Haddad בעל הדד (in Ugaritic Haddu) was a very important northwest Semitic storm and rain god, cognate in name and origin with the Akkadian god
Adad. Hadad is often called simply Ba‘al (Lord), but this title is also used for other gods. Hadad was equated with the Anatolian storm-god Teshub, the Egyptian god Set, the Greek god Zeus, and the Roman god Jupiter.
Hadad in Ugarit
In the mythological tablets found in
Ugarit(especially the Baal cycle) the name "hd" (theoretically vocalized as "Haddu") occurs, usually normalized as "Hadad" in translations and discussions. Hadad is mostly called by the title "b‘l" (theoretically vocalized as "Ba‘l") 'Lord', or as "‘lyn" ("‘Aliyan") 'Most strong, Victorious' or as "‘Aliyan Ba‘l". "Ba‘l" is often normalized to "Ba‘al" or to "Baal" in translations and discussion.
In religious texts, Ba‘al/Hadad is the lord of the sky who governs the rain and thus the germination of plants. He is the protector of life and growth to the agricultural people of the region. The absence of Ba‘al causes dry spells, starvation, death, and chaos.
Ba‘al is many times called son of the god Dagon. A few references to El being Ba‘al's father may not be a variant tradition but refer to El's status as an acting father to all the gods. Ba‘al is himself the father of three goddess named Pidray 'Shining', Tallay 'Rainy', and Arṣay 'Earthy', with no mother named. Their mother may be ‘Athtart, also called ‘Athtart-name-of-Ba‘l. The goddess "Virgin" ‘Anat in these texts is Ba‘al's sister and lover.
Ba’al has his home on Mount Ṣapan, presumably the Biblical Mount Zephon on the northern coast of Syria, called "Hazi" in Hittite, "Mons Casius" in
Latinand today known as Jebel al-Aqra‘. This mountain, 1780 metres high, stands only 15 km north of the site of Ugarit, clearly visible from the city itself.
Although in the
Hebrew languagethe name "Zephon" means 'north' and the Akkadian has a Canaanite loanword "ṣapanu" 'north', this meaning for the root "ṣpn" is not found in other Semitic languages. Accordingly Semiticists suspect that 'north' in Hebrew is derived from the placename, even though Mount North seems a good name for a local manifestation of the cosmic north-polar mountain.
In the Ugaritic texts El, the supreme god of the pantheon, resides on Mount Lel ('Night?') and it is there that the assembly of the gods meet. That is perhaps the mythical cosmic mountain.
The Ba‘al cycle is unfortunately fragmentary and in any case leaves much unexplained that would have been obvious to a contemporary. In the earliest extant sections there appears to be some sort of feud between El and Ba‘al. El makes one of his sons who is called both prince Yamm "Sea" and judge Nahar 'River' king over the gods and changes Yamm's name from "yw" (so spelled at that point in the text) to "mdd ’il" 'Darling of El'. El informs Yamm that in order to secure his power, Yamm will have to drive Ba‘al from his throne. In this battle Ba‘al is somehow weakened, but the divine craftsman Kothar-wa-Khasis strikes Yamm with two magic clubs, Yamm collapses, and Bal‘al finishes the fight. ‘Athtart proclaims Ba‘al's victory and salutes Ba‘al/Hadad as "lrkb ‘rpt" 'Rider on the Clouds', a phrase applied by editors of modern English Bibles to
Yahwehin Psalm 68.4. At ‘Athtart's urging Ba‘al "scatters" Yamm and proclaims that Yamm is dead and heat is assured.
A later passage refers to Ba‘al's victory over Lotan, the many-headed sea-dragon who appears in the
Tanachas Leviathan. Due to gaps in the text it is not known whether Lotan is another name for Yamm or a reference to another similar story. Some scholars feel the mention of Leviathan in the Tanach are one of the most obvious examples of remnants of Canaanite myth in Hebrew scripture; biblical hermeneutists and apologists see the very reverse: corrupted mythic elements springing out of true narrative sources, of which only the Hebrew Scriptures preserve in their original, factual forms. In the Mediterraneanarea, crops were often threatened by winds, storms and floods from the sea, indicating why the ancients feared the fury of this cosmic being.A palace is built for Ba‘al/Hadad with cedars from Mount Lebanonand Sirion and also from silver and from gold. In his new palace Ba‘al hosts a great feast for the other gods. When urged by Kothar-wa-Khasis, Ba’al, somewhat reluctantly, opens a window in his palace and sends forth thunder and lightning. He then invites Mot'Death' (god of drought and underworld), another son of El, to the feast.
