- Bureau of International Expositions
name = Bureau International des Expositions
size = 180 px
22 November 1928
headquarters = flagicon|France
membership = 154 members
leader_title = Honorary President
H.E. Jian-min Wu
website= http://www.bie-paris.org/|The Bureau of International Expositions (Bureau International des Expositions in French), also known popularly by its acronym the B.I.E., is the governing body of World's Fairs (Expositions or World Fairs). The B.I.E. was established by an international Convention signed in
Parison 22 November 1928, with the following goals:
1. to oversee the calendar, the bidding, the selection and the organisation of World Expositions;
2. to establish a framework allowing countries to cooperate under the best conditions as organisers of Expositions or as participants through national pavilions.
To date, 154 member countries have adhered to the BIE Convention.
The B.I.E. regulates two types of Expositions: Registered Exhibitions (commonly called Universal Expositions), and Recognized Exhibitions (commonly called International or Specialised Expositions).
Since the start of the 21st century, Universal Expositions can occur every five years, lasting six months, on '5' and '0' ending years, i.e. Aichi 2005, Shanghai 2010, Milano 2015. Countries, international organizations, civil societies, and corporations are allowed to participate in Universal expositions. The themes of Universal expositions are broad and pan-humanistic in nature, and the participants must design and build their own pavilions, however, there are exceptions where the Expo Authority at a Universal Exposition constructs Pavilion buildings or Joint Pavilion buildings to maximise participation and alleviate representation costs for developing nations. Examples of themes of recent Universal Expositions include "Man and His World" for Montreal Expo '67, and "Discovery" for Seville Expo '92, and examples of Joint Pavilion buildings for a Universal Exposition is the Plaza of America at Seville's Expo '92 which was constructed by the Seville Expo Authority to maximize participation at the Expo from South American nations. The Plaza of Africa at Seville was constructed for the same purpose.
Universal Expositions are also massive in scale, sometimes 300 or 400 hectares in size (Montreal's Expo 67 was 410 hectares, Osaka's Expo 70 was 330 hectares, Seville's Expo 92 was 215 hectares. Shanghai's Expo 2010 is 500 hectares), and Pavilions participating at a Universal Exposition are also large, sometimes 5,000 to 10,000 square metres in size, mini city blocks in themselves and sometimes more than several stories in height. (The Australia Pavilion for Shanghai 2010 is 5,000 square metres, the British Pavilion sits on a 6,000 square metres lot, as does the Canadian Pavilion. The flagship Chinese National Pavilion has 20,000 square metres of exhibition space.) Shanghai Expo 2010 will allow three types of Pavilion structures, (i) designed and constructed by the participant; (2) individual Pavilions designed and constructed by the Expo Authority for rent to the participant; (3) joint Pavilions designed and constructed by the Expo Authority for rent to developing nations.
Also due to the fact that they are usually held in major centres of world population, Universal Expositions have been known to average 200,000 persons per day of visitors - or more - and some 50 to 70 million visitors during their six month duration. Montreal's Expo 67 attracted 54 million visitors, Osaka's Expo 70, 64 million visitors, and the recent Seville Expo '92, 41 million visitors. Shanghai's Expo 2010 is expected to attract 80 million visitors. As a result, transport and other infrastructure at a Universal Exposition is an important concern (Seville's Universal Exposition of 1992 boasted cable car, monorail, boat, and bus) and the overall cost for hosting and being represented at a Universal Exposition is quite high, compared to the smaller International/Specialised scale Expositions.
Since the start of the 21st Century, International/Specialised Expositions can occur between Universal expositions and last from six weeks to three months in duration, i.e.
Zaragoza2008, Yeosu (South Korea) 2012. Countries, international organizations, civil societies, and corporations are allowed to participate but the exposition must have a precise character for its theme. An example of a theme of a recent International Specialised Exposition is the 1988 World Exposition, popularly known as World Expo '88 of Brisbane, Australia, which had as its theme "Leisure in the Age of Technology". The pavilions are built by the hosts and not the participants, and there is no rent for pavilions. Nevertheless, the largest pavilion may be no larger than 1000 square meters, and the site of the fair must not exceed an area of twenty-five hectares. For this reason International/Specialised Expositions are cheaper to run than Universal Expositions, and more money is spent on content of the Pavilion as opposed to its design. Nonetheless, there are exceptions where a participant designs and constructs its own Pavilion where ethnic work is involved, i.e. bush huts for islands of the South Pacific, a Pagoda for Nepal or Japan or Thailand, etc...
