- Muslim brotherhoods of Senegal
The three largest are:
- The Xaadir (Qādiriyya), the oldest, originally founded in Baghdad by the Sufi mystic Abdul Qādir al-Jilānī in the 12th Century, now pan-Islamic, spread to Senegal in the 18th Century.
- The Tijaniyyah, the largest in membership, founded in Fez, Morocco by the Algerian born marabout Sīdī 'Aḥmad at-Tijānī.
- The Mourides, the richest and most active, founded by marabout Cheikh Amadou Bamba (1850–1927) of French West Africa, now Senegal.
- The Layene are a smaller sect, centered at Yoff north of Dakar.
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