoHo, such as
Bloomingdale's, H&M, Victoria's Secret, and J. Crew. SoHo has become fairly commercialized. Yet, the southern part of the neighborhood, along Grand Street and Canal Street, retains some of the feel of SoHo's earlier days. There are even a few small factories that have managed to remain. Canal Street at SoHo's south boundary contrasts with the former's posh shopping district in offering cheap imitation clothing and accessories.
In recent years, the neighborhood has seen several upscale developments including the much discussed
Jean Nouveland Andre Balazs' 40 Mercer and Trump Soho.
Joyce SoHo, contemporary dancetheatre
Leslie Lohman Gay Art Foundationnon-profit gallery
* [http://www.sohoalliance.org/ SoHo Alliance] civic umbrella organization
Soho Repertory Theatre, Off-Off-Broadwaytheatre
* [http://www.superfuture.com/city/area/area.cfm?area=13&city=3 Map of stores and restaurants in Soho]
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SOHO — steht für: SoHo (Manhattan), ein New Yorker Stadtquartier (Abkürzung für South of Houston Street) Soho (London), ein Londoner Stadtbezirk Soho (Birmingham), ein Birminghamer Stadtbezirk Soho (Hongkong), ein Hongkonger Stadtbezirk SoHo steht des… … Deutsch Wikipedia
SoHO — steht für: SoHo (Manhattan), ein New Yorker Stadtquartier (Abkürzung für South of Houston Street) Soho (London), ein Londoner Stadtbezirk Soho (Birmingham), ein Birminghamer Stadtbezirk Soho (Hongkong), ein Hongkonger Stadtbezirk SoHo steht des… … Deutsch Wikipedia
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SOHO — SOHO: SOHO (бизнес) SOHO (техника) SOHO (космический аппарат) космический аппарат для наблюдения за Солнцем SoHo South Houston район в Нью Йорке SOHO (мини АТС) мини АТС Aria SOHO производства LG Nortel См также Сохо район … Википедия
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SoHo — puede referirse a: ● SoHo. Área del Gran Londres, limitada en el norte por Oxford Streed, por Regend Street en el oeste, por Leicester Square y Piccadilly Circus en el sur y por Charing Cross Road en el este. ● SoHo. Barrio de Manhattan en Nueva… … Enciclopedia Universal
SOHO (КА) — SOHO (англ. Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, код обсерватории «249») космический аппарат для наблюдения за Солнцем. Совместный проект ЕКА и НАСА. Был запущен 2 декабря 1995, выведен в точку Лагранжа … Википедия
SoHo — [sō′hō΄] [< so( uth of) Ho( uston) (street in Manhattan), prob. echoing Soho (see SOHO)] district in the lower west side of Manhattan: noted as a center for artists, art galleries, etc … English World dictionary