But Mot is insulted. The eater of human flesh and blood will not be satisfied with bread and wine. Mot threatens to break Ba‘al into pieces and swallow Ba‘al. Even Ba‘al cannot stand against Death. Gaps here make interpretation dubious. It seems that by the advice of the goddess Shapsh 'Sun', Ba‘al has intercourse with a heifer and dresses the resultant calf in his own clothes as a gift to Mot and then himself prepares to go down to the underworld in the guise of a helpless shade. News of Ba‘al's apparent death leads even El to mourn. ‘Anat, Ba‘al's sister, finds Ba‘al's corpse, presumably really the dead body of the calf, and she buries the body with a funeral feast. The god ‘Athtar is appointed to take Ba‘al's place, but he is a poor substitute. Meanwhile ‘Anat finds Mot, cleaves him with a sword, burns him with fire, and throws his remains on the field for the birds to eat. But the earth is still cracked with drought until Shapsh fetches Ba‘al back.
Seven years later Mot returns and attacks Ba‘al in a battle which ceases only when Shapsh tells Mot that El now supports Ba’al. Thereupon Mot at once surrenders to Ba‘al/Hadad and recognizes Ba‘al as king.
Sanchuniathon's account Hadad is once called Adodos but mostly named Demarûs, a puzzling form, possibly a Greek corruption of Hadad Ramān. Sanchuniathon's Hadad is son of Sky by a concubine who is then given to the god Dagonwhile she is pregnant by Sky. This appears to be an attempt to combine two accounts of Hadad's parentage, one of which is the Ugaritic tradition that Hadad was son of Dagon. The cognate Akkadian god Adad is also often called the son of Anu 'Sky'. The corresponding Hittite god Teshubis likewise son of Anu (after a fashion).
In Sanchuniathon's account, it is Sky who first fights against
Pontus'Sea'. Then Sky allies himself with Hadad. Hadad takes over the conflict but is defeated, at which point unfortunately no more is said of this matter. Sanchuniathion agrees with Ugaritic tradition in making Muth, the Ugaritic Mot, whom he also calls 'Death', the son of El.
Hadad in Aram and Palestine
In the second millennium BCE, the king of
Aleppo, or Halab, received a statue of Ishtarfrom the king of Mari, as a sign of deference, to be displayed in the temple of Hadad in Kilasou. The god "Adad" is called on a stele of the Assyrian king Shalmaneser I"the god of Aleppo".
The name "Hadad" appears in the name of
Hadadezer'Hadad-is-help', the Arameanking defeated by David. Later Aramean kings of Damascusseem to have habitually assumed the title of Benhadad, or son of Hadad, just as a series of Egyptian monarchs are known to have been accustomed to call themselves sons of Ammon.
An example is
Benhadad'Son of Hadad', the king of Aram whom Asa, king of Judah, employed to invade the northern kingdom, Israel, according to bibleref|1Kings|15:18. In the 9th or 8th century BCE, the name of Bar-Hadad 'Son of Hadad', king of Aram, is inscribed on his votive basalt stele dedicated to Melqart, found in Bredsh, a village north of Aleppo (National Museum, Aleppo, accession number KAI 201).
As a byname we find Aramaic "rmn", Old South Arabic "rmn", Hebrew "rmwn", Akkadian "Rammānu" 'Thunderer', presumably originally vocalized as "Ramān" in Aramaic and Hebrew. The Hebrew spelling "rmwn" with Massoretic vocalization "Rimmôn" (bibleref|2Kings|5:18) is identical with the Hebrew word meaning 'pomegranate' and may be an intentional misspelling and parody of the original.
The word "Hadad-rimmon", for which the inferior reading Hadar-rimmon is found in some manuscripts in the phrase "the mourning of (or at) Hadad-rimmon" (Zechariah 12:2), has been a subject of much discussion. According to
Jeromeand all the older Christian interpreters, the mourning is for something that occurred at a place called Hadad-rimmon (" Maximianopolis") in the valley of Megiddo. The event alluded to was generally held to be the death of Josiah(or, as in the Targum, the death of Ahabat the hands of Hadadrimmon). But even before the discovery of the Ugaritic texts some suspected that Hadad-rimmon might be a dying god like Adonisor Tammuz, perhaps even the same as Tammuz, and the allusion could then be to mournings for Hadad such as those which usually accompanied the Adonis festivals. (Hitzig on bibleref|Zechariah|12:2, bibleref|Isaiah|17:8; Movers, "Phonizier", 1.196).
T. K. Cheyne ("
Encyclopædia Biblica" s.v.) pointed out that the Septuagintreads simply Rimmon, and argues that this may be a corruption of Migdon (Megiddo), in itself a corruption of Tammuz-Adon. He would render the verse, "In that day there shall be a great mourning in Jerusalem, as the mourning of the women who weep for Tammuz-Adon" ("Adon" means 'lord').
No further evidence has come to light to resolve such speculations.
*Hadad, Husni & Mja'is, Salim (1993) "Ba'al Haddad, A Study of Ancient Religious History of Syria"
* [http://www.geocities.com/SoHo/Lofts/2938/baalyam.html#14 Online text: "The Epic of Ba'al (Hadad)"]
* [http://www.geocities.com/SoHo/Lofts/2938/templetoc.html Kadash Kinahu: Complete Directory]
* [http://www.gatewaystobabylon.com/gods/lords/lordadad.html Gateways to Babylon: Adad/Rimon]
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