USA membership and representation
One does not need to be a member of the BIE to be represented at a BIE Exposition. The USA had its membership of the
BIEwithdrawn in June 2001. The cause was the non allocation of funds by the U.S. Congressfor two years. Also, Congress is not allowed to allocate funds for representation of a United States Pavilion at a World Exposition. The new rulings state that the funding must be provided by private enterprise, with the representation being endorsed by Congress - not an automatic procedure. A recent example is the USA Pavilion at Seville's Expo '92, which was funded primarily by Amway, and endorsed by Congress. Another example is the present representation for Shanghai 2010, which is under scrutiny by Congress: although private enterprise funding has been speculated to have been secured, Congress is yet to decide as to whether it is in the United States interests that the planned representation can go ahead.
However, no concrete reason for failing to pay membership has been given by the United States Congress, sometimes hinting that it was political that the United States is now no longer a member of the B.I.E. The online news source "Ranger" reported, "Indeed, world's fairs were seen as a joke by many; the
1982 World's Fairin Knoxville, Tenn., for instance, was the subject of ridicule in the 1996 episode of The Simpsons ' Bart on the Road.' This bad impression, a drive to save taxpayer money and increasing nationalism in America resulted in then-Secretary of State Colin Powell withdrawing the United States from the body governing World's Fairs, the Bureau of International Expositions, in 2001." [ [http://media.www.theranger.org/media/storage/paper1010/news/2007/10/19/News/San-Antonio.Changes.After.Hemisfair.68.Speaker.Says-3042417.shtml San Antonio changes after HemisFair '68, speaker says] ]
In a letter from April 20, 2006, the secretary general of the B.I.E. said, "As you are aware, the United States government withdrew from the B.I.E. in June 2001. Citizens realize and would welcome the strong impact a World's Fair can have on their city, state and country. It would be wonderful to, once again, attend an Exhibition in the United States." [ [http://www.worldinapark.org/The%20Flushing%20Meadows-Corona%20Park%20World's%20Fair%20Association/BIE%20Letter.html Letter from the B.I.E. Secretariat to David Oats] ] Participation in the BIE is controlled by the
Senate Foreign Relations Committee.
List of world's fairs
* [http://www.bie-paris.org/ Bureau of International Expositions]
* [http://www.usa-bie.org/ Site advocating restoration of USA membership in the BIE]
* [http://pageperso.aol.fr/exponaute/BIEdec2006.html Session of the BIE for Expo 2012 and 2015 presentations on December 19, 2006]
* [http://www.expomuseum.com/ ExpoMuseum]
* [http://www.foundationexpo88.org/expofaqs.html Expo FAQs]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Bureau international des expositions — Création Convention de Paris du 22 novembre 1928 Type Organisme chargé par la Convention de l organisation et de la coordination des expositions uni … Wikipédia en Français
Bureau International Des Expositions — Le Bureau international des expositions est l organisme qui reconnait le caractère universel des expositions lors de ses assemblées générales. Sommaire 1 Rôle 2 Histoire 3 … Wikipédia en Français
Expositions Universelles De Paris — Exposition universelle de 1900 Cet article traite des différentes expositions universelles qui se sont tenues à Paris, et qui ont en partie façonné la capitale française que l on connaît aujourd hui. Article principal : Exposition… … Wikipédia en Français
Expositions universelles de paris — Exposition universelle de 1900 Cet article traite des différentes expositions universelles qui se sont tenues à Paris, et qui ont en partie façonné la capitale française que l on connaît aujourd hui. Article principal : Exposition… … Wikipédia en Français
Expositions universelles — Exposition universelle Les expositions internationales, souvent simplement dénommées Expo, sont les grandes expositions tenues régulièrement depuis le milieu du XIXe siècle. Depuis sa création en 1928, l organisme chargé de la régulation de… … Wikipédia en Français
Expositions universelles de Paris — Exposition universelle de 1900 Cet article traite des différentes expositions universelles qui se sont tenues à Paris, et qui ont en partie façonné la capitale française que l on connaît aujourd hui. Article principal : Exposition… … Wikipédia en Français
Bureau International des Expositions — Logo Das Bureau International des Expositions (Kurzform BIE; dt: Internationales Büro für Ausstellungen) wurde am 28. November 1928 in Paris mit dem Ziel gegründet, einen gemeinsamen internationalen Ausschuss zur Gestaltung und Ausschreibung von… … Deutsch Wikipedia
International Garden Festival — The International Garden Festival was a garden festival held in Liverpool, England from 2 May 1984 to 14 October 1984. It was the first such event held in Britain, and became the model for several others held during the 1980s and early 1990s. The … Wikipedia
Brussels International Exposition (1935) — The Brussels International Exposition of 1935 (Exposition Universelle et Internationale Bruxelles) was held in Heysel Park, Brussels, Belgium from April through November, 1935. Sanctioned by the Bureau of International Expositions, twenty five… … Wikipedia
List of world expositions — is an annotated list of every world exposition sanctioned by the Bureau of International Expositions (BIE), including those recognised retrospectively.The designation World Exposition or Expo refers to a class of the largest, general scope… … Wikipedia